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3 1833 02472 7080 


Vigo County, Indiana, 


I hear the tread of pioneers 

The first low wash of waves, where soon 
Shall roll a mighty sea." 

— Anonymous. 


author of the " history of arkansas," " battle of gettys- 
burg," "history of illinois," and the compiler of 
divers local histories in illinois, missouri, 
indiana and pennsylvania, 






NJNsteen Hundred Sixty-Nine 



IN all bookmaking it is the order to place the last words of the 
author conspicuously in the front as a " preface," and the most 
critical readers always open the new book at this particular page, 
and, after a hasty examination thereof, make up their conclusions 
as to whether they care to examine it further or not. If the author 
has apologies or explanations to make, this is his golden opportunity. 
And then sometimes, possibly from a feeling of guilt, which must 
more or less beset every writer of the glaring faults that riot along 
nearly every page, he endeavors to ward off the attacks of the critics, 
by the best defense that he can possibly make— if he is a mere tyro 
in the trade he is liable to commit the indiscretion of puffing his 
production. While in this he is speaking from his heart, the intelli- 
gent reader would prefer to wait and read the encomiums on his 
tombstone, by other and perhaps less skillful panegyrists. 

In this case there is not much to explain, and criticism is cor- 
dially invited. Imperfect as it is, it is the best that we could do, 
and we disclaim all intention of insisting that it is the best that 
could have b§en done. We have attempted to make what ought to 
be an invaluable book— one that should grow in value with the 
lapse of the years and centuries. And the most unfriendly criticism 
it can possibly receive will only tend to correct its errors, drag to 
light facts that escaped the compiler, and add to the future value of 
the simple annals of those who came and of those who are living in 
Vigo county. There is little or nothing of the philosophy of his- 
tory essayed in this volume, but simply the chronology carefully 
collected and selected, content to leave it as the invaluable material 
perpetuated for the future historian, when he may tell the philo- 
sophical story of great communities in their influences upon the com- 


mon mind that create the moving powers in the advances of the 
human race. Simply to relate occurrences in their order, it matters 
not how eloquently, is not history, but is the material for the man 
great and wise enough to connect causes and effects together, and 
point ont with certainty the influences of the past upon the present) 
as well as the interchanging influences now operating with such 
controlling power. 

So the annals of communities and families close up, and no 
carping can destroy the fact that these pages will illumine by their 
story the memorial of the dead and the living. "To have done even 
this little is something that has been well worth the venture. Its 
facts will be examined, and will continue to make impressions upon 
the mind long after every living breathing thing now upon the 
earth shall have moldered into dust. One generation goeth and 
another cometh — whirling, whirring, ceaseless change — and the 
universe lives forever. Trifling as is this little contribution to his- 
tory, it is as the barque launched upon the vast seas of time, carry- 
ing to remotest generations some signs of this little spot upon the 
earth's surface, some tokens of the past and present of the people 
and their work, who were and are a part of Vigo county, Indiana. 

Where nothing but kindness and friendly aid has been so freely 
extended to both the compiler and the biographical writers engaged 
on this work, it would seem nearly invidious to particularize persons. 
But where all have been so helpful, some have been able from cer- 
tain circumstances to do so much in 'the way of placing us under 
special obligations, that silence in their case would very nearly be 
downright ingratitude. This certainly would be true of Mr. Henry 
Warren, who so kindly placed in our hands his invaluable scrap- 
books. And nearly equally true would it be of Mr. John D. Bell, 
the living encyclopedia of the court-house records, as well as the 
fund of personal recollections during a life that has witnessed 
much of the growth and building of the city and county. And we 
would say much the same of Dr. B. F. Swafford, who has spent 
nearly his life in the county, and has practiced medicine in nearly 
every cabin, house and mansion as they have come to this genera- 
tion, and whose accurate memory has been always kept supplied 
with important historical facts of the early pioneers and to more 
modern inhabitants. To Mr. George W. Miller for war records 


and facts; to every county and city official, deputy and clerk, and to 
hundreds of others we are under profoundest obligations. To one 
and all thanks — a thousand times thanks, both sincere and hearty. 

The work is divided into two parts. "Part I" is the gen- 
eral history, not only from the earliest times of its settlement or 
discovery, but back from the inconceivable geological ages. " Part 
II " contains the biographical sketches of the living and the recently 
dead, arranged in alphabetical order. In the whole there are more 
or less important accounts of several thousands of the people, cover- 
ing a period of eighty years — 1810 to 1890 — arrivals in the new 
Wabash country, births, marriages, deaths, as well as the social, 
industrial, educational, religious and political development of this 
part of the country ; somewhat of a mirror of the swift changes from 
the times when the night was disturbed by the yelp of the wolf 
and the war-whoop of the savage, to the ceaseless rataplan of the 
factory and the shrill scream of the rushing railroad train. 

Without self-boasting, and equallyj^without apologies for con- 
scious faults, the book, must speak for itself, for 

" What is writ is writ — would it were worthier." 






Vigo County Geology— Its Soils, Rocks and Waters— Most Ancient of ha His- 
tory — Its Importance as an Educator — Hints or. Studying Greek and 
Geology— Hopeful John Wesley's Experience— Civilization is based on 
Agriculture — The Rocks are the Leaves in Nature's History Book — The 
Old Education — Mammoth and Mastodon — Things Everyone Should 
Know of Their Own Locality — Great Earthquake— The Streams — First 
Boat 19-42 



The Mound Builders— The Toltecs — Mammoth and Mastodon— Glaciers — The 
Flora and Fauna— The Buffalo — The Prairies — Prairie Fires— Origin of 
the Prairies— The Indians 4^-62 



A Comparative Study — "The Simple Annals" of the World's Remarkable 
Men— The Hard Schools of Fate that Produced Them— The Silent Men of 
the Wilderness — Their Work — The Splendid Results and the Paucity of 
Resources at Their Command— The Men Who Made Emigration a Science 
and Built an Empire Founded on the Bible— The Saxon and the Gaul— 
The Fur Trade— The Courieurs des Bois— Etc 62-70 



Who First Passed up the Wabash— Armies of the Revolution Were upon the 
Soil of Vigo County — The War Changes the Ownership of This Territory — 
Our First Regularly Organized Government Under the Military — Gen. 
George Rogers Clarke and His Important Achievements — This Territory 
Becomes Illinois County, Va.— Capt. Leonard Helm— Etc 70-80 




His Nativity— Early Life— His Characteristics- Col. Vigo as a Soldier, Patriot 
and Citizen— His Last Will and Testament— His Death 81-89 



Introductory— Vigo County Under British Rule, and in the Revolution — 
Resume — Gov. Harrison's Treaty with the Indians — Vigo County Lands 
and Land Sales— Etc 89-96 



Virginia Extended Its Dominion Over the Northwest and Established Civil 
Government— Cession by the States and the Ordinance of 1787 — Rapid 
Settlement of the Miami — Indiana Territory Formed — Harrison Appointed 
Governor — His Treaties and Wars — Fort Harrison — Battle of Tippecanoe — 
Capt. John Tipton— Tecumseh Attacks Fort Harrison — Zachary Taylor — 
Etc 97-104 



Retrospective— French Settlements and Colonists— Orchard Planting— The Old 
Indian Orchard — "Nemo" and "Lena" — Legend of the Apple Trees- 
Lost Creek— "Johnny Appleseed" — Etc 105-112 



Capt. Zachary Taylor in Command— Indian Attack and Repulse— Maj. John 
T. Chunn — Drummer Davis — How He Guarded the Graves of His Com- 
rades—The Historical Curve of the Road— Maj. Sturgis the Last in Com- 
mand of the Fort— Etc 115-123 


F. F. V. 

First Fellow in Vigo— First Family in Vigo— First Few in Vigo— First Furrow 
in Vigo— First Five Years— 1810-1815— Uncle Jo. Listen- The Shannon 
Massacre— Mrs. Elizabeth Moore, the First White Female Settler in Vigo 
County— Etc 124-134 


The Second Wave of Pioneers — Jacob Newcomer — Curtis Gilbert — Joseph 
Richardson, Abraham Markle and Others— George B. Richardson— Dr. 
Edward V. Ball and Mrs. Sarah E. Ball— D. C. Allen— Etc 134-144 




Its Power in the Van of Civilization— Its Pioneer Occupants— Their Ex- 
periences and Primitive Mode of Living — The Improved Log Cabin and Its <•• 
Corresponding Comforts 144r-K53 


V^igo County at the Close of the Last War with England— Arrivals in the year 
1816— Some Personal Sketches— The Markles and Other Contemporary 
Settlers— Dr. Modesitt— Judge Jenckes— The Pound Family — " Old Tom 
Pucket— Etc 154-169 


A Partial List of Many Who Came That Year— Judge Wedding— George Jor- 
dan — Lucius H. Scott — John Britton — Malcom McFadden — The Durkee 
and Barbour Families — Settlers in that Year on Honey Creek — Some Who 
Came to Fayette, Prairieton and Otter Creek Townships— Etc 169-174 


Something of Those Who Came This Year— The Sibleys— Demas Deming— The 
Paddocks— James Lee— The Official Record for "Marks and Brands" for 
Stock— Complete Record from 1818 to 1823 .175-184 



Harrison's Purchase — Land Sales — " Squatters" and Buyers — First Land Pur- 
chases-Record of Real Estate Dealings from 1816 to 1830 184-232 



Particulars of Many of the Pioneers— Mrs. Sophia Ranisdell Fuller— Old Set- 
tlers' Society— Capt. Earle's Recollections— Etc 233-285 



Became a County February 15, 1818— Copy of the Act for the Formation of 
Vigo Count}^ — Its Boundary Lines — Change of Shape at Various Subse- 
quent Periods— Act of January 8, 1821— Miscellaneous 285-289 



Board of Commissione'-sof Vigc County — First Meetings— Transactions of the 
Commi&sioocrs — Appointments to County Offices — Roads and Ferry — 
Grand and Petit Jurors, etc.— l/ost Creek— Public Offices— Election Pre- 
cincts—Etc 289- 35 




First Circuit Court — Early Judges and Lawyers — "Circuit Riders" — Some First 
Cases— Practicing Attorneys in Vigo County Circuit from 1849 to 1863 — Re- 
capitulation of Judges— Superior Court— Sketches of Judges and Lawyers— 
Vigo Law Library Association— Etc 31(i-:U;'- 



First Meeting of Vigo Probate Court, and Business Transacted— Subsequent 
Meetings— Special Courts— Probate Court Changed to Court of Common 
Pleas, in 1853 343-347 



Marriage Licenses Procured in Vincennes and Sullivan, Prior to Creation of 
the County— Licenses Issued from 1818 to 1832, Inclusive 348-358 



Introductory— General W. Johnston's "Compend of the Acts of Indiana "—Its 
Preface -Some of its Contents — Crimes and Punishments — Circuit Courts 
Established in 1844— Rate of Taxes, 1813— Early Day Financial Affairs- 
Slavery and Man-Siealing— Etc 359-365 



Capt. William Earle and His Reminiscences— Terre Haute in 1823 — First 
Brick Houses in the City— First Burial Ground There— Streets, Roads, 
etc.— Pioneer Schools— Old Document— Old Families— Etc 366-388 



Jackson and Clay— Harrison— Osborn— The Know-nothing Party— Whigs and 
Democrats — Republicans and Democrats — Nominations in 1834 — Politics 
During and After the Civil War— Police Board, Its Origin— Conventions 
and Elections— Horace Greeley— Terre Haute Elections— Judicial Contest 
of 1878— Miscellaneous Elt -tions 388-415 



Commencement of the City — Extracts from Land Office Records— Original 
Plat of Tene Hrtute — Town Surveyed — William Hoggatt — Growth of the 
Place — Sfuno Fits' Tilings— Census in H29 — Dr. Hitchcock's Reminis- 


cences— e'cnsus in KS;).")— I'lil^lic Huil<lini;s— Fifty Ve;irs Ago— Incorpora- 
tion— Ek'ctions— Fire Departimnit and Fires— Retrospective— Tlie Wabash 
Trade— The Caual— The Age of Fire and Steam— National Road, Bridges, 
etc.— General Business, Manufacturing Industries. Newspapers. Street 
Railwa}', BanlvS. etc 41.5-475 



Smyrna— Greenfield— Brownsville— Atherton — Centerville—Soonover— Uazel 
Green— Harrison— Lockport—Middletown— Pimento— Macksvllle— Bloom- 
town— New Goshen— Seelyville-Otterville—Prairieton — Urbana— Glen- 
dale— Winston— Youngstown—Tecumseh— St. Mary's — Ellsworth— Otter 
Creek Junction- Heckland— Markle's Station— Grand Station— Coal Bluff 
—Fontanet—Malcom— Sand ford— List of Post-offices in Vigo County. .475-481 



Early Mills, etc.— Iron and Steel Industries— Terre Haute Car and Manu- 
facturing Company— Foundries and Machine Shops— Vandalia Railroad 
Shops— Stone Works Company— Electric Light and Power Company- 
Boiler AVork.s — Wagon and Carriage Factories — Breweries — Miscellaneous 
Industries— Citizens' Gas & Fuel Company— Telegraph— Water Works- 
Gas Works — Business Men's Association— Coal— Oil and Natural Gas— 
xYrtesiau or Medicinal Waters — Etc 483-5 Ki 



Prefatory— School Lands— " Increment of Wealth" — Subscription Schools — 
Public Schools— The First Graded Free School— School Buildings— Sta- 
tistics— The Rose Polytechnic Institute— poates College — State Normal 
School— Burning of the Building— St. Mary's of the Woods, Academic 
Institute— St. Joseph's Parochial Catholic School, and Other Institu- 
tions of Learning 517-544 



Vigo County in War — Taken Part in Every War since the Revolution — War 
of 1812— Black Hawk War— Prophet's War— Mexican War— Civil War.547-5R0 



Beauchamp's Crime — First Hanging in Vigo County— Second Hanging- 
Crimes and Criminals — The Young Bandit of the Wabash — Newspaper 
Editors Shot— Etc 561-565 




The Terre Haute & Indianapolis Railroad Company— The Terre Haute & Alton 
Railroad— The Vandalia Line— The Evansvillc & Crawfordsville Road— 
The Evansville, Terre Haute & Chicago Railroad— The Chicago & Eastern 
Illinois Railroad — The Logansport, Crawfordsville & Southwestern Line — 
The Illinois Midland— Railroads Striking the County 566-570 



Court-house- Jail— County Fair — Poor Asylum — Horticultural Society- 
Trotting Horse Association— Pest House, etc 571-583 



A Visit to the Home — "Aunty" Baldy — Board of Managers — Conditions of 
Admission — Donations and Subscriptions — Ladies' Aid Society — Anniver- 
sary Meeting of the Society in 1887 — The Original Organization of the 
Society and Its First Meeting — Festivals, Bazaars, etc — Income and 
Officers 583-588 



Presbyterian— Moffatt Street Church— Episcopal— Lutheran— Congregational- 
Methodist Episcopal— Baptist— Catholics— Zion's Church of the Evangeli- 
cal Association— German Reformed Church— Christian Church — Universa- 
list Church— St. Anthony's Hospital— St. Ann's Providence Orphan Asyl- 
lum— The Rose Orphan Home— Friendly Inn— Churches in the County 
Outside Terre Haute 588-605 



Masonry— Knights of Pythias— Royal Arcanum— Terre Haute Oratorio So- 
ciety— Terre Haute Scientific Club— Knights of the Golden Rule— Ancient 
Order of United Workmen — Knights and Ladies of Honor — Railroad So- 
cieties—Independent Order of Odd Fellows— Order of Rebekah— Veter- 
ans Odd Fellows Association— Patriarchs Militant— Societies Outside of 
Terre Haute 606 620 



State MedicaJ Society of Indiana— Medical Treatment in Pioneer Days—Recol- 
lections of Dr. B. F. SwaflEord— Dr. J. W. Hitchcock's Experiences and 
Reminiscences— Vigo County Medical Society— Dr. John W. Davis, Dr, 



Lawrence S. Shuler, Dr. Charles B. Modesitt and other Early Physicians — 
List of Later Physicians and of Those at Present Practicing in Vigo 
County 620-632 



The First Newspaper Published in Vigo County— Western Register and General 
Advertiser— Wabash Courier — Union, Daily and Weekly — Daily and Weekly 
Express — Terre Haute Journal — Gazette and Other more Recent Journals — 
Locomotive Firemen's Magazine — David S. Danaldson — James Bratt Ed- 
munds—Col. R. N. Hudson 632-639 



Introductory— Mr. Rose's Birth, Parentage, Education and Death — His Arrival 
in the Wabash Valley and Final Settlement in Terre Haute— His Public 
Spirit and Liberality— Chauncey Rose as a Benefactor and as a Business 
Man— His Connection with Railroad Enterprises, and His Many Munificent 
Endowments to Charitable Institutions 640-646 



Original Townships — Honey Creek and Wabash Townships— Harrison, Inde- 
pendence, Prairie Creek, Otter Creek, Raccoon, Paris (afterward Fayette), 
Sugar Creek, Nevins, Riley, Lost Creek, Pierson, Linton and Prairietou 
Townships 647-649 



Census Statistics of Vigo County— Population— Acreage— Valuation of Land, 
and Improvements — Value of Town Lots and Total Assessment in the 
City of Terre Haute — Census Statistics by Townships, in 1889 — Totals in 
the County 650-652 






Biographical Sketches in Alphabetical Order 655-1010 



Bement, G. W. . . ; 311 

Condit, Rev. Blackford . 511 

Cruf t, Gen. Charles .477 

Dunlap, Andrew -.. 377 

Gilbert, Curtis 245 

Mack, Judge William , 545 

Nelson, Col. Thomas H 443 

Rose, Chauncey 179 

Vigo, Col. Francis 113 

Map of Vigo County 14 and 15 

Index, Part I, History 1011-1014 

Index, Part II, Biographies 1014-1018 

(^Ai^v Yn (R O € ® R '^ ;^"ry\ ^ym^^^i) 

Riow vi'JL' Mi LL I J) X R9w_r/>./, I' A n i< / •; 



History of Vigo County, 








YiGO County Geology— Its Soils, Rocks and Waters— Most Ancient 
OF ALL History— Its Importance as an Educator— Hints og 
Studying Greek and Geology— Hopeful John Wesley's Expei»^ 
ENCE — Civilization is Based on Agriculture — The Rocks are the 
Leaves in Nature's History Book — The Old Education — Mam- 
moth and Mastodon— Things Everyone Should Know of Their 
Own Locality— Great Earthquake— The Streams— First Boat, 

YIGO COUNTY and its geology is not only an interesting but 
the most valuable study in practical life that can have the 
attention of the people. The earliest of all histqry of any locality 
is found in the records kept by the rocks. Here are locked up and 
stored away secrets often so old, occurrences that took place in 
such long reaches of times past, that we can not reckon them by our 
usual mode of counting time in years, decades and centuries, but 
they are spoken of as eons by scientific investigators. The great 
leaves of the rocks, then, are Nature's history book, fashioned into 
our round, wheeling globe. In reading this account of the earth's 
formation and changes within the county's limits we can no more 
than go back to what is so very recent — the surface facts, as it were, 
that we finally end our investigation with the conviction that even 
the expression of the eras by eous is but little aid to the mind in 
attempting to grasp the reaches of time that are past and gone, or 
what or who has been here, lived their time, and then passed away. 
We pick up a fossil rock — in nearly all the rocks, except granite 
and its family, are more or less fossil remains — we can investigate 
by the remains we there find something of the original of which the 
fossil was once a part, and then from the rock and the surroundings 
we can estimate, though vaguely, the time when the rock enclosed 
within its keeping this memento of the past. But we can not tell by 
millions of years when the rock itself became a rock. We can only 
assign it to a certain geological age, with no fixed idea at all as to 


time in years. Hence, in geological history we make no mention 
of centuries, but simply speak of geological periods, and in that 
easy way we make dates that are both satisfactory and relieve the 
mind from bothering itself about things impossible to know. 

Geology is the most ancient of all history, and, therefore, the 
history of man is the most modern of all history, because man was 
the last to appear upon earth. 

The time, or rather the order of the existence of the extinct ani- 
mal and vegetable forms is a part of the secrets of the past that we 
can trace no where else than in the rocks. Turning over, therefore, 
these pages of the book of Nature, we to-da}-^ read much of what was 
going on here so long ago that the mind can form no' idea at all on 
that part of the subject. 

The brain is so developed that we are strangely interested in the 
remains or marks of even a leaf, a bird's track or a crawling worm that 
we know is so ancient as to baffle thought. Almost any hour you 
can see in the coal you may use for fuel marks of some vege- 
table growth. Even of the age of the coal you can form no idea. 
How young and fresh its formation must be compared to some of 
the rocks, and yet with what interest you look upon the outlines 
there seen of the leaf, and try to think of the time when on its 
stem it swayed and bent to the breezes and was kissed by the dew 
and the sunshine ; decking the forest its brief summer life and dying 
of old age in the early fall, it sways, and circles to the earth, the 
very expression of an ephemeral existence, and yet, all this vast 
time intervening, you have come into the world to look upon the 
traces left by this leaf — thus are standing face to face the inconceiva- 
ble dead past and the living present. 

But you must not think that because this is the most ancient of all 
history that it therefore has no other importance. It is interesting 
because it is ancient, but in a practical point of view it is full of 
that knowledge beneficial to know. 

From the rocks comes about all that we possess. Here at least 
are the foundations of material life. The soil comes of the decom- 
position of the rocks — it may be called the rocks' ashes, and the 
nature of the material fixes the quality of the vegetable and ani- 
mal life that will subsist thereon. The subjacent rocks then deter- 
mine the kind of civilization that will in time exist in the locality 
above them. 

A few years ago some gentleman applied to the noted scientist, 
Agassiz, to tell them the secret of the Blue-Grass region, of Ken- 
tucky, producing such excellent strains of horses. They pro- 
pounded their inquiry and he brusquely answered: 

"Rocks, gentlemen, rocks; it's a question of rocks." When 
the enigma of this Delphic oracle was revealed to the minds of the 


inquirers the whole force of his pregnant truth was plain enough. 
The secret of the Blue-Grass region is in the peculiar rocks beneath 
the soil's surface, and this determines the qualities of the grasses 
and the waters, and they in turn enter into the blood and bones of 
those fleet-footed coursers that have so long been the boast and pride 
of Kentucky. The bone of a thoroughbred Kentucky horse was 
placed by the side of that of the cold-blooded horse of some othor 
locality. One resembled in texture ivory and the other was coarse 
and porous. If the hides of the two animals had been dressed and 
tanned it is probable here would again have appeared another as 
marked a difference. Our animal part is similarly affected by the 
soil and water whence comes our food and drink. In my trav- 
els through Pennsylvania, I could easily fancy that I could tell 
something of the different iron regions of that State by the color 
noticeable in the bloom on the cheeks of the men and women I 
would meet on the street. 

History points out plainly the influences on different civiliza- 
tions produced by the soils and climates. A certain belt runs 
round the world and within that zone has come all the great and 
distinctive peoples known to history. The northern temperate strip 
spanning the earth is the confine of the ability to think. The 
boundaries of this belt are not known, but it is known that to the 
north and to the south are the impassable barriers. Here human 
progress stops. Beyond these lines, either north or south, men 
cease to advance, becoming mentally weak and physically dwarfed. 

There is then plainly a practical education in the geology of 
the locality in which we live, and the understanding of the elemen- 
tary facts of this science must therefore be the most important and 
useful education we can give the rising generation. 

We send our children to school to prepare them for more useful 
lives ; to help them in the struggle for existence when they go out 
from the roof -tree to battle for a place in the world for themselves. 
The average man lives for his children. Here are his hopes and 
ambitions, and they can not be better placed. If he could be abso- 
lutely certain in matters of education, then he would be simply not 
experimenting — filled always with hope and fear. In this age of 
the world he ought to be enabled to procede with the education of 
his children with the same certainty of results that he cuts, saws, 
planes and finishes the different pieces that when put together are 
exactly the house he had in his mind's eye when he felled the trees 
in the woods that finally entered into the structure. This much 
most assuredly the thousands of years' experience should have taught 
us all. 

But it has not. The average man thinks that education is en- 
tirely something he must hire some one to do for him. He sends 


his boy to the school teacher and buys such books for him as he is 
told to supply. He is in time told his boy has triumphed over the 
Greek verb, and he is much rejoiced, and he and "mother" talk it 
all over with hearts full of pride. Their son has such blessed ad- 
vantages over anything they had, and in time who could help but 
envy their pride and happiness when John Wesley is the Latin vale- 
dictorian on graduation day. Bless their honest, credulous hearts, 
their cup of happiness at last is full to overflowing. John Wesley 
is a little bit affected himself at the rosy future just bursting upon 
him. In rather stilted Virgilian measure, he recounts the past 
school days — commencing at "-£'(70" and with this final flourish of 
"■veni, vidi, vici!'''' And the work is done. "The world is mine 
oyster and I will proceed to open it." But on an average, about 
ninety-nine times in one hundred, John Wesley's oyster knife some- 
how don't so readily open the succulent bivalve. Indeed it is often 
found that the mollusk petrified about the time Eneas was cutting the 
didos about which the poet sang so sublimely. There sometimes is 
but one certain thing the young man finds himself fully qualified to do 
— teach school. He can here put others successfully through the 
same grind that he experienced and was told was the highest and 
best attainable education — a classical education. He can read 
Latin and Greek and has learned that Hebrew is read from right to 
left. True he has constant use for his dictionary in reading any 
of the dead languages, but that is probably better for him. By the 
time his graduation suits are worn out, if he is a very bright youth, 
he has made the discovery that there is some little difficulty in con- 
verting his classical education into cash in any of the ordinary 
walks of life. But this does not affect his faith. His teachers 
impressed it well upon him that the higher education is not mer- 
cenary, that it is above all that. But John W.'s nature is to get 
cold and hungry, the same as does poor Bill Stubbs, who never was 
at college. 

In a few years you find the school boy has ripened into strong 
manhood and is a prominent merchant, lawyer, judge, doctor, 
farmer, hotel-keeper or in any other respectable and money-making 
business. He has forgotten his Greek verbs, and instead of his 
"vem, vidi, vici'''' of old, he is now found glibly expressing himself 
by the more expressive slang of "hustlers" and "rustlers." 

The jolly benedict is passing it around. His boys will soon be 
old enough to fill the same place he once did in the schools and 
colleges. He intends to do the best he can for them. As for him- 
self he blushes to think about his graduating dreams and his actual 
life and how little they fitted into each other, and hopes that his 
boys may do better — may even some day be great professors in 
some old and noted university. He may possibly remember that 


after his classical days he read the illiterate Bobby Burns, or the 
common stock actor Shakespeare and was amazed at the discovery 
that there is in nature possibilities even outside of the " classical 
course " in college — these children of nature, with no more cramp- 
ing rules than the birds, caroled their immortal songs to the skies. 

He, and so do we all, followed in the footsteps of his long line 
of predecessors — ^thought in the same rounds they did, and fashioned 
his life after theirs. And thus our youths grow up too dependent 
upon the aid of others to prepare them for the struggle for life. It 
would be far better for the rising generation that they be told the 
blunt truth; that they can be assisted, but not very much, in edu- 
cation. That pretty much all real, practical education is for each 
one to gain for himself and largely by himself; that the school 
must not be in, theory a mental gymnasium, where the muscles, so to 
speak, of the mind can be developed by the professor, and that there 
is nothing for the student to do except keep his mind always in a 
receptive mood; his mental hopper open so the grists of knowledge 
may run in uninterruptedly. The boy on the farm is practically edu- 
cated to be a farmer, so is the boy in the store or bank or factory 
or mill, educated practically in those different things. 

As the advances of our civilization are based upon the agricult- 
ural interests, so we come to see that the geological knowledge of 
the locality in which our lives are cast is of first importance in the 
education of our youths. All we possess even in our higher civili- 
zation comes primarily from this source. No matter therefore what 
your chosen avocation in life, an intimate knowledge of the earth's 
surface and what is under it must be of great advantage. It is a 
species of practical knowledge that assists in life. The boy at 
school can more easily learn how to analyze the soils than he can 
master the Greek verb. The child's mind is more interested in 
investigating a plant, flower or tree, the conditions of its growth 
and propagation, than he is in the Greek and Roman mythologies. 
In short, it is natural for him to be curious about nature and her 
ways and laws, and it is therefore better for him to know these 
things than to befog his intellect trying to comprehend those 
abstruse metaphysics that so often are mistakenly thrust upon him. 

The ancient Egyptians, from whom come nearly all the rudi- 
ments of education, taught chiefly adults. Their schools were in 
their groves, gardens and conversations from the porches of their 
dwellings and public buildings. Three thousand years ago their 
schools, always in the open air, were places where the most vital 
and often practical questions of life were considered — the teachers 
being men eminent for their wisdom far more than their knowledge 
of the rules of the school room. They propounded questions and 
discussed them and the people attended at will. All teaching was 


oral, as much of our teaching in geology, botany and zoology should 
be. The successful farmer has learned much that is useful by ex- 
periment and the trials of his ancestors. His knowledge of geology 
and chemistry as well as botany and zoology is far greater than he 
himself generally supposes it to be. He has learned that certain 
soils have certain plant food and that under a certain treatment it 
will yield up its treasures. He has gained his knowledge at too 
great a loss of time and wealth . He should have been saved the 
expense of such a school by the school teachers who had in charge 
his education. He possibly was wasting his time on Greek roots 
when he should have been looking into the corn roots — especially 
since we are told that the number of marriages is at times regulated 
by the price of corn. 

. These are some off-hand hints as to why so much importance 
should be attached in the history of any locality to the geology of 
the country, as this and the climate are the controlling factors in 
civilization. Where these are properly or best adjusted there will 
be found the best developed men — mentally and physically. They 
are a plea for a more practical education for the young and old. 
They are a general protest against the authority of precedent. 

It can be no disadvantage to the school graduate to have learned 
well some of those lessons in the school room that his forefathers 
have had to l^arn by the sternest necessity in the conduct of their 
business. While experience is a hard teacher, she is the best one 
only because of the failure of our teachers to fully grasp the situa- 
tion. Where the young man returns with his Latin diploma to the 
old farm, it need not detract from his glory if he can go out and 
look over the fields and tell what will revive each soil here and there ; 
the fertilizing qualities that have been exhausted and what will 
best restore them. So of his father's mill, factory or store. In the 
economic problems here constantly presented, so knowledge on these 
subjects may enable him to begin to repay his parents for the sac- 
rifices they have made for his education. As true knowledge is the 
most practical thing in the world, so is it the most useful. It is 
simply understanding the natural laws. Our commencement is 
from the mother earth, to which in the end we will return. Why is 
this then not the natural point to commence the higher education of 
our children? Generation after generation we train each other to 
regard precedent as of the highest authority. Hence, because a 
few hundred years ago the English as well as other modern lan- 
guages were in the process of formation — all being then more or 
less jargons, and as at the same time there were the fewest scientific 
facts known to men, and that species of education was practically 
tabooed, it was as a matter of course that polite learning was 
esteemed to be the dead languages of Athens and Bome, and to 


these ambitious students turned with a sincere devotion. This cir- 
cumstance has brought even down to our day a widespread notion 
that a classical education is the highest and best attainable. The 
martyrs to the world's advanced and better education it seems died 
in vain, so far as our great schools and teachers are concerned. 
Hence, the peasant at the plow handle, the grimy smith at the forge, 
the telegrapher at the key, and the shoemaker's bench are as quick to 
give the world its great thinkers, inventors and educators as the 
great State universities or the most noted schools in the world. 
The better instincts of men are in natural rebellion against the 
mistakes and ignorance of the Dark Ages. Happily is it indeed, 
that this is so. 

Beneath your feet, wherever you may be, there are in the earth 
vast beds of rock. These, in the simplest division, are the igneous and 
stratified rocks. The first, as its name indicates, is a fire-rock, that is, 
melted by intense heat and cooled into its solid form. The other is 
the slow deposits in water, where layer is deposited on layer sometimes 
miles in thickness. Fossil remains of course are found only in the 
stratified rocks, or in petrifactions that are sometimes locked in 
stratified rocks or are separate and alone as when formed. The 
immense chalk bluffs of England are the remains simply of water 
insects, the little skeletons whitened and cemented in the process of 
time into the immense beds that were uplifted by the internal forces 
of the earth and no longer beds of the sea, are the tall white cliffs 
of the uplands, observed with so much interest by travelers and 
looked upon with such dull indifference by the hob-nailed peasants 
and the ancient shepherds who turned their gaze in their long 
night-watches upon the rolling beauties of heaven, set as they sup- 
posed in the solid overarching firmament. 

The ancient education tended to lead away from all practical 
subjects. Those who assumed the authority to speak, so taught 
their followers. They thought to control the movements of the 
mind as the king's will would control their personal movements. 
They grievously mistook both their mission and the true nature of 
the mind. They were too slow to find out that though the body 
may be burned, the mind will fly free and can be arbitrarily con- 
trolled only by destroying it, and they proceeded to enslave the 
mind by the persecution of the body, and the misdirection of their 
thoughts and judgments. They thus brought the travail of the 
ages, when civilization languished and the human mind remained 
long stagnant. Thus earnest men's mistakes are often far more 
hurtful and grievous than their wildest vices. But this is a part of 
that old, old story of the struggle between truth and error, right 
and wrong. 

Topography. — Vigo county 'contains within its borders 400 


square miles. Its surface is level or gently rolling, divided into 
prairie and timber land, mostly timber. There are three prairies 
in the county, namely Prairie creek prairie. Fort Harrison and 
Grand prairie, which will be more fully described in the township 

Streams. — The main artery in the drainage of this part of Indi- 
ana is the Wabash river that flows through Vigo county from north 
to south. The river has its rise in a small lake in Mercer county, 
Ohio, running in a westerly course through the counties of Adams, 
Wells and Huntington to the State of Indiana. The confluence of 
Little river is just below Huntington. From this point it continues 
its westerly course through the counties of Wabash, Miami and 
Cass. Here it turns more toward the south and passes through 
Carroll and Tippecanoe counties. It forms the boundary line be- 
tween Warren and Vermillion counties on the west and Fountain 
and Parke on the east. It turns still more directly south at Cov- 
ington. It enters Vigo County in Section 2, Township 13, Range 

9. Passing into Section 3, then nearly due south through Section 
10 and into Section 15, where it turns abruptly west for six miles 
along the section lines between 15 and 16 and 21 and 22; then turn- 
ing nearly due south, passing nearly through to center of Sections 
21, 28 and 33, and enters nearly the center of Section 4, Township 
12, Range 9; passing diagonally through the northeast corner of 
Section 9 and into 8 and into Section 17, and bending toward the 
southeast meets the town limits of Terre Haute in Section 16; then 
running nearly due south along the entire city's front, where it 
turns and bears southwest into Section 31 and bends suddenly and 
runs east to the center of Section 32, and going nearly due south, 
enters the center of Section 5, Township 11, Range 9, when it 
bears southwest to where it nearly touches the State line at the 
northwest corner of Section 28, then goes due south to the south- 
west corner of Section 33, where it becomes the dividing line be- 
tween Indiana and Illinois. From this point to the southwest cor- 
ner of the county, the southwest corner of Section 35, Township 

10, Range 10, it continues to form the county and State line. 

It is a navigable stream, and is the only one that touches the 
county of Vigo. To the east of the river in the southwest part of 
the county are several lakes and bayous. The latter are evidences 
that this was once a great river, from six to ten miles in width, 
pouring in its sluggish stream the vast accumulations of waters 
from the north to the divide where the drainage was through the 
chain of northern lakes. Time has dwarfed this mighty river 
which at one time might have carried abreast on its bosom all the 
combined armadas of the world, into its present insignificance. It 
was one of the great agencies in drying the continent and adjusting 


the earth for our habitation. Evidently all of Prairie Creek town- 
ship was once a part of the bed of the river, and in narrowing 
and deepening its bed it has left its footprints in those lakes as far 
east as Moore's Pond and Goose Pond. The bottoms, often from 
six to ten miles wide, are yet subject to nearly annual overflows by 
the spring freshets that crowd their accumulated waters upon it. 
Greenfield bayou. Grassy pond. Stone pond and Horseshoe pond 
are considerable bodies of water, that in the general drying of the 
face of the country will some day be dry land. Man's energies en- 
croach upon the waters wherever possible, and he extends his 
dominions over the waters and the waste places. 

Within the memory of man there has been a marked change in 
the Wabash river, and its waters are becoming less and less. At 
one time all the commerce of the portion of the State through which 
it runs was carried on the river. The fleets of largest steam- 
boats easily ascended to Terre Haute, and above the north line in 
the early days of western steamboating. 

The first steamboat that ever plowed the western waters came 
down the Ohio river, and passed on to New Orleans the same year, 
1811, that Gen. Harrison marched up with his army to Fort Harri- 
son. The name of that historical vessel was the " Orleans," under 
command of Capt. Roosevelt. A remarkable coincident of that voy- 
age of the first steamboat was that just about the time it reached the 
mouth of the Wabash, where it empties into the Ohio, it was met 
by the first evidences of the greatest earthquake ever known to visit 
the continent — the New Madrid earthquake as it is called, because 
this was its severest point. The heavens and the earth manifested 
their wonders, not only in the great earthquake, but a total eclipse 
of the sun occurred at this time, and thus were the great powers 
and displays of nature to meet, the apparently so feeble, but yet the 
most extraordinary manifestations of man's genius. As though all 
nature rose up at the approach of the first steamboat in the wilder- 
ness to awe it back or welcome it, as one may choose to think. The 
same year the army of occupation under Gen. Harrison came to 
Vigo county. What tremendous events in the world's history! To the 
Indians and the pioneers, could they at all have comprehended these 
mighty things, how supremely awe-inspiring it all would have been. 
Capt. Roosevelt was a brave navigator, and not much affected by 
the common and general superstition of his times. The eclipse had 
aroused the people to a frenzy of awe and fear. They were ever 
ready to see the coming of the end of the world, when the heavens 
would be rolled together as a scroll and the universal conflagration 
begin. Then commenced the earthquake that shook the hills, burst 
asunder the granite rocks as though but sheets of wet paper, and 
the ground heaved, waved and trembled, and with great groans rose 


and burst in long cracks and openings, and spurted high sand and 
wator and sulphurous smoke. The earthquake, lasted three months, 
%e first three days being the most severe and active, and the third 
day the worst of all. -It was on this third day, in December, 1811. 
that the " Orleans " rode out of the troubled waters of the Ohio 
into the yet more excited waters of the Mississippi. The boat had 
tied up the previous night at the foot of a low island just above Cairo. 
There was danger near the high river banks, as these would heave 
and swell, and great sections carrying trees would be detached and 
go plunging into the seething waters. Such was the force of the quick, 
high waves of the ground, that the great river woiild be turned back 
upon itself and rose and splashed over the tops of the highest bluffs 
along the shore. New Madrid, on the river below Cairo, was then 
a prosperous town. It was destroyed by the earthquake. During 
these days the sun hung in the heavens, a dull red, like a great 
heated iron ball. 

Tnus the sun's eclipse, the great New Madrid earthquake, the 
coming to western waters of the first steamboat that ever wakened 
th( lo ig sleeping echoes of the wilderness, and the coming of the 
arnjed Anglo-Saxon to take possession of Vigo county, were, his- 
torically, contemporaneous events. 

In such a meeting how feeble man — how overpowering nature! 
Of the earthquake nought remains save the great lakes that lie along 
west of the lower Mississippi. In places for miles the forest trees 
were killed though left standing in their natural position. But 
these have rotted away and other growths have taken their place. 
The bruised and torn earth has smoothed over its ravages, and the 
quiet grasses, clinging vines, the growing trees and the rainfall 
have been busy repairing damage and smoothing over the earth's 
scars. But on the other hand how is it? Fulton's steamboat was a 
human idea in battle it would seem with the wildest riot of nature. 
Not really much more significant in the performance then going 
on than the cork upon the fretted ocean. Did it pass away like 
the eclipse? No, here was a great thought, an invention, and feeble 
as it appeared, it must live and go on forever, gathering force on 
its way. The revolving paddle-wheels of the boat were but the be- 
ginning of the drive-wheels of the railroad engine that now flies 
over the face of the earth and of the great steamships whose sails 
fleck every sea. 

What a noble immortality is here — a new thought, a new inven- 
tion, but great enough to bear aloft our highest and best civiliza- 
tion — to live forever. Here are the domains of real human great- 
ness. It is in the movements of the mind that the immortal records 
are made. A barbarous people can only understand or appreciate 
physical action — hunters and fighters. These are their highest 


types of men, while they would be apt to kill the man of thought as 
a dangerous or impious sorcerer — blaspheming their snake-gods, 
and conjuring eclipses, earthquakes or the nights of storms and 
darkness. Apparently the instincts, of the ignorant barbarian is to 
fear and hate the man of thought, -and to adore animal strength, 
courage and ferocity. It was this remnant of the old times among 
the pioneers that made them connect the coming of the first steam- 
boat as a part of the angry display of heaven's powers in the eclipse 
and earthquake at man's impious daring. They gathered on the 
banks of the river, saw the black thick smoke roll slowly up from 
its flues, they listened in awe at the hot escaping steam, and the In- 
dians and most ignorant white men fled in terror to the deep woods, 
only to be met by the ominous rumbling of the earth, the swaying 
of the trees, the sulphurous vapors filling the air, and the solid 
earth began to heave and swell, and all this was the unmistakable 
wrath of God. Angry, yes, why not angry? Had not man pre- 
sumed to " bile the water " in order to change God's ways of doing 
this thing. The waters had always run on softly singing their 
way to the sea — carrying on their bosom the swift bark canoes, the 
pirogue, the raft and finally the keelboat, happily man's hand- 
maiden so long as the water was left as nature made it, but it must 
be heated over the fire into angry hissing steam, and then God's 
patience was exhausted. Thus ignorance warred up the true, and 
wrong thus has ever placed itself in the pathway of advancing in- 

If Terre Haute had been here in 1811, Fulton's boat could and 
probably would have ascended the Wabash and amazed the people 
greatly. But there was nothing here except Fort Harrison and the 
little garrison it contained. All transportation, however, to this 
part of the world was by way of the Wabash, in canoes, pirogues, 
keelboats, flatboatS" and rafts. The latter were used until recent 
times to float out the Wabash and down to New Orleans, carrying 
great, cargoes sometimes, and there the raft would be broken up 
and the logs sold to be made into lumber. The keelboat looked 
something like a "caboose" to a railroad train. These floated down 
stream carrying all that could be put on them, and then, lightly 
loaded, they had to be pulled up stream by long ropes and men on 
the shore. A great deal of commerce of the west was thus carried 
on in the early days. To the youths of this age, with the fast 
freight trains, it looks almost incredible to be told that the keel- 
boat was the best our pioneer forefathers had at command. A trip 
from here to New Orleans and back in those times was commenced 
early in the spring and ended late in the fall ; six or eight miles a 
day was fair progress in the upstream trip. The men toiled and 
tugged against the current from sunrise to sunset, and in the south 
were often so beset with insects as to make life a burden. 


The first steamboat that asceoded the Wabash and passed 
through Vigo county was the " Florence " in the spring of 1822. 
What a great day was her arrival at Terre Haute. The people 
turned out with intensest curiosity and welcomed it with great joy. 
They were not certain it was a thing of any practical value, but at 
all events it was a great curiosity. The young and hopeful be- 
lieved it was all or more than claimed for it by its builders, but 
some of the old sober-heads entertained the gravest doubts, and con- 
tinued to put their faith in the canoe or raft as the reliaJDle trans- 
port. The "Florence" returned after her visit, and there was no 
other steamboat arrival for a year. The next spring, 1825, the 
" Plow Boy" (her owners were no doubt admirers of Henry Clay) 
came up the Wabash, bringing a large cargo of merchandise and 
discharging it near the foot of Main street. This practically ended 
all head-shaking of the doubters, as from this time on people learned 
to depend for all needed supplies on the expected coming boat that 
began to arrive regularly. 

Other Streams. — As remarked, the Wabash is the only navigable 
stream that touches Vigo county. The water sheds of the northern 
part of the county lie east and west of the Wabash and flow into 
it. In the southern part of the county the waters all flow toward 
the west and a divide running east and west along the north line of 
Township 10, where the streams on one side start north and on the 
other toward the south. Commencing at the north line of the 
county, the streams from the east side into the river are: Spring 
creek, which rises in Parke coiinty and enters in two branches in 
Sections 5 and 6, Range 8. These join in Section 6 and flow south- 
erly to near the center of Section 7 and then turns west and north- 
erly, passing diagonally through Sections 12, 1 and 2, Range 9 into 
the river. Going south the next is Otter Creek. This comes in 
several branches that join in Section 36, Township 13, Range 9. 
The principal northern branch rises in Section 12, Township 13, 
Range 8 and flows southwesterly and the other principal branch 
rises on the east line of the county in Sections 29, 13, 7 and flows 
nearly west. These main branches are fed by many small arms ex- 
tending in every direction. Where all become one large stream the 
flow is westerly into Sections 35, 13, 8, and thence northwest to the 
river in Sections 22, 13, 9. The next stream. Lost creek, empties 
into the Wabash about four miles south of the mouth of Otter 
creek. The principal heads of this stream are in Sections 10, 7 
24 and 22 in Township 12, Range 8. These flow westerly in Sec- 
tion 13, Township 12, Range 9, and then the main stream goes 
through Sections 14, 11, 10 and 3 to the river. Running due east 
of Terre Haute is a divide, where the waters flow north and on the 
other side start south. It was along this ridge or divide that the 


National Koad was constructed. Still going south on the east side, 
the next and one of the important drainage streams of the county is 
Honey creek. The principal head of this is nearly east of Terre 
Haute and the east line of the county, and it flows west and south- 
erly entirely through the county. Many branches from the northeast 
and the southeast join in Section 14, Township 11, Range 9, thence 
westerly the main stream passes to Section 24, Township 11, Range 
9, and then nearly parallel with the river and empties into the 
Wabash at Section 23, Township 11. The next stream, Prairie 
creek, does not empty into the Wabash in Vigo county. It comes 
from the northeast, with several branches through the west half of 
the county and on a parallel with Honey Creek and where all join 
and form one stream about seven miles south of that creek and flow- 
ing in nearly a parallel course, passes out of the county on the south 
line in Section 31, two miles east of the Wabash. In the south and 
east part of the county are several drains that pass south into Sul- 
livan county. These constitute the county's drainage streams east 
of the river. 

On the west side, commencing at the north line of the county, is 
a small drain entering the county about two miles west of the river, 
and from Section 4 passes into Section 3, where it strikes the river. 
Below this is Salt creek, which rises in Section 12, Township 13, 
Range 10, and runs east into a small lake, and thence by a bayou 
to the river in Section 10, Township 13, Range 9. This stream is 
about five miles long. The next in order is Coal creek and its 
north and south heads. The main head is in Hlinois and enters the 
State of Indiana in Section 9, . Township 13, Range 10, flowing 
southerly, and reaches the river in Section 8, Township 13, Range 

9. There is East Little Sugar creek'and also West Little Sugar 
creek. These join in Section 25, Township 12, Range 10, and 
form Sugar creek, which flows southeast into the river, south of 
Terre Haute, in Section 31. East Little Sugar creek riBes in Sec- 
tion 26, Township 13, Range 10, and flows nearly south to its junc- 
tion with West Little Sugar creek. The latter rises just across the line 
in Illinois and enters the county in Section 16, Township 12, Range 

10, and flows southeastly to the junction. Clear creek rises just 
across the State line and enters the county in Section 28, Township 
12, Range 10, and flows southerly into the river in Section 11, Town- 
ship 11, Range 13. 

These are the county's drainage, and altogether give it a com- 
plete and valuable system. They are a part of the great work of 
nature, preparing the home for civilized man. The sleepless en- 
ergies of nature cut these natural canals and waterways through 
every obstruction, even the granite walls that may be in the way. 
How little of these important preparations for the coming of the 
race could have been effected by the combined efforts of man! 


The Wabash river was the highway for man in his coming here. 
It bore his commerce and gave him easy communication with the 
outer world and his fellow man — the artery of civilization. The 
larger creeks too had their value in the pioneer times in addition to 
the drainage they gave. They furnished the water power for the 
first mills and the beginnings of factories. They invited the white 
man's intelligence to appropriate and use their powers. To apply 
the water wheels to make bread and lumber instead of the unaided 
muscle at the mortar and pounding pestle and the primitive whip- 
saw to cut the great forest trees into lumber to build their homes. 
The water-mill, grist or saw, was the first imperative advance of 
our civilization. This was simply utilizing the powers furnished 
by nature. The important man to these early pioneers was he who 
came looking along the streams for an eligible mill-site, where, imi- 
tating the beaver, he could best build a dam and divert the flowing 
water to his water-wheel, that was the power to grind the corn and 
wheat and with the primitive upright saw cut the lumber. 

These things, though mostly relegated to " innocuous desuetude" 
now, were of the greatest importance at one time. Man's advancing 
art has superseded these natural aids to the early people, yet of 
such overshadowing impotance were they once that they decided the 
question of the white man permanently occupying the country. 
They were the prime foundations to the great civilization in which 
we have been permitted to live. Do they not deserve a place in his- 
tory, even a niche in the memory of those born to all these better 
things and happier times? 

The apparently appropriate place to tell of the canal that 
passed through the county would be here, but that was the work 
entirely of men, and is no part of the geological story of Vigo 
county, and therefore Avill be fully treated in its proper time in 
the account of the progress of the people. 

One of the most noticeable changes in the topography of the 
country is in the drainage. The streams have cut narrower and 
deeper beds, and the disappearance of the forests, the wild prairie 
grasses, and these natural obstructions to the waters, have been fol- 
lowed by such general, artificial, open and underground sewer 
drains that the waters as they fall are carried off much more rap- 
idly now than formerly. The result is an apparent lessening of 
the streams in dry seasons, accompanied by ever increasing higher 
waters in the large rivers of the west. In the Ohio river the 
past twenty years have been regularly divided into periods, when 
the February or March rise in the river has exceeded anything be- 
fore known in its history, and at this hour (March 16, 1890) the 
Lower Ohio and Mississippi rivers are again marking a higher 
reach than ever before known, and are overflowing the artificial 


embankments all the way down to the city of New Orleans, The 
swift current, swelling higher and higher, mocks at man's eflPorts, 
tearing down his barriers and carrying wild destruction to the 
country below Cairo. If there is truth in the theory that increased 
rainfall follows the settlements of civilization, then the streams 
really carry off more water during the year than they did when the 
country was first known, but carrying them so much faster that 
now runs off in a few days what before would be distributed over 
many months. Yet the first and even the second bottom lands to 
the bluffs or high land running parallel with the rivers unmistakably 
mark what was once the river's bank at ordinary stages of water. 
In that age the Mississippi river was from ten to fifteen miles from 
bank to bank. The Wabash river there was from six to eight miles 
wide. Both rivers and land and water animals of that age were on a 
gigantic basis. All, it is supposed, were immense and sluggish of 

The Coal Measures. — The rocks of the coal measures are found 
in the counties of Posey, Vanderburgh, Warrick and Spencer, the 
western parts of Perry and Crawford, in Gibson, Pike, Dubois, 
Martin, Sullivan, Greene and Clay, the western parts of Owen, and 
in Vigo, Parke, Vermillion, Fountain and Warren. 

The lower silurian being the oldest rocks brought to the sur- 
face, underlie all the more recent rocks which in succession have 
been deposited during the different ages of the earth's existence. 
A shaft or bore put down in the western part of Gibson would pierce 
in succession all the geological formations of the State and show 
the approximate depth to be as follows: 



Coal measures 725 

Sub-carboniferous 680 

Devonian 200 

Silurian 3000 

The Soils. — The entire surface of Vigo county is covered by 
quaternary deposits, which rest immediately on the coal measures. 
The latter formations, as penetrated by artesian wells bored in the 
city of Terre Haute, are about 450 feet thick. The first coal reached 
is referable to " I," and if to this is added the strata found at See- 
leyville mines, eighty-six feet less the drift, it will give 536 feet as 
the thickness of the coal measures of the county. At the east part 
of the city of Terre Haute where the first and second wells were 
bored, the drift and alluvial is 150 feet thick, and the well reached 
probably as low as the Niagara beds. These wells give us authentic 
information of the strata which underlie the coal measures. 



Feet. Inches. 

Sand and gravel 100 00 

Soapstone 64 06 

"Coall" 6 02 

Hard sandstone 2 03 

Soapstone 4 03 

Gray sandstone 5 10 

Blue soapstone 10 

Gray sandstone 06 

Blue soapstone 12 09 

Soft black shale 6 00 

"CoalF" 09 

Soapstone , 7 07 

White sandstone (conglomerate) 30 03 

Blue shale 7 02 

"CoalB" 2 03 

BlHck shale 10 00 

White Soapstone 3 00 

Black shale 15 00 

White soapstone 8 00 

Black shale 3 03 

"CoalA" 3 00 

Soapstone 17 09 

Sandrock.... 3 00 

Soapstone 20 00 

Sandrock 10 00 

Blue shale 22 00 

Limestone 2 00 

Blue shale 31 00 

Light shale 5 00 

Blue shale 60 00 

Sandstone -. 7 00 

Blueshale 24 00 

Sandstone 3 00 

White shale 10 00 

Blueshale 147 00 

Hard, gritty slate rock 11 07 

Hard, gray fine sandstone 14 05 

Hard limestone 11 00 

White limestone 24 00 

Gray limestone 2 00 

Limestone 14 00 

White limestone 82 00 

Soapstone 3 00 

Brown limestone 35 00 

Soapstone 5 00 

Lime rock 9 00 

Soapstone 6 00 

White limestone 7 00 

Soapstone 2 00 

White limestone 21 00 

Gray limestone. 5 00 

Lime and soapstone mixed 5 00 

Gray limestone 5 00 

White limestone 15 00 

Blue limestone 2 00 


Feet. Inches. 

Gray limestone and flint 73 00 

Light gray limestone 7 00 

Blue gray limestone 7 00 




Feet. Inches. 

Soapstone— fire clay 26 00 

Gray limestone 24 00 

Gray sandstone 3 00 

Soapstone— fire clay 5 00 

Shale and quartz, mixed 166 00 

Slate, quartz and sandstone 3 00 

Slate rock 21 00 

Soapstone 33 00 

Slate rock 7 00 

Soapstone 235 00 


Feet. Inches. 

Soapstone and sandstone 10 00 

Fine sandstone 15 00 

Blue soapstone 40 00 

Black shale 15 00 

Red shale 5 00 

Black shale 15 00 


Feet. Inches. 

Lime rock 5 00 

Black shale 5 00 

Gray lime rock 149 00 

Gray sand rock 23 00 

Lime rock 73 00 

" Sulphur water" 1912 02 

A better record so far as it goes is that of the coal shaft known 

as the Seelyville shaft. M. Hough superintended the sinking and 
gives the following section: 

Feet. Inches. 

Drift 11 00 

Quicksand 5 00 

Hardpan 15 00 

"Coal N" 2 09 

Fireclay 7 06 

Sandstone 1 06 

Soapstone 12 09 

Fossil ore 06 

Soapstone , 7 07 

Slate 1 06 

"CoalM" 06 

Fireclay 5 08 

White sandstone 4 00 

Dark sandstone 14 06 

Soapstone slate 10 

"CoalL" 6 02 

Fireclay 4 00 

Sandstone 4 06 

Black slate 1 06 

Bastard limestone 2 06 

Blackslate 1 08 

"Coal K" 1 10 

Fireclay 5 00 

Soapstone 9 06 

"CoalJ" 06 

Sandstone 4 00 

Fireclay 7 00 

"Coall" 1 01 

Slate -. 05 


Feet. Inches . 

"Coal" 1 09 

Fireclay 10 06 

Black slate 2 00 

"CoalH" 1 05 

Fireclay 3 09 

Soapstone 4 06 

Fireclay 5 00 

Soapstone 2 09 

Sandstone 3 01 

Soapstone 5 06 

Black slate 07 

"Coal G" 05 

Soapstone 1 06 

Sandstone 5 04 

Soapstone 7 00 

Sandstone 1 00 

Soapstone 1 00 

Sandstone 6 02 

Slate 2 06 

"CoalF" 1 02 

Sandstone 7 06 

Fireclay 1 03 

Gray slate 5 00 

225 11 

The old Perrin shaft is a quarter of mile south of Arbuckle & 
Budd's, given above. In this it is forty-three feet to the bottom of 
" N," which is here nearly six feet thick. The Seelyville shaft from a 
topographical horizon, 100 feet by railroad levels, above the mouth 
of the bore at Terre Haute, " Coal N" crops out on Lost creek, on 
Alexander McPherson's place, Section 16, Township 12, Range 8, 
which is forty-two feet above Terre Haute and therefore gives a 
dip of twenty- seven feet in a horizontal distance one and one-half 

A singular fact is noted in Vigo and Clay counties that nearly 
all the coal seams along the streams conform to the rise and fall 
of the beds of the stream. This fact is quite observable along the 
branches of Lost creek and Otter creek. The coal strata as a 
general rule rise and fall with the topography of the country, and 
in the longer stretches of nearly level land the seams of coal and 
other strata are found nearly horizontal. 

Coal I is the first seam penetrated at Terre Haute, and Coal L 
is the lowest seam worked in Vigo county. 

West of the river the glaciers have evidently removed some of 
the upper veins of coal, as in no other way can we account for them 
either disappearing or their places being marked by mere traces. 

The L coal is the lowest of the workable coal in the county. 

At the Arbuckle & Budd shaft at Seelyville the vein is 6^ feet 
thick. It cokes finely, and 1 of coal will convert 12.31 pounds of 
water from 0° C into steam at 150° C. 

The immediate roof of L at Seelyville is an argillaceous shale. 
This vein crops about one mile south of Seelyville. 


The I. & St, L. Kailroad on Sections 8 and 9, Township 13, 
Kange 7, made two entries that penetrate this coal on opposite 
sides of the road and only a short distance apart. The seam lies a 
little below the leA-el of the railroad track, is six feet thick, and has 
a shale parting similar to what is seen at Seelyville, three and one- 
half feet below the top. The south mine was opened by a man 
named Daniel Webster, and became in time the Litchfield Coal Com- 
pany. The north mine is known as the Webster & Brannel 

The place is known as Webster station, one-half mile west of 
the Clay county line at Lodi, and on the main bottom of Otter creek. 
The coal is raised on an incline trestle work tramway to the tip 
house. This is one of the principal coaling places of the I. & St. 
L. Railroad. 

Coals M and N, though not seen above L immediately at Web- 
ster, make their appearance farther up the stream on the sides of 
the hill at Lodi. 

The two seams above L lie very irregular and are in curved 
basins. In a space of twenty-five yards they are seen to dip three 

At Grant station a shaft was sunk and found a thick vein of coal 
aboiit thirty feet below M. 

In 1871 Daniel Webster bored on his place. Section 5, Town- 
ship 13, Range 7, which is sixty feet above the level at Lodi, and 
the section there is reported as follows: 

Feet. Inches. 

Surface soil and clay 3 00 

Sand ■ 1 00 

Plastic potter's clay 5 00 

Sand 8 00 

Hardpan 10 00 

Sand 1 06 

Hardpan 8 00 

Plastic potter's clay 7 00 

Sandy shale 13 08 

"CoalL" 7 00 

As Coals M and N were not found here it is supposed they had 
been removed by glaciation. 

At Fountain station, one and one-half miles southwest of Web- 
ster, G. W. Moreland sunk a shaft to Coal L. It is on the south 
bank of Otter creek, 


Feet. Inches. 

Sandandclay 22 00 

CoalM 1 04 

Fireclay 3 00 

Sandstone and sandy shale 4 00 

Gray shale 8 08 

CoalL 5 10 

44 02 



Josiah Lambert drilled in two places on Section 13, Township 
13, Eange 8. 


Feet. Inches. 

Yellow sand 5 00 

Hardpan 8 00 

Quicksand 24 00 

Shale 1 00 

"CoalM" 1 06 

Fireclay 3 00 

Black shale 7 00 

Soapstone 3 00 

"Coal L" :... 7 00 

62 06 


Feet. Inches. 

YellowClay 4 00 

Hardpan 24 00 

Sandstone 12 00 

Soapstone 10 00 

Limestone 2 00 

Soapstone 12 00 

Limestone 5 00 

Soapstone 5 00 

Black slate 3 00 

Coal 7 00 

84 00 

The record of the second bore is not considered reliable, as it is 
not confirmed by corresponding shafts or sections, especially in 
reference to finding limestone. A thin limestone, however, is some- 
times found over Coal N. 

One of the old mines in the county is the Titcomb mine near 
Grant's station. Coal M here is on a level with the railroad and 
sixty feet above low water at Terre Haute. 

The most southerly point where Coal M is worked is on Section 
80, Township 12, Range 9, on the west side of the river. The shaft 
is thirty feet deep, and the coal four, six and five feet thick. It is 
on a level with the bed of the creek, and some trouble was ex- 
perienced "from water. 


Feet. Inches. 

Drift, clay and soil 20 00 

Schistose sandstone 10 00 

Limestone, containing Productus punctatus 1 dO 

Silic'ious shale with ironstone 30 00 

Gray shale 12 00 

Black shale 1 06 

"CoalL" 4 06 

Fireclay 10 00 

89 00 


At Mackelroys, three-quarters of a mile north of Barricks, this 
seam is reached in twenty-seven feet, and three-quarters of a mile 
farther north at McQuilkins, on Section 7, Township 12, Range 9, 
it is eighty feet to the seam. The coal in this shaft is above the 
level of the river. It is overlaid by a gray argillaceous shale that 
contains numerous thin bands of ironstone. These were picked up 
in great quantities in the beds of the streams and sold to the Vigo 
Iron Company and smelted into iron. 

Some years ago a shaft was sunk on the Yan road west of the 
river, three miles, on Section 24, Township 12, Range 12, by Big- 
low & Co. It commenced on the side of the hill eight feet above 
the track of the railroad. 


Feet. Inches. 

Covered to top hill 50 00 

Sandstone 10 00 

Gray shale with ironstone and fossil shell 46 00 

Black shale 2 00 

Coal 6 00 

The horizon of this coal is eleven feet above the level of the 

A shaft was sunk at St. Mary's depot. It was 110 feet deep. 
It took fire in 1869, and was completely destroyed. The hill at St. 
Mary's is ninety feet above the bridge at Terre Haute. 

At Sandford, just on the border of Illinois, a boring showed the 
following : 

Feet. Inches. 

Surface 15 00 

Sand 6 00 

Sand and clay 4 00 

Hardpan 66 00 

Brown clay 10 03 

Blue clay 8 04 

Sand 04 

Blue clay 37 06 

Black shale 1 03 

Fire clay 4 05 

Limestone 6 05 

Ked clay 2 00 

Limestone 3 00 

Soapstone 2 08 

Limestone 09 

Red slate 7 06 

Hardpan 2 09 

Limestone 3 00 

Sand and clay 4 00 

Limestone 1 00 

Redslate 1 06 

Sand and blue clay 5 03 

Sandstone 3 10 

Black slate 8 03 

Black hardstone 09 

Black slate 4 02 


Feet. Inches. 

Bastard limestone 08 

Slate 7 05 

Soapstone 5 03 

Rotten coal 4 07 

Sandstone 06 

Fireclay 7 02 

Sandstone 4 00 

240 03 

Coal L is seen in so many localities west of the river that it 
may be found anywhere north of Sugar creek. It is readily recog- 
nized by the gray argillaceous shale Avith iron stone bands which 
overlie it. The upper part of the seam is jet black, glossy, contains 
numerous vertical joints filled with calcite, and in every respect 
resembles the coal at Seelyville. Bands of pyrites are also dis- 
seminated through the coal and require attention to keep it out. 

In the south part of Vigo county, along the E. & T. H, Kail- 
road, Coal L is reached by bores and shafts. At Young's station, 
eight miles from Terre "Haute, the elevation above the Wabash is 
159 feet, and Coal L is reached at 100 feet. At Hartford, four 
miles beyond Young's, the elevation is four feet less and the coal is 
ninety feet. At Farmersburg, just south of the Vigo county line, 
the elevation is 135 feet, and the coal 130 feet. 

Speaking of the shaft at Hartford, where Coal L is reached at 
ninety feet. State Geologist Cox makes these remarks: 

" The roof shales contain an abundance of well preserved fol- 
licles and trunks of sigillaria, lepidodendron and calamites. It is 
a grand sight to go down into this well arranged mine and see the 
ceiling in the entries, from which the coal has been removed, 
covered with its diversified fossil flora. Immense trunks of sigillaria 
extend across this roof and are flanked by branching ferns that 
cover all the intervening spaces between the trunks of sigillaria and 
calamites with a rich foliage of glossy black leaves on a matrix of 
bluish gray argillaceous shale. Indeed, the fossil flora of this mine 
excels in variety and perfect preservation of the plants any place 
that I have ever visited. A trunk of sigillaria was measured and 
found to be eight and a half feet in diameter." 

Quaternary. — This epoch includes the beds of alluvial, loess, 
marl, clay, gravel and bowlders, etc., which lie immediately over the 
paleozoic rocks of the State. In this county the boring in the deep 
or artesian wells points them out as being 150 feet thick. The 
bowlders which lie near the bottom of the glacial drift are mostly 
crystalline rocks, torn loose from the parent bed that are in situ 
far to the north of the State, and transported thither by the power- 
ful glaciers which, covered the country in all the arctic and tem- 
perate regions following the close of the coal era. The gravel is a 
mixture of crystalline and sedimentary rocks. 


At the hills east of Terre Haute, on land adjoining the farms 
of Joseph Gilbert and A. B. Pegg, where a branch of Lost creek 
cuts its way through the ridge, there is a fine exposure of glacial 
drift. The face of the exposure is almost vertical, and the deposit 
is sixty feet from the bed of the branch to the top of the bluff. 
Springs break out from the horizon of the bowlder clay in almost 
all localities where it is exposed. Near Mr. Pegg's, on Church run, 
a bore was once commenced, but was carried only twenty feet when 
flowing artesian water was reached. It has a slight chalybeate 
taste, but otherwise appears to be free from mineral matter. 

Loess forms a capping to the drift on the high ridges, and is 
from twenty to twenty-five feet thick. 

Building Sione. — The sandstone above and below Coal L is 
sometimes found of good thickness and sufficiently firm and durable 
to be used for making foundations to small buildings. Good dura- 
ble building rock is found in the bluffs of Coal creek, Fayette 
township; it underlies Coal L. It is bluish-gray, fine grained 
sandstone, and was at one time quarried by Mr. McQuilkin. The 
layers are thin, seldom reaching a foot in thickness. The stone has 
a fine ring under the hammer, and would look well in a building. 

An impure limestone is found above Coal N and below L. It 
has no commercial value. 

Brick and Fire Clay. — The clay found under the coal seams in 
the county is suitable for making coarse jugs, milk crocks, roof tile 
and drain tile. 

Clay, suitable for brick, may be had almost everywhere, but is 
especially good on the ridges or uplands. 

Petroleum. — Three wells were bored for oil in the early seventies. 
Oil was found in the upper Niagara beds. The second well furnished 
from two to four barrels of moderately heavy oil in twenty-four 
hours. It did not flow from the top, and the low prices caused the 
well to be closed. The third well was on the bank of the river in 
the city limits, but little oil was found, but it" discharged a vast 
column of sulphuretted hydrogen water, similar in quality to that 
which flowed from the first well in the yard of the Terre Haute 
House. The temperature of the well of Mr. Miller, on the river, was 
81° Fahrenheit. It is a saline sulphur water, contains a large amount 
of common salt, some glauber and some epsom salts, lime, magnesia 
and iron. There is a copious escape of carburetted hydrogen, car- 
bonic acid and sulphuretted hydrogen. It possesses fine medicinal 
properties, and is particularly beneficial in diseases of the skin and 
some forms of rheumatism. 

Iron Ore. — The bluish-gray shales over Coal L, on the west side 
of Wabash river, have disseminated through them irregular layers of 
clay iron-stone. Where the stratas have been laid bare by the 


washing away of the soil on the sides of the hills, the iron-stone 
drops to the bottom of the ravines, where it is found in quantities. 
Iron-stone is very abundant. The old Indian furnace in Vermil- 
lion county, when in blast, obtained its supply of iron from these 

Timber. — Vigo county contains the usual varieties of tree growth 
found in this latitude. 

From Prof. E. T. Cox's geological reports we learn that the 
coal fields of the State cover an area of 7,000 square miles, with a 
total depth of twelve seams, ranging from nought to 300, and aver- 
aging eighty feet below the surface. Five of these seams, wherever 
met, are workable, varying from two and a half to eleven feet 
thick. Block or splint coal prevails in an area of 600 square miles. 
This coal is used in the blast just as it comes from the mine, no 
coking required. It is rich of carbon, free of sulphur and phos- 
phorous, and suited to making Bessemer steel and the highest 
metallurgic processes. It burns without coking, in a ruddy flame, 
much after the manner of hickory wood, to a minimum of white 
ash. The economical geology is more fully treated in the part of 
this work treating of the resources of Vigo county. 


The Mound Buildehs— The Toltecs— The Flora and Fauna— The 
IJuFFALO— The Phairies— Indians. 

IN the Old World modern man is busy uncovering lost cities. 
Dim tradition of some of these connect them with what may 
be called the mo'-e modern peoples, who lived their day upon the 
earth, grew and flourished and then passed away, leaving only these 
indistinct marks behind them, concerning which we may only con- 
jecture. We now, by these discoveries, begin to realize that with 
the lost nations are to be classed the lost arts. Whether these un- 
known people reached a civilization that petrified and thus slowly 
became extinct, or whether some cataclysm of nature struck them 
in the zenith of their glory and progress we can not know. There 
are some evidences that such are the laws of nature that when any 
portion of the earth's surface reaches a certain point in animal life, 


that liature relieves itself by destroying all life, and then com- 
mences at the foundations to again build up anew, simply follow- 
ing the inevitable law of change, and evolving that particular vege- 
table and animal life that the changed environments demand. 

In the marches of the army, 1861-65, through Tennessee, there 
were some interesting evidences of the natural order of the changes 
in vegetable life. Here were forests that may be considered among 
the oldest on the continent. Atone point a cyclone had cut a swath 
about 300 yards wide and had mowed down the old and the young 
nearly as clean as a reaper cuts the wheat. Some of these wind 
storms had been so long ago that the track of the storm could only 
be followed by the distinct and different tree growth that had taken 
the place of the primeval forests, and this was only visible to the 
close observer. 

At other points the early settlers had denuded large sections 
of the forests, converting them into charcoal for their primitive iron 
mills. Here none of the old growths of the forest sprouted up, 
and the young took the places of the old, but in every instance 
noticed, where had been oaks, elms, walnut and the usual hardwood 
growths as well as vines, were found pines and different growths 
of the evergreens as though the ground had been carefully pre- 
pared and these seeds had been sown broadcast. 

The processes of nature are slow, but is it not possible that it 
is ever toward change — the beds of the seas to become mountains 
and the tall mountain peaks to again become the ocean beds. 

The archeologists say that there were races of men on this con- 
tinent before the Indians. This is their general conclusion, yet 
there are some who insist that the mounds and the discovered forts, 
battle-grounds and cities, were all the work of the ancient Indians, 
and when we found them in the thirteenth century they were in the 
slow processes of decay, and had the white man never come, the 
Indians would in time have been extinguished. We found in every 
tribe traditions, but these were the idlest whims and silly figments 
of the brain as a rule. Their mental horizon was so limited that 
their imagination could not conceive of any other existence than on 
this earth, and their future or heaven was the "happy hunting 
ground " just over the next hill or mountain. 

Without entering upon this discussion, it is enough to say that 
the best authorities tell us that there was a people once here, dis- 
tinct from the Indians, and they called them the " Mound Builders," 
Exactly what they erected them for is unknown, or at least conject- 

The chain of mounds, commencing in Canada, run in a south- 
westerly direction into South America. There are evidences, espe- 
cially in the larger ones, of the same methods of construction, and 


whether for worship, war or the glory of their chief rulers, the same 
general idea may be followed out in them all. 

In nearly all are found human remains, and at one time the con- 
clusion was quite general that they were built for burial purposes. 
But the fact that the modern Indians found them well adapted for 
this purpose, they no doubt appropriated them with the same indiffer- 
ence as to the original design that the pioneer farmers plowed over 
many a one and planted his crops thereon. A lone grave may now 
be seen on one of the noted mounds west of this place in Illinois, 
surrounded with a neat white painted picket fence, where the family 
buried their boy who was killed by a runaway horse a few years 
ago. And had not this mound become private property in actual 
possession, there is but little doubt that the early pioneers would 
have first used it as a burial place for their dead, as the surround- 
ing country at that day was flat and marshy. 

Again, there is no sufficient evidence that all the ancient forts, 
mounds and parallels were constructed by the same people or in the 
same age. In lower Wisconsin and upper Indiana and Illinois are 
mounds — generally small however — that were, no doubt, made as de- 
fenses in war by the Indians found here when America was discovered 
— that is, their ancestors. 

The first of these discovered in Vigo county were near Fort 
Harrison, and are mentioned in Pidgeon's history of the fort. They 
were soon occupied by the farmers, and being small were plowed 
down until now the place they occupied can only be pointed oat as 
gentle swells on the surface of the land. People pass and repass 
over them, wholly unconscious of their ever existing as artificial 
mounds. These were in the prairie just north of Terre Haute. In 
Fayette township and along the east line of the county are mounds, 
and many interesting remains have been found. 

The accounts of the Toltecs as found by the Spaniards in Mexico, 
their customs and manner of the mound building have led some of 
our archeologists to conclude that originally that was the dominat- 
ing people of the Western Hemisphere, and that from the tropics 
they made excursions, and finally held possession of the country 
northeast to the Atlantic. A group of noted mounds in Arkansas, 
a short distance below Little Rock, on what was once the bank of 
the Arkansas river, but is now several miles from that stream on 
Horse Shoe lake, is called the Toltec mounds, and the railroad sta- 
tion near it is Toltec. There are two very large mounds as the cen- 
tral figure and clusters of smaller ones about their bases, with dis- 
tinct canal or water-way marks enclosing in a circle of seven miles 
the mounds. All are situated and constructed with due reference 
to the points of the compass and geometric lines. 

The only evidences to my mind furnished us by these great 


works are that they were made by a people of a low grade of civil- 
ization, and that here was once a numerous population mostly sunken 
in gross ignorance and slavery. These works, representing so 
much labor to construct, are the evidences that it was all unpaid 
labor. The same lesson can be read in the pyramids and the sphynx 
and the more modern Alhambra and the Kremlin, intended to per- 
petuate the immortality and glory of some ruler who was simply a 
vile usurper and who sacrificed the liberty and lives of the people in 
order to perpetuate his miserable memory on earth. But time has 
been more kind to their fame than were the tyrants to themselves. 
Their huge monuments still standing, it has blotted their names 
completely fiom the human mind, and to us they are as insignificant 
as that of the poorest slave that toiled upon these mounds. That is 
about all the moral or lesson there is to the most of these great useless 
works or mausoleums found in the world and so much written and 
spoken of in modern history. The most of them are the evidences of 
slave-labor — nothing more — the people sodden in the ignorant be- 
lief that their ruler is such by the divine order and by the same 
token they are properly slaves. Educated to this hard fate from 
the cradle, they toil and perish, and educate their descendants as a 
high religious duty to follow in their footsteps. 

Some able archaeologists believe there are indications about the 
largest of these mounds and earthworks that point at least to three 
different races of men who have had to do with them. These are 
in the human remains that have been buried in them. Those of 
this faith do not believe the Indians or any of that nomadic race had 
aught to do with their building. The engineering, as well as the 
tools that must have been used, indicates a degree of civilization 
never reached by any known tribe. The evidences of patient and 
persistent labor and the skill in directing it tend to establish the 
theory that they were made by a sendentary people, with consider- 
able knowledge of agriculture. They believe that at least two of 
these races of men are pre-historic, that they have passed away, 
total wrecks on the stream of time, without word or script to their 
successors except the mute story of crania, implements and mounds. 
Who were they? What were they? And when did they live? 
Are questions we may ask in vain. 

Mammoth and Mastodon. — In nearly all parts of Indiana have 
been found the remains of the mammoth, the greatest abundance in 
the central and southern portion. So long has it been since these 
tropical monsters lived and flourished here that only the most com- 
pact of their bones, such as teeth, jaws and thigh bones are the 
ones time has not destroyed, although these are all found in marshy 
and miry places, some of them in peaty ground, and it is wholly 
owing to this fact that we have any traces at all of these giant land 


animals. They too, like the most ancient of the Mound Builders, all 
came after the glacial period. In the stomach of one found 
recently in Illinois were the evidences that it was a cotemporary of 
the present flora of this part of the country. The careful exami- 
nation of the contents of what must have been in the animal's stom- 
ach when it died, demonstrated this fact. This animal must have 
lived long after the others of which we find some of the tusks and 
teeth much decomposed, as there was found in place several of the 
larger bones of the body. Some thirty different animal remains of 
these monsters have been found in the State. In the close dark 
clays where these remains were preserved through the long lapse of 
time are the evidences that the preserving deposit was made in the 
Lucustral epoch, which followed the glacial period. At that time the 
fresh waters covered the greater portions of the continent, and the 
great sluggish rivers were the channels of the rainfall — far greater 
then than now — in its course to the ocean — something after the 
manner of the Amazon as now to be seen in South America. In 
these great streams were vast eddies and whirlpools, and these de- 
posited the peculiar clays in which were preserved the remains not 
only of the mamn>oth, but of the megalonix, bison and the caste- 

Some of the best preserved teeth of the mammoth were found in 
Vigo county, the smaller teeth weighing five and six pounds. 
The position of the remains when found, as well as the boggy soil, 
plainly indicated that these monsters in their search for water had 
sunk in the mire and perished. 

Animals of such immense proportions — giants indeed — are of 
course always comparatively few in number. And then too how 
general conditions here must have changed from then to now. The 
great rainfalls and the deep tangled jungles that were necessary to 
furnish such animals the quantities of food daily necessary for 
them. If there were no other changes than in the vegetable 
growths we can well understand with the vegetable world we now 
have these monsters would soon have perished of hunger. They 
browsed mostly upon the trees and shrubbery, and with the wet 
and shaky nature of the soil at that time it must have been true 
that the earth trembled as they walked upon it. 

The remains that we find of these animals are enough for the 
skilled anatomist to tell us all about their size and their food and 
habits; even to draw satisfactory pictures of them. 

Glaciers. — These slowly flowing rivers or seas of ice were once 
constant visitors to even Vigo county. Our idea of ice generally is 
that it is something hard and brittle, with no more flow in its nat- 
ure than there is in a standing tree, house or rock, and yet it is a 
fact that the glaciers are flowing rivers or oceans of solid ice. The 


glacial rocks, tliat is rocks worn and ground into smooth rounded 
form, are found plentifully in this part of the country. In Mr. 
Scovill's office I was shown a glacial rock, and inquiring as to the 
peculiar ridge or undulating form of wear its surface presented, I 
learned that it was a wall rock. On the prairies are found fre- 
quently large and small specimens of a rounded and worn hard 
rock, which is the common bowlder. These were seized by the mov- 
ing ice in the northern lake regions and carried to where the south- 
ern sun unlocked them and they were left where found. Some of 
these rocks have been beneath the vast body of moving ice and 
pushed along over the country until one-third of the stone has been 
worn away and presenting a smooth flat surface. 

In the northern temperate zone nearly all over the earth is 
found these glacial rocks. One was found just west of this in Illinois 
twenty-two and a half feet below the earth's surface. It is proba- 
ble that where it lay was the ground's surface when it was dropped 
there by the ice. 

There are moving glaciers now in Switzerland, and these have 
been studied with much interest by Prof. Tyndall. He measured 
the annual flow of one of these and found it moved at the rate of 
over sixty feet in a year. It is estimated that in some cases the ice 
was as much as a mile in thickness, and the tremendous power nec- 
essary to move such an immense and resisting body is wholly incal- 
culable. It must have been something like nature's resistless power 
of expansion and contraction. 

These crystal ships were the first that ever came to this part of 
the world. No commander walked their glittering decks. How 
their sides gleamed and sparkled in the winter sun, as beautiful as 
they could be remorseless as they pushed and ground and crushed 
all in their way. They literally reformed the face of the earth in 
their progress, making river beds where once had been the mount- 
ain rocks, and changing the course of rivers. Just across the river 
west from Terre Haute is the noted gravel bank of the Van road. 
This has furnished the road ballast nearly from end to end, and the 
supply is far from being yet exhausted. This was brought from 
the far north, and at this point the ice melting, the gravel was 
dropped, and over the great bed is the slowly accumulating soil. 
This was a part of the cargo of the crystal ship — appropriately 
enough it may be considered the ship's ballast. 

These ice visitations were no doubt a necessary part of the slow 
preparation of the earth for the coming of man. But as there are 
no evidences that they in any of their trips passed south of the Ohio 
river, the necessary part they performed in the preparatory work is 
not so manifest. They moved from north to south, and before their 
coming it is probable that the great rivers mostly flowed east or 


west. At least the beds of dead rivers so far found are crossed by 
the present streams at ri^ht angles, showing how complete at some 
time the topography of the country has been changed. 

One of the conclusions that follows an investigation of the gla- 
ciers, is, that it not only takes a long time to make and finish off a 
world, but there is a great deal of work in the operation from first 
to last. If we had to hire men to do it, like we make railroads 
and other ttings that we consider great works, the task, even when 
the finishing touches were only left to do, would be quite appalling 
to man's feeble efforts and abilities. For instance, when a man has 
a piece of mechanism either in wood or metal, -at that stage that 
the real work is all done, then he proceeds to polish, smooth and 
finish it. These last deft touches, while they add nothing perhaps 
really to the value of the thing itself, yet they give its chief beauty 
to it. Let us suppose the glaciers were the sand paper and pol- 
isher of a completed world in the rough. At this stage our little 
whirling globe looked at from our nearest neighbor planet, no doubt 
would have appeared very nice and smooth, and one of us, had we 
been commissioned to accept or reject the work, and make a final 
settlement with the contractor, would have found nothing omitted, 
nothing further required to fit it for man's appearance. But fort- 
unately there was a Great Architect who knew far better than could 
we, even with all our books and education. It was really a very 
dreary world in fact. For instance, there was, it is said, a geolog- 
ical age, in which it rained all the time. The waters came in cease- 
less torrents, and striking the hot earth, immediately ascended as 
vapor, and cooling formed again into rain, until it was one unceasing 
round of vapors going up and rain descending. Men in such a 
shower would in a few generations at least become web-footed. 
These rains beat upon the rocks — the first land that was uplifted 
above the waters, and commenced the work of wearing them down, 
pulverizing their particles and carrying them off into the waters. 
This was the way the beginning of the soils now resting upon the 
e&rth's rocks had their commencement. 

But long after the rains had ceased their constant down -pour, 
the waters had begun to recede from the land, when the continents 
had risen dripping from the waters somewhat in the form that we 
know them on our maps, the land was nearly covered with great slug- 
gish streams, so immense that our greatest rivers now would be to 
them as mere rivulets, and immense fresh water lakes and dreary 
miles of water-covered lagoons were on every hand. It was to change, 
or perhaps better it did change, these conditions and reform the 
rivers' channels, narrowing and deepening their beds, and accelerat- 
ing their flow, that was chiefly, no doubt, effected by the operations 
of the glaciers. 


It seems that there was one age of the world that has not been 
properly separated as a distinct period by the learned investigators. 
There was a time when the waters and the land seemed to vie with 
each other in the production of animals of immense size — the levi- 
athans of the deep and the mammoths of the land. As life com- 
menced in its lowest and most ephemeral form, infinitessimal in 
size but infinite in numbers, it continued in its progress and slowly 
passed from the water to dry land. This was the order of develop- 
ment. The higher order took to the open air for existence, while 
the waters continued to experiment and evolve new forms, some to 
gradually leave the water, and others to reach certain degrees of 
advance but remain in the water. The earliest forms of 'life seem 
to have made up for their insignificance in their rapidly mul- 
tiplying numbers. The waters being by so far the greater portion 
of the earth's surface, it is but natural to find in them animals of 
greater size than were ever produced on the land. And yet, as we 
have seen from the remains found in Vigo county, these land ani- 
mals were of immense size. The one that had tusks nine feet long, 
for instance, and his smallest teeth weighed five pounds, would, no 
doubt, if stood up by the side of Barnum's Jumbo, have made that 
prize monster sink into the comparative insignificance of a yearling 
calf. And yet, this monster in turn, by some of the sea monsters, 
would have shrunken about equally to Jumbo in his contest in size. 

When the limit in size had been reached, it seems that then nat- 
ure had satisfied itself in this respect and commenced the work of a 
better and finer animal organization. This improvement must have 
been in time in the nervous systems given, as the lower we go in 
animal life the less and less do we find these developed. The nerves 
were gathered into ganglions and finally they were perfected into 
the brain, and in time came thought from this brain organization, 
until we find the perfected animal structure in man — the fruitage 
of all these ages and ages of the earth's preparation for his recep- 

The Buffalo. — When our continent was discovered, these were 
the most important animals found. They seem to have come as a 
necessary part of the prairies and savannas of the west. They 
have faded away, much like their congener, the wild Indians, before 
the ever advancing step of the white man — that busy destroyer as 
well as builder, with his tireless energies and sleepless vigilance. 

One characteristic of the buffalo was its nature to gather in such 
vast herds in their yearly migrations from the south to the north- 
west and back again. Moving over hill and plain in countless num- 
bers, what a magnificent spectacle they often presented. With 
heads erect, their strongest bulls bravely leading, knowing their 
course in their long travels, and nothing could swerve them from 


their line of march. These leaders never looked back, but knew 
their trusting legions were closely following, and by their very 
numbers were as resistless as the angry sea. For some years after 
the building of the Union Pacific Railroad it was no unusual oc- 
currence for a train to come in contact with one of these migrating 
herds. As they moved along in solid column, looking neither to 
the right nor the left, simply following their leaders, the train of 
cars simply had to stop and give them the right of way, and could 
again go forward only when the last one had passed the track. 

The buffalo was the Indian's pilot to the richest lands and green- 
est pastures, and they furnished him the food for his subsistence, while 
their hides were his comfortable bedding and clothing. The buffalo, 
too, was the white man's unerring engineer,. pointing to where he was 
to found his greatest cities and the natural seats of empire. In 
crossing the mountains it surveyed the natural routes for the conti- 
nental railroads, and in crossing the streams, such were its habits, 
that it would select always the best place to cross, and reaching this 
point in their voyaging, if the stream were a large one or swollen, they 
would stop on its bank and apparently go into camp. They would 
bathe in the river, and loved to wallow in the mud, much after the 
fashion of our domestic hogs. A mud bath was a great pleasure to 
a buffalo, and one of these huge animals would work out his mud- 
hole and roll in it, and finally emerge covered entirely with several 
inches of the mud plastered over his whole body, except his eyes. 
This was probably, besides the pleasure to the animal, one way of 
destroying the parasites on their bodies. Some of the prairies in 
Texas are known as the hog-wallow prairies, because in traveling over 
them you are all the time passing from one ancient wallow to an- 
other. They are so numerous they touch each other for many miles 
uninterruptedly. Some observers think these hog-wallows were, 
when the prairies were mostly covered with water, buffalo-wallows. 
On the great streams and lakes it was the habit of buffaloes to 
gather in vast herds some time before starting on their migration. 
As remarked, when they reached a river in their course they halted, 
apparently dreading to make the plunge to cross. In time hunger 
would compel them to bestir themselves, when a sudden commotion 
would call them together, and they would commence to move in a 
circle, the inner ones, every time they came opposite the water, 
would crowd the outer ones nearer and nearer, until finally, some 
bolder one, already pushed into the water, would strike out for the 
opposite shore, when all would unhesitatingly follow. These tryst- 
ing places, so to speak, as well as the halting places on the banks 
of the rivers, have in nearly every instance become the eligible 
points for men to gather and build great cities. The Indian, in 
order to gain food, learned to follow the buffalo, and his great pow- 


WOWS were in time wheie that animal had bivouacked, and civilized 
man, in his movements over the continent, learned that his true 
civil engineer had been the buffalo and the Indian, and seeing these 
places, he said, " Here I will stick my Jacob's staff and dwell for- 

The buffalo, so important to human life at one time on the con- 
tinent, has now practically faded away. The great plains no longer 
are his, his bleaching bones are being gathered and railroaded to 
the fertilizing factories. Where the buffalo grazed the tall weedy 
grasses of the glades gave way to the more nutritious buffalo grass, 
a far superior growth to the original grasses that he found on his 
first visits. These native animals then had their mission in pre- 
paring our continent for what it now contains. He has filled that 
mission, and with little or no protest has gone from the earth. Ex- 
cept in the menageries or zoological gardens, or in the pastures of 
some of the western ranches, where may be seen some rather 
scrawny, unkempt and drooping specimens of his kind, there is 
but little else to remind us of this once important and numerous 
species of American animals. Even the buffalo robes once so im- 
portant a part of a sleigh ride with Katie and Johnnie, will soon 
be but a memory, remembered and told over by the fire-side by 
grandmother Katie in her fondest recollections of the days when 
Johnnie would a-courting-go. Thus in turn everything has its 
place and time and mission, and then gives way to the coming changes 
for which it has helped to prepare the way. 

The Prairies. — As these were seen by the earliest pioneers to 
this part of the world, they, too, like the glaciers, buffalo and Indian 
are rapidly disappearing from the face of the earth. The prairies 
when they were known only to the buffalo and Indian, in the prairie 
State of Illinois, and also in Indiana have undergone such changes 
as would make them an unknown land could one of these ancient 
denizens revisit the glimpses of the moon. They were vast solitudes 
of beauty and grandeur. In great level stretches, or anon gently 
rolling, like the lazy ocean's swells, clothed in their tall waving 
grasses over which ran the wind waves in sportive moods, the gen- 
tle rustling of the dry grass as the happy purring of the kitten ca- 
ressed, with banks of wild flowers rising in ascending parterres, 
and in the distance a lone tree, as noted in the waste and solitude 
as the Rock of Gibraltar is to the mariner — the tree a most noted 
land-mark and guide, by which future comers could direct their 
course with the same certainty that they were going to their friends 
in the new country as that that guides the sailor in his course 
when he looks toward that star that never sets. These prairies are 
not, as is often done, to be confounded with the glades and savan- 
nas of the south and of South America. The true prairie extends 


from the Gulf to the northern limit of the United States, pursuing 
a northerly course along the Mississippi valley. You may ride for 
days and weeks over where was once the great prairies of Illinois 
and Indiana without seeing even a spear of the prairie grass that 
was once their most distinctive mark. Standing upon the highest 
elevation you can find, and in every direction you may see grasses, 
shade trees, orchards, fences and houses, villages and towns, mills 
with their tall chimneys, factories and great railroad trains scream- 
ing in their flight, with the long trail of smoke and steam stream- 
ing out behind. Around you is the busy teeming world, but to your 
shortened view, where was once the unobstructed expanse is now to 
be seen nothing of the original prairie land. ■ There was nothing in 
common in the verdant prairies and the hot and dreary sand 
deserts of the Old World, where was the quiet of death, save when 
the sand-storm came with its destroying sweep. In the spring of 
the year the entrancing vision broke upon the adventurous pioneer. 
The soft velvet sheen stretching away beyond the vision where it 
meets the bending horizon; a herd of buffalo in the distance to the 
left, browsing in picturesque groups ; over there is an immense herd 
of the fleet and graceful deer, the heads of their outlookers thrown 
high in the air on seeing the approaching white man, and when he 
comes too close, and all have satisfied their curiosity, they turn and 
show their short white tails and gallop away, even more graceful 
and beautiful now than ever. Their soft and liquid eyes have for 
the first time looked upon the face of their exterminator — the white 
man. The air is vocal with the loud trumpeting of the flocks of 
cranes, either sailing in such close military order or holding their 
annual spring dance near the borders of the lake, where they court 
and mate in such fantastic and even comic manner. The wild 
geese, the swans, and. the innumerable ducks, all clamoring their 
joy over their return from their far distant southern winter quarters 
to these beautiful trysting places, or mayhap, when his eyes first 
beheld the true prairie, it was at the hour of one of those witching 
sunsets so often seen in this western country where all nature 
seems to be so enlarged and expanded. Of such a sunset the eyes 
that have ever looked can never forget. The burnished sky and 
the mottled, fleecy clouds seem to have caught fire with the prairie 
landscape beauties, and the vast painted curtain of heaven is being 
slowly unrolled, and at the end of the vision the beauties of heaven 
and the prairies are interwoven and mingled until the beholder is 
lost in a dream that he would fain have linger on forever. 

No wizard of the pencil has ever painted the primitive prairie. 
He never saw them in their pristine grandeur, and surely never 
saw added thereto a grand sunset. If he did he turned away awe- 
struck and heartbroken, because here was nature that defied him, 
mocked him in even his highest efforts. 


Utilitarian man came, and with ruthless hand destroyed these 
incomparable beauties of nature. He has not, of course, interfered 
with the sunsets, but such was the primitive prairie that its beauties 
stretched out in such expanse that they met in the vision the bend- 
ing heavens, and herein was destroyed a large part of the finest 
effects of the old-time sunsets of the west. 

Fires. — In respect to the old-time prairie fires, there is the same 
complete change that there has been in the general face of these 
richly carpeted landscapes, of which modern people will, or perhaps 
have, lost all accurate knowledge. 

Judge Beckwith, in his history of the Wabash valley, under- 
takes to say that the most of the accounts of the terrors of these 
fires is fiction, or rather exaggerations; that the fires, as a rule, 
were tame affairs, and if a man had plowed around his field, or 
there was a beaten, bare road about it, the fire was about as harm- 
less as a political torchlight procession. A good deal of this is 
true after the native grasses had gone and the short grasses had 
taken their place, and at the same time there were no strong winds 
prevailing to send the great sheets of ragged flame scurrying over 
the tops of the grass, and every moment were adding force to the 
crackling, roaring furies. 

I was an eye-witness to the second great Chicago fire — 1874. 
I have also seen prairie fires in Illinois and in Kansas. Here was the 
burning of a great city on one hand, all its horrors intensified by 
the presence of thousands of people fleeing there in motley crowds, 
bearing on their backs such of their effects as they could snatch up 
as they ran, but far more horrible still were others caught in the 
tops of tall buildings and the eager flames rushing upon them, more 
pittiless even than dancing devils — the cries of distress shrieked 
out above the din and roar — the weeping mothers parted in the rush 
from their children, angry men struggling and trampling upon the 
weaker, the wild and the drunken, the slums and the sewers, the 
thugs and the thieves, the refined and delicate, all emptied into the 
streets together to fight for life or to add to the horrors of 
the moment. A burning city is indeed a grewsorae sight. I was 
riding with a friend in a buggy near the town of Wellington, Kas., 
on a beautiful sunny day in the fall of 1879. The usual southwest 
Kansas zephyrs were racing over that prairie State at something like 
about the pace of fifty or more miles an hour. In that region of 
the country, for days and weeks and months, with a clear, brassy 
sky, the winds do "blow and crack their cheeks." At the time 
spoken of above it was doing probably a little better than usual, and 
the sear and yellow grasses were ready for the fiery sacrifice. We 
noticed two men plowing and burning cornstalks or rubbish in a 
small field we were passing, when my friend observed that it was 


dangerously windy to be using fire in the open air. But between 
the fire and the grass was plowed ground of nearly a hundred yards 
in width, and then came the road, which at that point was very 
wide, at least 200 feet. We had hardly passed when a blazing 
shuck had burned loose from the stock, and caught up by the wind 
was carried to the grass, which caught instantly. The man saw 
it, and unhitching one of the plow horses, without even taking time 
to put on a saddle, he mounted and at full speed started for his 
neighbor toward whom he knew the fire was moving. It was a race 
between the man and the horse and the scudding great flame tongue 
that was licking and blackening the face of the earth. When the 
man reached his nearest neighbor, about, a mile distant, the fire 
had just leaped up the sides of his neighbor's grain stacks, and soon 
everything, excepting the cabin containing the family, was a part of 
the"l3lackened ashes in the fire's course. The wide space of bare 
ground around the house enabled the family to save themselves and 
some of their domestic animals. 

But a few miles from where I saw this prairie fire start I was 
shown, just below the northern line of the Indian Territory, where 
a prairie fire had surrounded a large drove of horses, and all per- 
ished in the holocaust. The topography of the country, the varia- 
tions of the winds and the course of the streams, would shape the 
action of the fires often. In cases like that mentioned, the spot 
where the fire starts, a long tongue of flame seems to shoot out like 
a race-horse at the tap of the bell, but this more slowly widens at 
the base, and where it burns against the wind it is very slow in its 
movements, and hence the great conflagration in one place is speed- 
ing away like a fiery rocket; in the other it may lazily smoulder or flare 
up here and there, but everywhere it is gathering energy, circling 
and winding as the winds may compel, and sometimes a wide circle 
is thus formed that all at once will flare up like angry fire demons 
and rush together at a common center with a roar and anger be- 
neath whose hot breath nothing can live a moment. 

Among the early settlers in the prairie country, every family, in 
the dangerous seasons of the year from prairie fires, stood guard 
and watch for this destroying angel. They made roads, and also 
plowed about their farms. These roads and furrows were chiefly 
valuable, when the warning came, as a base from which to fight fire 
with fire. One party, with a wisp of burning grass, would set fire 
to the grass on the side of the furrow toward the coming fire, while 
others, with wisps of hazel-brush, generally, would follow to beat 
out any of the fire that was not burning toward the wind. At those 
points, too, where the fire was not running straight before the wind, 
the people, with boards or brush wisps, could often fight out the 
fire and prevent it from slowly working around to a point of vant- 


age, where it could again start with the wind and go seething and 
roaring away like mad demons. The prairie fire-serpent, as though 
filled with devilish cunning, is full of deceit and deceptions in its 
various movements. 

The "burnt prairie" were spots frequently designated in the old- 
time descriptions of the country. A prairie burned somewhat kte 
in the spring was the chosen pasture-ground of the domestic stock 
and the deer, and where but a few weeks ago was such blackened 
and desolate ruin, the warm spring rains have washed away, and the 
earth's surface is fretted with multitudinous sprouting of the velvet 
sheen that is again to cover and beautify nature. How mother nat- 
ure binds up the ugly wounds of war and covers the fire-ruins, and 
the dews, the sun and the winds kiss again and again the new life 
in the new and beautiful world. 

Waters stood upon the broad prairies — wide expanses, covered 
by the rainfall and a wide, sluggish, shallow stream at the roots of 
the grass, could be only noticed by the traveler by the different 
grass-growths. Ponds of standing water of wide extent, iand on 
the hillsides sipes (pronounced "seeps") were frequent. Some- 
times in the wet spring you could walk on the tough sod, and by 
jumping on it could shake the apparently floating surface for many 
feet around. As civilization mastered 'the wild nature of the coun- 
try, a natural drainage was formed, and the prairies have continually 
become more and more dry and free of standing water. The most 
of the ponds are gone, and places where now old men were wont 
when boys to fish and swim — taking the plow-horses sometimes, and 
muddying the waters and thus catching the fish, are now plowed 
over and crops are grown. In the conditions they were found by 
the first settlers they were supposed and were uninhabitable. Their 
value as feeding grounds for domestic animals was well understood, 
but for men, these old fellows wanted dry land. The change that 
was soon brought by occupation invited the experiment of the bold- 
est to venture out upon them and commence their little improve- 
ments — sometimes in sod houses and often with sod fences. Th^ 
people dreaded the winter winds on these unsheltered prairie seat*, 
and at first they probably supposed that an ordinary house would 
not protect their families. They soon learned better, and the little 
" clearings " that were the marks of the earliest comers were soon 
deserted for the prairie farms. 

The great pests of the prairies were the air-darkening swarms 
of "greenheads" — a terrible blood-sucking parasitic fly, that at 
certain seasons would rise up from the grass and in great numbers 
light upon a horse or cow brute, and in a few hours kill it unless the 
animal could reach the timber, where they would not follow. These 
flies, with their bright green heads, were not much larger than a 


honey bee — a little longer, though not so heavy. They did not fly 
after sundown, and never in the morning until the dew was 
gone. Travelers often would have to camp in the edge of the tim- 
ber and wait for night before they could attempt to cross the wide 
prairie that was before them. 

Origin of the Prairies. — As to the origin or cause of the prai- 
ries there is a divided opinion, one side holding that the fires had 
driven back the timber growth, and as firing the grass was one of 
the favorite modes of hunting by the Indians and the first white 
hunters and trappers, this theory has much of good reason to back 
it. On the other hand, for it seems the better reason, it is held 
that it was the waters and not the fire that made the prai- 
ries. It was natural that these beautiful meadow lands should 
excite much curiosity, and in time speculation as to their producing 
causes. The famous "old ranger," Gov. Reynolds, and Chief Jus- 
tice Caton, both of Illinois, and early settlers and close observers, 
espoused the cause of fire, while on the other side was the more 
scientific and able investigator. Prof. Lesquereux. The latter gave 
much time and travel to his investigation of the subject, and in his 
published works he sums up as follows: " All the prairies of the 
Mississippi valley have been formed by the slow recessions of 
waters of various extent; first transformed into swamps and in the 
process of time drained and dried, and that the high rolling prai- 
ries and those of the bottoms along the rivers as well are all the 
result of the same cause and form one whole, indivisible system." 
The professor maintained that the ulmic acid in the prairie soil 
prevented the timber from ever encroaching on the prairie bound- 
aries, even after the fires had long ceased to play their part; that a 
flowing stream of water is always higher in the center than at the 
edges and this would cause the coarse particles in the water to be 
deposited at the sides and this coarse material favored tree growth ; 
that the immediate banks of a stream are usually higher ground 
than that back a short distance and these two causes readily account 
for tree growth along the banks of the streams. He found prairies 
along the northern Mississippi and confluent streams in every stage 
of formation, and could easily trace out every step of the slow proc- 
ess; that all this part of the world is a recent appearance above 
the waters, and from being all prairie at one time the appearance of 
timber growths always commenced along the higher banks of the 
river amid the coarser deposits and extended from there, first in the 
form of stiff and woody grasses and vines and then the small shrubs 
and the hazel and the sumac; that while it is true the transplanted 
trees will all flourish in the prairies, yet simply to plant the seed 
there without disturbing the soil, they could not grow; that in the 
undisturbed peaty prairie soil the roots of the tree could get no air 


and would smother. I was born on the edge of one of the great Illi- 
nois prairies more than fifty years ago, and I knew of no locality 
where in the natural operation the timber has perceptibly en- 
croached upon this prairie domain. My recollection and observa- 
tion do not tally with those of Gov. Reynolds or Judge Caton en- 
tirely, and yet I can remember where the hazel thickets have spread 
under heavy pasturage by domestic animals. Possibly these in 
time would develop the true timber growths. After following both 
sides and calling up my own recollection, I would incline to the 
judgment that there may be truth on both sides, and that nature so 
bountiful in all she does, may have used both methods in perfecting 
her marvelous works. It is not at all necessary that because one 
theory may be true that the other must perforce be false. Nature 
apparently in most things wastes her forces as well as resources, 
but this is evidently only apparent to our imperfect understanding. 

The Indians.- — Almost identically with the spot occupied by 
Terre Haute was once a Wea Indian village. These were here in 
1811 when Gen. Harrison came with his army of occupation, and 
probably this fact determined the location of Fort Harrison. 

The Indian knew nothing definite of his remote ancestors. He 
had his traditions and wild, crude legends, and some of them he 
perhaps believed himself and others he cherished chiefly as we do 
epic poems. They were the exploits of great hunters and scalpers, 
something, no doubt, of the crude idea of our school boys in their 
Friday afternoon piping declamations about " Alexander's paw! " — 
as they would gather up their pudgy fists and beat the air in the belief 
that that man-slayer went at his bloody work with bare fists. The In- 
dians were merely wild children, their history was unwritten, and was 
but dreams of fighting and killing their fellow-man. Their highest 
pleasures were in the prolonged and most exquisite torture, not 
necessarily of their enemies, but of their captives — simply be- 
cause they had them in their power, and after the victim was tor- 
tured to death, then to eat him was the crowning privilege. Their 
women were mere slaves and drudges, somewhat lower in their es- 
timation than their mangy dogs. These Indians that stand so 
patiently in front of tobacco shops are much cleaner and more in- 
telligent looking than the originals as found running wild all over 
this country when the white man came. 

All over the habitable world are evidences of the coming and 
passing away of nations. Birth, growth and final decay it seems 
is much the history of peoples as it is of the individual. All roads 
once led to Rome. And although this was in comparatively modern 
times, yet now these great works, paved highways and stone 
bridges are but wrecks and broken remains of that once powerful 
nation. The angel of death, it seems, extended his shadowing 


wings and the " mistress of the world " bowed to fate, and the owls 
beat upon the casements of their palaces, and the wild beasts lick 
their cubs where once was only the busy feet of men. In the 
sweep of time the nations come and go as the ripples chase each 
other on the resting waters. Birth and death and a little short in- 
tervening struggle for existence is the be all and the end all, until 
existence itself is but change. 

The numerous as well as powerful tribes of red savages found 
in possession of the continent have practicall}' gone forever. The 
original wild Indian is now a memory. He has not passed out from 
his wild state and been civilized into a changed and higher exist- 
ence, but before the pale faces he has been pushed from the Atlan- 
tic to the Pacific and has sung his death song and laid down to die. 
Some few miserable remnants of once great and dominating tribes 
have mingled their blood with the strange white races, and after being 
driven from place to place are now in the Indian Territory — the 
nation's wards and dependants. Those that clung to their clouts 
and blankets and refused the clothes and fashions of civilization 
were driven to the lava beds of the western mountain fastnesses 
and shot down like dangerous wild beasts or hemmed in and starved 
to death. 

What a numerous race of Indians was here but a century or 
two ago. How little will soon remain to mark their ever having 
existed ! The white man met their cunning warriors in the track- 
less woods and slew them. When the last miserable, dirty beggar 
of them has departed what will there remain, except the words of 
the historian, to perpetuate his memory? Nothing. As a people 
they had petrified in their ignorant savagery. He could neither 
lift himself up, nor could his nature be elevated to that higher 
plane where lives a nobler humanity. He has left behind no 
thought, no invention and no work of any value to the world or 
that deserves preservation. He was nothing, and therefore has left 
nothing. Ignorant, cunning, cruel and excessively filthy, he was 
neither useful nor beautiful. His wild nature could not be re- 
claimed, except by adulteration of his blood with other races. 
Born in the wild wood, rocked on the wave, his one redeeming 
trait was his unconquerable love of liberty. He loved his wild 
liberty far better tlian life. He would not be a slave. Had he 
preferred existence and slavery to death, he might have lived on in 
peace with the white man. Indeed, he might now have had the 
ballot in his hand and enjoyed the fawning of our demagogues, a 
very hero indeed about election times, instead of the wandering 
beggar in rags as we see him. But this was not his nature. He 
would be free as the eagle of the crags, and in his choice between 
slavery and extinction he never halted. He met his fate with an 


unequaled stoicism, ttttd his death song rose in his throat as the 
caroling of the forest birds. Herein was the strong individuality of 
the Indian, the redeeming quality of his nature. 

Joliet, Marietta and Hennepin, the first white men to visit the 
Indians of th0 West, have left much authentic information of the 
conditions in which they found them. The pure and gentle Mar- 
quette was carrying to these wild children of the plains the cross 
of Christ, and receiving the tender in return of the calumet and 
wampum. These men discovered northern Indiana and met the 
Miamis. They discovered the Illinois and the upper Mississippi 
rivers, and traveled south from the lakes via the rivers to Arkansas 
Post, Al*k. They agree that the northern Indians were inferior to 
those found in the south in their knowledge of the simplest of the 
arts. The Natchez were found to possess some little idea of the 
use of iron or copper, while their northern brothers knew nothing 
of it, and used only stone. On the borders of streams or lakes 
they had their scattered villages. Their wigwams being the rudest 
and simplest structures. All seemed to be nomadic in their habits. 
Each tribe having its chief, with no certain authority except to com- 
mand hunting and warring expeditions. The men performed no 
manual labor, this being done by the women or squaws. In the 
timber they built their wigwams of bark chiefly. This was laid on 
poles that were brought to a center, and here a hole was left for the 
smoke to escape. On the prairies these were made of grass mat- 
ting, that is, the covering was of that material, and was made and 
fastened together so neatly that it would readily turn the rains that 
beat upon, them. The latter were so light that in their migrations 
the matting was rolled and carried from place to place. If very 
hungry they ate the game captured raw. The most of their cooking 
was over the fire or in the hot coals ; they would boil water by heat- 
ing stones and dropping into the water in their crude stone vessels. 
Their best cooks would but poorly compare with our French chefs 
in some of our fine hostelries. Their mode, for instance, of cook- 
ing a turkey was to pull a few of the largest feathers and then 
cook it just ^ it was. This they regarded as not only saving labor, 
but saving all that part of the turkey that we throw away — a double 
economy. Their marital relations were loose and illy defined. 
Poligamy was often practiced, but not universally, as the bucks 
bought their wives, paying in a pony or game or pelts, or whatever 
else that was the current of the realm. Wives were bought often 
for stated periods, when they would return and be in the marriage 
market again without bothering the divorce courts. It was only 
such dusky maidens as mated without being paid for that were 
discredited in the first circles of Indian society. The female chil- 
dren, in case of separation by virtue of the terms of the contract, 


went with the mother and the males belonged to the father. With 
these impediments in his way it may be assumed that he would as 
soon as possible get another squaw to support " the old man and the 
boys." Sometimes as many as sixty persons would compose one 
family, and altogether these would live in one wigwam — larger than 
the simple round ones. They slept upon the bare ground or on the 
skins of animals, and all their clothing in the rigors of the winter 
were also of the skins of animals. In the long winters their 
places of abode would be indescribably filthy. The numerous 
family and the dogs were huddled together in the smoke and the 
horrid air of their worse than kennels. While it was cold weather 
they never bathed, and they changed their- clothes only by their 
wearing out and falling off. In the warm weather all took to the 
water daily like ducks, but when they came out would smear them- 
selves with horrid rancid grease, mixed often with certain kind of 
clays. This seemed to be the only part of their toilet that they 
were at all particular to attend to. 

The food of the Indian consisted of all the varieties of game, 
eating nearly everything except the rattlesnake. They called this 
reptile "grandfather," and believed that he had the soul of their 
dead ancestor, and they held it sacred. When the hunters would 
find a snake of this kind they would surround it, carefully keeping 
out of striking distance, and they would light their pipes and blow 
the smoke at it, calling it by endearing names, and pray to it to 
guard their families and help them in their expedition, whether 
war or hunting. In a rude way they cultivated corn, melons and 
squashes. From the. corn they made their "sagamite," parched 
and pounded the corn, mixed it with water, bran and all, and roasted 
the mass in the hot ashes. Sometimes they mixed in the meal 
ground gourds or beans. 

They had three kinds of canoes, and these they made and 
handled dexterously. Having only stone axes they would burn down 
the tree, chopping away the charred part. They would chop it off 
at any required length in the same way, dropping water at the 
points that they did not want to burn. The heavy wood canoes 
were burned out in a similar way, and with slow fires they could 
shape and fashion them exactly as wanted, and smooth and polish 
with stone. A pirogue was made by fastening two or more canoes 
together abreast by poles reaching across on the top. These would 
carry great weight, and were not liable to upset. Their most com- 
mon canoe was made of bark, elm or birch. The elm-bark canoes 
were very frail, and not used for long voyages. To make a canoe 
of the elm they would select the trunk of a tree very smooth, and 
at a time when the sap was up. They would cut around, above and 
below the length wanted, and then remove the whole in one piece, 


shaving off the roughest of the bark, making this side the inside of 
the canoe; fastening the ends of the bark together, the sides of the 
canoe were held apart by bows that would be fastened about two 
feet apart. They would sew up the two ends with strips of other elm 
bark, and in such a way as to cause the two ends to rise, with a swell 
in the middle. Any chinks they sewed together and covered with 
a gum they would chew. It may be that this is where our girls got 
the fashion of gum chewing without inheriting any knowledge of 
making bark canoes. They would add a mast, and on this use 
their blankets or skins for sails. All the passengers in such a craft 
sat upon their heels. There was much art and perfect balancing 
required to ride without turning over. It is supposed that one of 
our ordinary mouse or bug-squealing girls could upset one of these 
vessels in a few seconds — at least by the time it had reached deep 
water. The chief merit of the elm-bark canoe was its lightness. 
A squaw could shoulder one with ease and carry it along or over any 
portage. In ascending streams these people knew the road so well 
that frequently by crossing a great bend, and by going overland a 
mile or two, would save many miles around to the same spot. 

Canoes made of birch bark were stronger and heavier, and 
looked more artistic in finish. The frames of these were of strips 
of cedar wood, which is light and flexible. This frame was made 
complete and was then covered with birch bark, which would be 
sewed together like skins. The seams were covered with chewed 
gum. Cross bars were put in to hold the sides apart, and these 
made seats for the passengers. 

The French fur traders were the only white men who adopted 
the Indian's mode of making canoes, or had the skill to use them 
after the Indian fashion. Some of these canoes of the traders 
w.ould carry as much as 3,000 pounds, and in the hands of an 
expert they would shoot along the water with great swiftness. 

As already said, the Indians were cannibals, though human flesh 
was only eaten at war feasts. They would torture a prisoner to 
death; in this the women and children were peculiarly delighted, 
and the body would then be thrown into "the war kettle" and 
greedily devoured after a partial cooking. An early traveler among 
the savages, Joseph Barrow, says he saw Pottawatomies and Miamis, 
with hands and limbs, both of white men and also of other tribes 
of Indians. The privileges of this feast were confined to the noted 
and foremost warriors. 

They would bury their dead with great care and ceremony. 
Joutel says: "They pay great respect to their dead. Some of the 
tribes would prepare the grave carefully and then for days weep 
and wail about it; others would dance and sing for twenty-four 
hours. These dancers would hang their calabashes or gourds 


about their bodies, filled partially with dry beans and pebbles, and 
these would rattle and assist the mourners greatly in expressing 
their inconsolable grief. The heirs of the deceased were not forced 
by fashion to dissimulate their joy in tlie form of grief, because 
when the old man died they buried his fortune with him, and had 
to throw in something of their own to help him along the journey 
to the happy hunting ground. 




The Silent Men of the Wilderness— Their Work— The Splendid 
Results and the Paucity of Resources at Their Command— The 
Men Who Made Emigration a Science and Built an Empire 
Founded on the Bible— The Saxon and the Gaul— The Fur 
Trade — The Courieurs des Bois — Etc. 

THE ripest scholars are realizing that the "simple annals of the 
poor" is the interesting and most important branch of history, 
and it will come to pass that the history of nations will no longer 
be considered written and completed when there is the long and 
dreary recital of the kings' and princes' lives and the doings of the 
royal nursery and bedchamber, where a great era is marked by a 
princely birth, baptism or death. Or a long account is given of 
wars and battles in which the life and habits of the commander 
and his doiugs are the chief objects to be related in the minds of the 
historian. Once the history of a nation or people was but little 
more than a rescript of the morning court bulletins ; his supreme, 
august majesty's menu, and the commotion among the courtiers and 
vast army of retainers, when he opened for the day his blood-shot 
eyes; who had the honor of handing his supreme highness the 
towels; how he swore and kicked his grand master of the hounds, 
and then how the little ones were up betimes, taking their royal 
porridge from gold spoons, and such other miserable nonsense 
through volume after volume, to be read with consuming delight 
by all the living and passed on to posterity, as "history." Kings 
and their households, wars and the commanders, and the bloody 
battles they fought,^ were for centuries all that was supposed to be 
worth any attention from the historian. Royalty was everything, 


the common people nothing. The people believed implicity, be- 
cause so all were taught, that this was the order of heaven ; that fate 
had so ordained that one man and his household were to have and 
enjoy the world, and that all else were made to slave for and give 
up their lives at the whim or pleasure of this divinely born ruler. 
The people were born to these monstrous beliefs, and the king, gen- 
erally the most ignorant and superstitious of all, believed that he 
was sent of God to do with the lives of the people what he listed. 
To be looked upon by the king was a supreme honor, to be touched 
by his hand was to be cured of even incurable diseases. When he 
rode abroad, couriers, with loud bugles, preceded and warned the 
people to clear the highway, to hide themselves, and to prostrate 
their bodies in the dirt. The king, though often the lowest and 
meanest man in the realm, was immaculate, possessing all wisdom, 
could not sin, and could do no wrong. The average king and queen 
of history, if stripped of the miserable fictions and superstitions con- 
cerning their lives, will be found to be a shabby lot, with hardly a 
redeeming quality or a gleam' of superior intelligence in the whole 
gang. In the nature of things, in the whole of their education, it 
was not possible for them to be either wise or good men and women. 
The beliefs drilled into them, commencing even before they could 
lisp, were inconsistent with good sense, and, therefore, in violation 
of all good morals. These wicked superstitions about royalty grew 
with the ages, like the boys rolling a snowball, until the long suf- 
ferings of mankind became so frightful, and then the miseducated 
turned upon themselves, destroying and rending one another, in the 
belief that it was all the results of their own wickedness and lack of 
faith and fealty to their "divine ruler." If here and there a genius 
was born, who dared to think the least bit aloud in behalf of suffer- 
ing mankind, they would rush upon him like wild beasts and tear 
limb from limb. 

It is but a brief century or two ago when this was the belief of 
the generality of mankind. It was an awful sentiment to prevail 
throughout the half- civilized world, and the marvel will forever re- 
main, how it was possible in such conditions that civilization could 
advance at all. Yet it has advanced regularly. It is still advanc- 
ing, notwithstanding that there is yet a very large contingent of 
men making the same obstruction in its way that was so marked 
two centuries ago. The world slowly emerged from the dark ages — 
how it did so, is one of the mysteries. Certainly man, like other 
things in creation, possesses inherent forces, that, in the long cen- 
turies, can not be resisted, to evolve from the lower plane and spi- 
rally ascend into the purer air and the warm and better sunshine. 

The story of the American immigrants — the pioneers of this 
continent — is by far the most important and really the most inter- 


esting of any of the great movements of tbe human race- since the 
earliest dawn of history. In has remapped the entire world. Their 
first coming to America, so bravely leading the way for the innu- 
merable throng to follow, was the incomparable era in history, the 
turning point in the long struggle between ignorance and brutal life 
and that blessed civilization that is now running so brightly round 
the world. These early pioneers were the little persecuted bands of 
the old world, fleeing from inflictions far worse than death, and in 
their rude ships braving the dangers of the unknown seas on their 
way to the new world; fugitives from the inappeasable wrath of 
their fellow-man, and especially of their divinely appointed king, 
they braved the treacherous elements of the waters, to land upon 
the shores of the cannibal savages and the dp,rk old forests that were 
alive with both wild beasts and wilder men to beat them back or 
destroy them. Often there were colonies of them that had been 
fugitives all over Europe, and, when stripped of all earthly posses- 
sions, with nothing more than stout hearts and resolute hopes, they 
came across the ocean, forgetting home and the bones of their dead, 
and their native land and its childhood memories, they came to 
create a new civilization. They made emigration a science, and 
founded the earth's greatest empire upon the old family Bible that 
they had so carefully kept and guarded in their long wanderings. 
These little bands, from Florida to Massachusetts, made their land- 
ings at points along the shore. Their first concern was a church 
service, to thank God for the free air they at last were permitted to 
breathe. These little colonies sometimes utterly perished from the 
earth, but there were others to take their places and carry on the 
battle against savagery. What odds, apparently, were against them 
in this contest, and yet how these feeble beginnings have so quickly 
conquered and overrun the continent. The savage man and beast, 
sickness in its multiple form of new and strange diseases, the 
absence of all resources to help the grim and hardy old pioneers, 
were some of the obstacles that they set about overcoming. 

The circumstances required religious, earnest, brave and hardy 
men, and such they were supremely. They were made to want 
freedom because of their cruel persecutions at the hands of their 
fellow-man. Such an age would naturally create a new and distinct 
race of men, because man adjusts himself to his environments, and 
herein in this victory over the vast wilderness was the victory of all 
mankind, and has given us the historical era in the movements, the 
advances and recoils of the human mind. 

These people had their strong prejudices and mastering super- 
stitions, and perhaps, in their times and circumstances, it were best 
it should be so. They came from the old world where these things 
were intrenched in the deep and hopeless ignorance of the masses. 


They were the first people in the world who in moral affairs looked 
to God, and in all else looked to themselves. Self-reliance and 
those nobler qualities of a nobler manhood could only come of such 
a school. With energies ever alert, and senses whetted to the 
keenest edge, they slept upon their arms, and from the cradle to 
the venerable grandsire everyone learned to do picket duty over his 
own life. Their lives are the evidence that the highest possible 
acquirement of a people is that self-reliance and robust manhood 
that quails before nothing that is mortal. 

This was the first loosening movement of men of these bonds 
that bound our remotest ancestors to the blind faith and adoration 
of their kings, or rulers — that species of national fetich for the 
stupid or brutal-born king that grew up in all men's hearts and 
that seemed to multiply as the royal master descended in the scale 
of life. Whether it were the new-born babe, a little animated bundle 
of scrofula or inherited blood disease, • or whether it were some 
coarse monster, a moral leper, idiot or madman, it was all the same. 
He was their national fetich, and the meaner he was, it seems, the 
more sacred he became. 

The first arrivals on American soil that came here for homes 
and havens from the cruelties they had left behind, no doubt were 
but little aware, either of the permanent effects to come of their 
movement or of the deep causes that moved them. Indeed, they 
felt that their loyalty to the king was unabated. Thank God, in 
this one thing they builded better than they knew. Otherwise we 
would have had no Kevolution, no Washington or Patrick Henry, 
no liberating of men's minds and bodies from the cruel thrall of the 
dreary past. 

The results that came as the effects of men's lives are the only 
tests by which we can measure the great and small. When we add 
to this test a consideration of the resources each one had at com- 
mand then in the history of the race, where is there a people to 
compare with the American pioneer? This silent man of the un- 
broken solitude, this man of great action and of little speech, this 
unwritten hero came and went with no trumpet's blast and blare, 
no note of fame, no shouting rabble, nor train of fiatterers, indeed, 
with no other thought but that he was of no more consequence to 
the great world at large than the wild game he pursued and killed, 
yet in his greatest obscurity and humility stood side by side with 
many of the world's celebrities, how incomparably would he rise 
above them. 

Our young school children learn to look with interest at the 
rather cheap wood cut in the old school books, representing Na- 
poleon on his white horse, his martial cloak fluttering in the breeze, 
as at the head of his army he is seen crossing the Alps. He is the 


"TouDg Corsican," the "Little Corporal," the "Great Emperor," 
at the head of his invincible army and its fluttering eagles on his 
mission of death and woe, conquering and subjugating the world 
by sword and lire. Kings were his playthings and empire was his 
booty. It was new and plebeian blood among the effete and nerve- 
less royal breeding nests of the Old World. In his earlier and the 
better part of this wanderer's career, the bluest blood from the longest 
line of royal ancestors was no more to him than that of the hum- 
blest soldier of the line. We can not know the bounds of this man's 
original ambition. Whatever it was, there is but little doubt that 
in time it changed, and instead of being the world's liberator he 
would be its conqueror, and oppressor. No man ever yet has met 
and missed so great an opportunity as did Napoleon. Had he de- 
voted his genius to the true welfare of mankind — liberated them 
and then by his military power forced them to accept the liberation 
and to recast their thoughts on the subject of every man's right to 
absolute liberty, instead of driving to the one mean and low thing 
of becoming the great emperor, of simply destroying existing dy- 
nasties to supplant them with yet more cruel ones, how different 
might the story of Europe have been to what it is now. How rad- 
ically different might have been the memory of himself left as the 
world's legacy. If this man ever were great he fell from that high 
estate, perished ignobly and is now literally nothing to the world. 
Had Napoleon been smothered in his cradle it would have been no 
loss to mankind. His life was not great because it was not good. 
He cared only for his own aggrandizement, and was indifferent at 
what cost to mankind. It was a feverish turbulent life, 'ending, as 
it deserved, in wreck and ruin, and the drunken Parisian mob when 
it toppled over the great mausoleum that held his remains, were 
nearer in accord with the eternal fitness of things than were the 
mistaken authorities who taxed the poor unpaid laborers of France 
to build the monument. There is many a costly marble or granite 
pile standing guard over the moldering remains of some of the 
world's most conspicuous shams and frauds. To the clear-eyed 
man they are mere sores and blotches on the fair face of the earth, 
the ugly evidences of so much unpaid or slave labor, and are so 
many wretched object lessons to teach the young minds to meanly 
admire a mean thing. 

No monuments, mausoleums, tall shafts, halls or great art build- 
ings have ever yet been reared to the memory of the original pio- 
neers of America. The most of them sleep in long forgotten graves, 
in the deep woods, on the mountain side, by the bubbling spring, at 
the outer edge of the ancient "clearin'," anywhere that was most 
convenient; were buried these men as they fell with their faces 
toward the common enemy of civilization, scalped so often by the 


savage, and left to the wild animals, and their scattered bones carried 
to the dens of beasts. These heroes were standing picket gnards 
for the oncoming civilization, for us, and the comforts and Imnries 
we now enjoy. In the ceaseless struggle that was going on, there 
was not even time to stop and mourn over the fallen brave, but as 
one would go down, there in time were two to take his place and 
bravely carry on the good work. 

How far nobler the aim and end of these humble men's lives than 
was that of Napoleon. His was to conquer, enslave and destroy by 
fire and sword. Theirs was to reclaim, to make us homes, to lift up 
our civilization, and bring peace and permanent happiness; to sup- 
plant savagery with gentle intelligence, and build the empire of 
thought over the ruins of brute force. 

Here are the results of the unwritten, obscurest of men's lives 
placed side by side with the world's great military hero, the subject 
somewhat stripped of this unreasoning adoration of the world's aver- 
age fetich. It is the contrast of the truly noble by the side of the 
admired and ignoble. It is the attempt, however feeble it may be, 
to direct the thoughts of men into higher and better channels. It 
is one of the true lessons of real history. It is worth imprinting on 
the minds of the young, and should be emblazoned on the walls of 
the school-rooms, and hung in the halls and porches of the great in- 
stitutions of learning. 

To produce such a grand race of men required a long course of 
preliminary preparation. Their love of freedom and their hatred of 
tyranny, their stubborn and resolute natures, to rising above that 
feeling of helpless dependence upon assumed superiors ; that pecul- 
iar frame of mind that dared anywhere and upon every emergency 
to rely upon itself and its own inherent resources, where no aid 
could come from others, where there were none of the arts or helps 
of civilization to call upon in sickness, in hunger, in death or birth ; 
no church, school, physician, blacksmith, mills, no nothing, save the 
implacable foes that fairly rose up out of the earth in legions to op- 
pose his coming. The swarms of parasitic and venomous insects, 
the rattling, hissing reptiles spotted with deadly beauty; the howls 
of the hungry wolves, the piercing screams of the panthers, and the 
savage war whoops that oft woke the sleep of the cradle, were some 
of the things against which were raised the bare hands of the white 
man. Had these men stopped to count the odds against them, they 
surely would never have come — "flying from present ills to those 
we know not of," and they did not stop to count the dangers or the 

Mostly it is to the severe religious persecutions that three cen- 
turies ago overran Europe that we owe the people that came and 
the conquering of the New World- This severe and bloody era was 


much of the preparatory school that bred the virile races of men 
destined to conquer and possess the wilderness, and cause it to 
bloom in peaceful civilization. They were in the hunt of homes and 
the free temples of God, to worship and adore the heavenly Master 
with none to molest or make them afraid. These were some of the 
results of these long and cruel persecutions. They were the fiery 
ordeals that brought forth the men and women, equipped for the 
great work that lay before them. 

The Old World was sadly and cruelly governed and of all these 
the bloodiest was that of Great Britain. Here were the peculiar 
strong people, made to oppress and to resist. On the one side full 
of the spirit of revolt, on the other simply savage and pitiless in re- 
pression. Wild and unreasoning in their adoration and fealty to 
the crowned head, yet those rugged, wild, carousing old barons 
would lay down their lives for the king as readily to-day as they 
would chop off his head to-morrow. Among no other people in the 
world's history would the nasal-twanged fanatic, Cromwell, and his 
terrible following have been possible. He was the noblest fetich 
smasher, particularly that ancient and deep delusion of " the divin- 
ity of kings," that has appeared since creation began. He enjoyed 
beheading kings and princelets, shooting lords and confiscating their 
landed estates, and he picked up tinkers, hostlers, scavengers, any- 
body, the lower in the old order of society the better, and made 
them premiers, judges, chancellors and high state officers, and 
his psalm-singing, praying army was a flaming sword and the fiery 
blast. Think of the man as you may, yet who can withhold some 
meed of praise and admiration for the sovereign contempt with which 
he kicked over the nation's idols, the assumed human divinities, 
bowed to by the nation as fetiches. Cromwell's school was the seed 
of America, its possession and independence. 

Back in the Old World, its travails, its persecutions and its 
bloody schools, were laid the preparations and making possible 
North America, and to-day, here as everywhere and in all time, 
are effects following causes. 

In the preceding chapters I have attempted to point out some 
of the preliminary work of nature in building and preparing this 
continent for the habitation of civilized man. Nature's labors are 
first, always and the most important, yet the historian in the move- 
ments of man is often beset with more difficulties in connecting 
cause and effect than he is in following the courses of nature. 

The Saxon and the Gaul, impelled by the same motives, came in 
parallel lines, crossed and re-crossed each other's paths in the wil- 
derness. The immigrants to the New World were at first allured 
by the fur trade, and the glittering wealth from this source was the 
incentive that bore along that wave of humanity that has covered 


finally the continent from shore to shore. The French about Que- 
bec were originally the most successful in getting the fur trade. 
Among them grew up a remarkable class of men known to history 
as the courier des bois — translated — "travelers of the woods." 
The peculiar times as well as people were necessary to produce this 
distinct class of men. They were land sailors, and something of 
their remains may now be seen among the western cow-boys of the 
plains. They were young Frenchmen who had come to or grown 
up in this country, who upon the slightest taste of nomadic life in 
the wilderness were enchanted by it, and they threw off the stern 
morals of the churchmen who were in control of Canada and re- 
pelled by austerity at home and allured by absolute freedom toward 
the wild wood, they practically abandoned civilized life and adopted 
that of the wild man. They traveled among the Indians, learned 
their ways of capturing game and living, and these brave and hardy 
young men soon became as naked barbarians. Their long light 
bark canoes shot around the bends of the rivers, floated along the 
currents of the smaller streams, were carried over the portage here 
and there, and to every tribe and Indian village they traveled and 
were welcomed for the bright trinkets and fire water that they 
exchanged for pelts and furs. Sailor-like these voyagers in the 
woods married squaws with great impartiality in nearly every tribe 
and village after the Indian fashion. The Indian law required the 
purchase of wives for an agreed time, and these rollicking young 
outlaws no doubt often for a single colored glass bead completed 
the wedding trade for as many days as they would remain trading 
at that particular place. They could equal if not excel the Indian 
in making the light canoe and then in handling it on the water. 
They were expert hunters and marksmen with the long old style 
flint-lock guns, and they could make and use the bow and arrow. 
They spoke the Indian language, and in meeting a new tribe with a 
new language they could readily by signs make their wants under- 
stood by the strangers. 

They learned the streams and the country well, and were famil- 
iar with all this northwest for nearly a century before the pioneer 
settlers followed them to possess and hold it. While the authori- 
ties at Quebec were greatly scandalized by the immoral and reck- 
less lives of these men, and enacted severe laws against them, yet 
they increased in numbers and were the builders of the fur trade 
that came to be the chief concern of the contending English and 
French at one time. These voyagers built up an important trade, 
as well as were first to visit nearly every part of the great north- 
west. They would load their canoes with the little provision neces- 
sary and the trinkets to trade and go out on their fifteen months' 
expedition and return laden with valuable furs. These they would 


sell to the merchants, and then in a few days' drunken debauch 
spend the entire proceeds, often selling the last rag of new clothe?/ 
they had purchased on their arrival, and when everything was gor^ 
go to the trader and on credit get their m* ager supplies and outfit 
and start on another fifteen months' expedition. Their commissary 
supplies were hominy and bear's grease — a bushel of lye hominy 
and two pounds of grease was a month's subsistence. To this mea- 
ger fare they added but little of such as they could readily get, and 
on it fared abundantly. When the adjustments of war came, these 
couriers were the nucleus of armies thaj> could successfully con- 
tend with the cunning and scattered savages in the forests and the 

The Wabash and all its tributaries had long been well known to 
them before La Salle made the record of his discovery and explor- 
ation of the Ohio. Their presence was often denoted by the half- 
breeds that would be found in the different tribes by the explorers 
who came first in acquisition of new territory for their king and 
country. They left us no dates and records of their visits to the 
country ; they in their hard pursuit of life had cared nothing for 
the country, but it was the valuable furs that they wanted, and 
hence who or when the first white men were that ever were in the 
confines of Vigo county will never be known. 


Who First Passed up the Wabash— Armies of the Revolution Were 
UPON THE Soil of Vigo County— The War Changes the Ownership 
OF This Territory— Our First Regularly Organized Government 

TANT Achievements— This Territory Becomes Illinois County, 
Va.— Capt. Leonard Helm— Etc. 

IN the year 1759 — one hundred and thirty-one years ago, the 
French and Indian army that had been recruited in the Illinois, 
along the Mississippi at Kaskaskia and other points, floated in 
their canoes and batteaux down the Mississippi, up the Ohio to the 
mouth of the Wabash, and thence up this river on their way to 
the lakes and to Quebec. 

This was during the French-Indian war commencing in 1756, 
for the possession of Canada and the northwest, and prior to the 
fall of Quebec. During the year 1759 the French made every 
effort to stir up the Indians north of the Ohio, and in their savage 


war upoD the English to make one more effort to preserve the 
northwest to the French and their Indian allies. Emissaries were 
sent to Lake Erie, Detroit, Mackinaw, Vincennes, Kaskaskia and 
Fort Chartres, with presents and ammunition for the purpose of col- 
lecting all the forces possible. The French army in Canada was 
hard pressed for reinforcements. The English navy had cut off 
their supplies and reinforcements from the mother country, while 
the English were constantly receiving reinforcements from Eng- 

Mons. de Aubry, commandant at Fort Chartres, induced 400 of 
the Illinois French to enlist in his army to go to Canada. He 
carried with his army 200,000 pounds of flour. To this French 
force he gathered nearly a thousand Indians. The route by way of 
the Ohio was closed, the English being in possession of Fort Pitt 
(Pittsburgh). He with his heterogeneous army of relief therefore 
ascended the Wabash, following this stream to where is Fort Wayne, 
and making the portage, floated down the Maumee and entered Lake 
Erie. During the entire voyage they were being reinforced from 
the different tribes through whose borders they passed. 

We have no authentic records as to what de Aubry did with the 
Indians occupying a Wea village near where is now Terre Haute. 
There is no doubt the fleet stopped here and pow-wowed with the 
chief men of the place. They may have indulged in royal dog 
feast, a war dance or any of the other high joint, fashionable 
amusements of that time. 

The average members of the original K. Ns. about the year 
1759, for some reason were prejudiced against the English and par- 
tial toward the French. The high born native ladies were strongly 
disposed to cut dead their English lady acquaintances at their most 
recherche teas and progressive euchre parties. They had no hesi- 
tation, it is supposed, in saying right out that many of the English 
were " no better than they ought to be." 

The French understood best how to manage the Indians, and in 
the war between the French and English, the natives sided mostly 
with the Gaul, and so long as the fighting was in the wilderness 
they were usually victorious over their English foes. But the Eng- 
lish were the easy master on the seas and they overthrew the 
French by attacking Quebec and when that fell into their hands the 
final results were easy to be seen. 

The real point of contention at first was for the fur trade of the 
northwest, more than that of territorial conquest. In the great 
wilderness the French and English trappers and furtraders had 
crossed paths and they appealed to arms as the sole arbiter in the 

When de Aubry's army passed up the Wabash the route from 


the Ohio river to the lakes by this river was already well known. 
The country had been well mapped by the trappers and hunters, as 
well as by the tribes of Indians on the lakes and scattered along 
the river. They knew the Fort Wayne portage — the carrying point 
from where the waters flowed south to where they flow north to the 

It was flfty-two years from the time the French-Indian army 
passed up the Wabash, and no doubt bivouacked where is nowTerre 
Haute, before the English army under Gen. Harrison came to take 
possession in the name of the union of States. 

The white man had discovered and passed down the Mississippi 
river nearly one hundred years before de Aubry' passed up the 
Wabash, and it is probable before Joliet and Marquette had navi- 
gated the Mississippi and the Illinois rivers, or La Salle had crossed 
from the lakes to Pittsburgh and had passed down the Ohio. 

Thus more than two hundred years ago the white man was plant- 
ing the outposts of civilization in this deep wilderness. 

Long intervals of time followed between these earliest comings 
and goings of the white man. These explorers and discoverers claimed 
and cross-claimed the great unknown western world generally to its 
" widest and uttermost boundaries." The hunters and trappers, in 
the name of their respective kings, made claim to every thiug wher- 
ever their pursuit of game or fur animals led them. Back in the 
Old World the French, English and Spanish nations supported the 
most extravagant claims made by their respective people. 

The English disputed the French claim to the entire fur trade 
of the northwest, and denied their title to the valley of the Missis- 
sippi, which lay west of the colonies along the Atlantic coast. The 
grants from the British crown usually conveyed to the charter pro- 
prietors all the country lying between certain parallels of latitude 
according to the location of the several grants, ^nd extending west- 
ward to the South sea, as the Pacific ocean was then called. Seeing 
in time the weakness of such flimsy claims to the vast tract of 
country upon which no Englishman had even set his feet, they ob- 
tained deeds of cession from the Iroquois Indians — the dominant 
tribe east of the Mississippi. They claimed all the country between 
the Alleghanies and the Mississippi by conquest from the several 
Algonquin tribes who occupied it. On July 13, 1701, the sachems 
of the Five Nations conveyed to William III., king of Great Britian 
" their beaver hunting grounds northwest and west from Albany," 
including a " hroad strip on the south side of Lake Erie.'''' Vigo 
county was in this " broad strip," and this is beyond doubt the first 
definite bill of sale of the county, that was ever put on record. 
This deed was evidently to define the other more general transfers 
of title. 


An abstracter therefore of Terre Haute who cared to commence 
with the commencement in the chain of title, would be no doubt 
safe iu starting with this record deed of the Five Nations to any 
corner lot in the city. It was always claimed by the English that 
this was a good and sufficient fee-simple title to the States of Mich- 
igan, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. The grantors — the Five Nations 
— recited in their deed " that their ancestors did, more than four 
score years before, totally conquer, subdue and drive the former 
occupants out of the country," etc. Then the deed proceeds to 
recite "that the Iroquois for themselves and heirs granted the 
English crown the whole soil, the lakes, the rivers, and all things 
pertaining to said tract of land, with power to erect forts and castles 
there," only reserving to the grantors "their descendants forever 
the right of hunting upon the same." 

Now, the fact is, that this claim of conquering the country on 
the part of the Iroquois was so attenuated that an old veteran of the 
late war would, on examination, have pronounced it a "camp rumor." 
But the English were great land sharps. They knew this title was 
shadowy, but is was a " color of title," and this with possession and 
the payment of taxes in a few years makes a warranty deed. 

The Wabash Indians maintained unrelenting hatred and kept 
up their usual predatory warfare on the English. Their fierce incur- 
sions from this region upon the settlers of Kentucky, in time brought 
the Anglo-Saxon's heavy revenges, and was the means of wresting 
by conquest all this region from the possession and armed ownership 
of the Indians and French, who had held it as coparceners for a 
considerable time. 

When the colonists had revolted against the mother country, 
and the war of independence was being waged, then it was that the 
English resorted to the same tactics with the Indians that the 
French had used so successfully against them. The English had 
military posts at Detroit, Vincennes and Kaskaskia, and they used 
every inducement to incite the savages against the "rebels." In 
1777 these Indian depredations were so severe upon the Kentuck- 
ians, that Gen. George Rogers Clarke conceived and in 1778 exe- 
cuted an expedition against the French of Kaskaskia and Vincennes. 
He asked permission and was authorized to raise a regiment, but so 
poor were the struggling colonies that he was almost left alone to 
maintain and provide for his little ragged army. 

To capture the French posts of Kaskaskia and Vincennes was 
a bold conception, undertaken by one of America's greatest men. 
He appealed to Gov. Patrick Henry, of Virginia, and laid before 
him his daring plans. Gov. Henry at once saw the importance of 
the proposition, and entered heartily into aiding it all he possibly 
could. He and Clarke solemnly agreed to keep their secret sacred, 


and Clarke was instructed to proceed to enlist seven companies of 
men, ostensibly for the protection of the Kentucky frontier, and at 
the same time he had another secret order to attack the British 
posts of Kaskaskia and Vincennes. 

This little secret military expedition was one of the compara- 
tively unimportant moves on the chess board of war to all appear- 
ances, yet was in fact, one of the most important movements in 
behalf of the United States ever conceived and executed. At the 
time the results were but little understood. The seat of war was 
east of the Alleghenies, where our Revolutionary sires were winning 
immortal glory that absorbed the attention of the world. The West 
was the unknown wilderness, with only the isolated French settle- 
ments about Yincennes, Kaskaskia and Detroit. The country in its 
wide boundaries was occupied by savages and wild beasts. It was only 
after the northwest began to be settled, and its capabilities to main- 
tain the rich empire it now possesses was at all realized, the mag- 
nitude of the conquest of Gen. Clarke's expedition. The States of 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin were saved to the 
Union by Gen. Clarke and Gov. Henry. The memory of Gen. Clarke, 
the value of his work, has not been sufficiently understood or 
appreciated by his countrymen. 

At the treaty of peace held at Paris at the close of the Revolu- 
tionary war, the British insisted that the Ohio river should be the 
northern boundary of the United States. The records and corre- 
spondence of that important treaty show that the only ground on 
which the American commissioners relied to sustain their claim 
that the lakes should be the boundary, was the fact " that Gen. 
Clarke had conquered the country and was in the undisputed mili- 
tary possession of it at the time of the negotiations. This fact was 
affirmed and admitted, and was the chief ground on which the 
British commissioners reluctantly abandoned their claim." 

As this expedition of Gen. Clarke's is a part of the vital history 
of the territory of Vigo county, it should be kept familiar to our 
people, and as a part of the history of their country and their 
homes, it should be told in the high schools of the county. Vigo 
county gets its name from circumstances connected with the expe- 
dition that saved us from being yet a part of Ganada and British 
subjects, as well as a part of the record title to the country we 
inhabit. There can be no early history any more interesting and 
instructive to our young people, and the facts are best told in Gen. 
Clarke's own words: 

"On the 24th of June, 1778, we left our little island [this was 
Louisville] and run about a mile up the river in order to gain 
the main channel and shot the falls at the very moment of the sun 
being in a great eclipse, which caused various conjectures among 


the superstitious. As I knew that spies were kept on the river 
below the towns of the Illinois, I had resolved to march part of the 
way by land, and, of course, left the whole of our baggage, except 
as much as would equip us in the Indian mode. The whole of our 
force, after leaving such as was judged not competent to the expected 
fatigue, consisted only of four companies, commanded by Captains 
John Montgomery, Joseph Bowman, Leonard Helms and William 
Harrod. My force being so small to what I expected, owing to the 
various circumstances already mentioned, I found it necessary to 
alter my plans of operations. 

" I had fully acquainted myself that the French inhabitants in 
those western settlements had great influence among the Indians in 
general and were more beloved by them than any other Europeans; 
that their commercial intercourse was universal throughout the 
western and northwestern countries, and that the governing interests 
on the lakes was mostly in the hands of the English, who were not 
much beloved by them. These and many other ideas similar 
thereto caused me to resolve, if possible, to strengthen myself by 
such train of conduct as might probably attach the French inhabit- 
ants to our interests and give us influence in the country we were aim- 
ing for. These were the principles that influenced my future con- 
duct, and fortunately I had just received a letter from Col. Camp- 
bell, dated Pittsburgh, informing me of the contents of the treaties 
between France and America. As I intended to leave the Ohio at 
Fort Massac, three leagues below the Tennessee, I landed on a 
small island in the mouth of that river in order to prepare for the 
march. In a few hours after one John Duff and a party of hun- 
ters coming down the river were brought to our boats. They were 
men formerly from the States, and assured us of their happiness in the 
adventure. * * They had been but lately at Kaskaskia, and 
were able to give us all the intelligence we wished. They said that 
Gov. Abbot had lately left Port Vincennes and gone to Detroit on 
business of importance; that Mr. Rochblave commanded at Kas- 
kaskia, etc. ; that the militia was kept in good order, and spies on 
the Mississippi, and that all hunters, both Indians and others, were 
ordered to keep a good lookout for the rebels ; that the fort was 
kept in good order as an asylum, etc., but they believed the whole 
to proceed more from the fondness for parades than the expecta- 
tion of a visit; that if they received timely notice of us they would 
collect and give us a warm reception, as they were taught to har- 
bor a most horrid idea of the rebels, especially the Virginians ; but 
that if we could surprise the place, which they were in hopes we 
might, they made no doubt of our being able to do as we pleased; 
that they hoped to be received as partakers in the enterprise and 
wished us to put full confidence in them and they would assist the 


guides in conducting the party. This was agreed to and they 
proved valuable men. 

" The acquisition to us was great, as I had no intelligence from 
those posts since the spies I sent twelve moiiLhs past. But no part 
of their information pleased me more than that of the inhabitants 
as viewing us as more savage than their neighbors, the Indians. I 
was determined to improve upon this if I was fortunate enough to 
get them into my possession, as I conceived the greater the shock 
I could give them at first the more sensibly would they feel my 
lenity and become more valuable friends. This I conceived to be 
agreeable to human nature, as I had observed it in many \nstances. 
Having everything prepared we moved down to a little gully, a 
small distance above Massac, in which we concealed our boats and 
set out a northwest course. The weather was favorable. In some 
parts water was scarce, as well as game. Of course we suflPered 
drought and hunger, but not to excess. On the third d;^ John 
Saunders, our principal guide, appeared confused and we soon dis- 
covered that he was totally lost, without there was some other 
cause of his present conduct." 

" I asked him various questions, and from his answers I could 
scarcely determine what to think of him — whether or not that he 
was lost or wished to deceive us. * * The cry of the whole de- 
tachment was that he was a traitor. He begged that he might be 
suflPered to go some distance into a plain that was in full view to 
try to make some discovery whether or not he was right. I told him 
he might go, but that I was suspicious of him from his conduct; that 
from the first day of his being employed he always said he knew 
the way well; that there was now a diflFerent appearance; that I 
saw the nature of the country was such that a person once ac- 
quainted with it could not in a short time forget it; that a few men 
should go with him to prevent his escape, and that if he did not 
discover and take us into the hunter's road that led from the east 
into Kaskaskia, which he had frequently described, I would have 
him immediately put to death, which I was determined to have 
done. But after a search of an hour or two he came to a place that 
he knew perfectly well, and we discovered that the poor fellow had 
been, as they called it, bewildered. 

" On the Fourth of July, in the evening, we got within a few 
miles of the town, where we lay until near dark, keeping spies 
ahead, after which we commenced our march and took possession of 
a house wherein a large family lived on the bank of the Kaskaskia 
river, about three-quarters of a mile above town. Here we were 
informed that the people a few days before were under arms, but 
had concluded that the cause of the alarm was without foundation, 
and that at that time there was a great number of men in town, but 


that the Indians generally had left it, and at present all was quiet. 
We soon procured a sufficiency of vessels, the more in ease, to con- 
vey us across the river. 

" With one of the divisions I marched to the fort and ordered 
the other two into different quarters of the town. If I met with 
no resistance at a certain signal, a general shout was to be given, 
and certain posts were to be immediately possessed, and men of 
each detachment who could speak the French language were to run 
through every street and proclaim what had happened, and inform 
the inhabitants that every person" that appeared on the streets 
would be shot down. This disposition had its desired effect. In 
a very little time we had possession, and every avenue was guarded 
to prevent any escape to give the alarm to other villages in case of 
opposition. Various orders had befen issued not worth mentioning, 
I don't suppose that greater silence ever reigned among the inhab- 
itants of a place than did at this at present; not a person to be 
seen, not a word to be heard by them for some time, but designedly 
t]>e greatest noise kept up by our troops through every quarter of 
the town, and patrols continually the whole night around it, as inter- 
cepting any information was a capital object, and in about two 
hours the whole of the inhabitants were disarmed and informed 
that if one was taken attempting to make his escape he should be 
immediately put to death." 

This is the story in Gen. Clarke's own words of the capture of 
the British post of Kaskaskia — a bloodless but a great victory. 

The next morning, July 5, some of the leading citizens were 
arrested and put in irons, and Gen. Clarke assumed the severest 
bearing toward the people. Soon the village priest, in company 
with several of the aged men, visited their supposed implacable 
conqueror, and begged that the people might be permitted once 
more to assemble in their church, and there to tell each other a 
final good-by. They expected to be separated as families, and 
many of the men put to death. The General consented, and the 
entire people in deepest misery assembled. At the close of the 
meeting a deputation was appointed to wait upon their conqueror to 
beg that they be not separated hopelessly from their families. 

Matters had now reached the desired point, and Gen. Clarke 
from his assumed severity turned to the people in utmost kindness, 
liberated at once those arrested, and told every one they were at 
liberty to go and come at pleasure ; that they were as free as ever 
they were and would not be wronged or even annoyed by his sol- 
diers. He then explained his conduct to them fully, and told them 
it was because they had been told such bloody stories ^out the 
rebels that he had come to undeceive them and that they would find 
in him and his men only good friends. 


This conduct of the commander and the news to these French 
people of the alliance between the French and Americans, made the 
whole population gladly take the oath of allegiance to Virginia. 
Their arms were then restored to them and they regarded their con- 
querors as their liberators. Several of the citizens joined a detach- 
ment of Clarke's army that was sent on the expedition to take Caho- 
kia. The inhabitants of this village on hearing what had taken 
place at Kaskaskia gladly took the oath of allegiance. 

Then Gen. Clarke turned his attention to capturing Post Vin- 
cennes. He sent for the Kaskaskia priest, Gibault, and had a con- 
ference with him on the subject. Vincennes was a part of the juris- 
diction of this churchman. The priest told 'him that he could capt- 
ure Vincennes with but little trouble — that the governor had gone 
to Detroit; that the place was a strong fort and that there were 
many Indians in that part, etc. But when the French or Indi- 
ans heard what had happened at Kaskaskia and how glad the peo- 
ple there were at the change that their sentiments would also 
change; that his (the priest's) appearance there would have great 
weight 'with the people and offered to go on a mission of winning 
over the people, he only asked that another person might accom- 
pany him and take charge of the temporal affairs of the expedition, 
etc. Gibault, with Dr. Lafont, was at once sent to Vincennes. 

This mission of the representative of the church and the army 
was completely successful. Upon their arrival at Vincennes they 
spent a day or two explaining matters to the people, and all readily 
assented to their proposals. The few emissaries left by Abbot at 
once left, when the whole population took the oath of allegiance. 
They elected officers, displayed the American flag to the astonished 
Indians, and all was happily settled. Thus all this part of Indiana 
thus peacefully ceased to be British and became citizens of the 
United States. They informed the Indians that their father, the 
king of France, was come to life again and was mad at them for 
fighting for the British; advised them to make peace with the 
Americans, otherwise they might expect the land to flow with blood. 
This language from their ancient friends of the Wabash had a 
most beneficial effect upon the red men. 

Gen. Clarke awaited the return and the report of Gibault and 
party with keenest interest, and when it came was overjoyed. He 
was the bloodless conqueror of a great country in the wilderness 
with no instructions what next to do. He never hesitated, but pro- 
ceeded to organize and strengthen the new order of affairs. 

He sent Capt. Leonard Helm to take command of Vincennes. 
This was the first governor of the State of which Vigo county is a 
part, under the authority of the United States. Soon after Capt. 
Helm's arrival the whole of the Indian tribes along the Wabash 


went to Vincennes and made their allegiance to the American 

Gen. Clarke had soon made a treaty of peace with all the Illinois 
and Wabash Indians to the lakes, and had effectually conquered and 
possessed all this country. 

When Gov, Henry received full information of Clarke's success 
the general assembly of the State of Virginia, in October, 1778, 
passed an act, of which the following is an extract: "All the citi- 
zens of the commonwealth of Virginia, who are already settled or 
shall hereafter settle on the western side of the Ohio, shall be in- 
cluded in a distinct county, which shall be called Illinois County; 
and the governor of this commonwealth, with the advice of the 
council, may appoint a county lieutenant or commandant-in-chief 
in that county during pleasure who shall appoint and commission 
so many deputy commandants, militia oflScers and commissaries, 
as he shall think proper in the different districts during pleasure, 
etc. And all civil officers to which the inhabitants have been accus- 
tomed necessary for the preservation of the peace and the adminis- 
tration of justice shall be chosen by a majority of the citizens in 
their respective districts, to be convened for that purpose by the 
county lieutenant or commandant or his deputy, and shall be com- 
missioned by the said county lieutenant or commandant-in-chief." 

If the city of Terre Haute had then been in existence it would 
have been in Illinois county, Va., and a lot of declared rebels, and for 
the first time living under the authority represented by the stars and 
stripes. However before the provision of Gov. Henry's law for Illinois 
county had been fully put into effect, the British commander at 
Detroit raised an army and passed down the Wabash to recover 
Vincennes and Kaskaskia. He had thirty regulars, fifty French 
volunteers and 400 Indians. Thus Vigo county was an actual part of 
the marching armies of the Eevolution. The British army was here, 
but there were then no curious school children to rush down to the 
river's bank and cheer for Washington and Gen. Clarke. They proba- 
bly stopped at the Indian village and tried to induce the Indians to go 
with them to war. The English army reached Vincennes Decem- 
ber 15, 1778. The entire army to guard that post was Capt. Helm and 
his single man-of-all-work. Nothing daunted, the brave captain 
shotted to the muzzle his one little old cannon, wheeled it out on 
the embrasure and threatened to blow the English, army back into 
the lakes or to the general bow-wows, he didn't care which. A flag 
was sent to him and a surrender demanded. This he positively 
refused. After more visiting he finally agreed to surrender only 
with the honors of war — retaining his side arms and all the other 
perquisites belonging even to the greatest army end soldiers. He 
had talked so bravely that the British were doubtful of the attack 


and granted him the most liberal terms. When they entered and 
demanded he turn over his force, their amazement maybe imagined 
when he and his one man stood up to be inspected and catalogued. 

When this news reached Gen. Clarke he was aware that the 
British had determined to recapture all his prizes and drive him 
out of the Illinois. Knowing that the British army would soon 
continue on their march from Vincennes to Kaskaskia, this great 
soldier took steps to anticipate the English, and instead of waiting 
for them to come and attack him, he would go to them and capture 
them. His plans were immediately formed. He sent a portion of 
his force by boat, called "The Willing." with instructions to Capt. 
Rogers to proceed down the Mississippi, up the Ohio and Wabash 
and secrete himself a few miles below Vincennes and prohibit all 
persons from passing up or down. With the other part of his 
force he moved across now Illinois through the wet prairies, swamps 
and marshes and swollen streams (in February), and the whole 
country was flooded with rains and melting snow, and he, after a 
severe march of many days, reached the Wabash near where is now 
St. Francisville, where, after wading for miles through the bot- 
toms, they crossed the river and marched down in the rear of Vin- 
cennes, reaching this point just before daybreak. So secret and 
rapid had been Clarke's movements that Gen. Hamilton had had no 
notice of his having left Kaskaskia. The noted Indian, the son of 
Tobacco, and who was widely known as "The Door of the Wabash," 
had joined Gen. Clarke with a force of 100 warriors of the Pianka- 
shaws. Gen. Clarke declined this friendly offer with thenks, and 
informed the Indians his force was sufficient. 

The fort was at once invested and a galling fire poured upon the 
gunners. The town had immediately surrendered to Gen. Clarke 
with joy. After some sharp fighting the fort offered to surrender 
with terms — after the fashion of Capt. Helm. The offer was refused, 
when Hamilton and Clarke met in conferenoe, and in the afternoon 
of February 24, 1779, the fort and garrison, consisting of seventy- 
five men, surrendered at discretion. Hamilton and his whole force 
were made prisoners of war. This ended the struggle of war be- 
tween the English and Americans for the possession of this terri- 
tory, and the authority of Virginia was again re-established over all 
the northwest. 

The expedition of Gen, Clarke to capture Vincennes gave rise to 
the train of circumstances that gave Vigo county its name, the 
particulars of which are given in the biographical sketch of Col. 
Vigo, in another part of this work. 




IT was stated in the preceding chapter that it was one of the 
circumstances and men intimately connected with the fortunes 
of the markable expedition of Gen. George Eogers Clarke, who 
has often been called "The Hannibal of the Northwest," that most 
appropriately resulted in giving this county its name. 

It has already been told how Gen. Clarke pushed out in the bold 
enterprise with less than 150 men to capture Kaskaskia and Vin- 
cennes, that were then British military posts, and by virtue of which 
they were holding as conquerers the northwest, or all that empire 
of wealth that is in Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin and Michi- 
gan, And further the expedition and capture of Kaskaskia and 
Vincennes has been described, and then how the British General 
Hamilton came from Detroit down the Wabash river and recaptured 
Vincennes, and tore down the American flag and raised that of 

Gen. Clarke knew of the loss of Vincennes. This was a terrible 
blow to him, and he could hope for so little succor from Virginia 
that his dilemma grew more and more perplexing. In this condi- 
tion of affairs he remained until January 29, 1779, when he was 
suddenly and happily relieved by the unexpected appearance of 
Col. Francis Vigo. This circumstance and its attendant results was 
tbe auspicious moment that linked forever so intimately his memory 
and name to the history of Vigo county. The people of the mag- 
nificent county that bears so proudly his name will some day observe 
January 29 as the recurring anniversary of the first meeting of 
Clarke and Vigo, now one hundred and eleven years ago. 

These men were necessary to each other; they were necessary 
to that greatest era in all human affairs, and it is permitted now to us 
to look back over the more than one hundred years that have passed, 
and to see some of the results that were made possible by the time- 
ly conjunction of these two men's lives. Without the auspicious 
meeting of these men, in the very heat of the struggle for independ- 
ence, the Union would have been a feeble republic, skirting the 
Atlantic shores and running west to the Mississippi, and its north- 
ern line would have been the Ohio river, whose banks would have 
been lined with spies and hostile officials, to prevent that natural 


flow of trade, commerce and those unrestricted friendly relations so 
imperative to the people on both sides. The power and arrogance 
of England would have remained supreme on our continent, and 
the permanent effect of our Revolution, not only on us but on 
mankind, there is but little doubt, would have been radically differ-, 
ent from what it really was. 

Francis Vigo was a Sardinian, born in Mondovi, in 1740. He 
left his home when a youth, and joined a Spanish regiment, with 
which he went first to Havana, and thence to New Orleans, then a 
province of Spain. In a short time he left the setvice, and became a 
trader among the Indians, as an employe .of some capitalists of New 
Orleans. He made his way up the Mississippi and to St. Louis, 
where he soon engaged in the fur trade for himself, and then was 
interested in the business with Gov. de Leyba. From St. Louis he 
traveled and traded with the Indians, both east and west, and was 
favorably known to many of them. He understood the Indian 
character well, as is evidenced by his reply to Gen. Clarke, when he 
inquired of him how to win the red man's favor: "Always tell them 
the truth and they will tell you the truth." In other words, it was 
as true of the savage as the white man: Honesty is always the best 

When Yigo realized the danger threatened to Gen. Clarke and 
his army, by the re-capture of Vincennes by the British, he at once 
left his business, and went to Kaskaskia, to aid all he could in the 
cause of American independence, where he arrived on the day above 
mentioned, and at once tendered his services. Clarke commissioned 
him to go to Vincennes, observe and report as often as possible the 
exact condition of affairs, t Taking with him one servant, he started 
at once across the Illinois country. When he had reached the Em- 
barrass river, and had gone into camp on its banks, he was captured 
by a band of hostile Indians, under command of a British officer, 
and carried to Vincennes and delivered to Gen. Hamilton, charged 
with being a spy. On his way he ate the paper that would have 
convicted him of the charge, and thus destroyed all evidences of 
guilt. He was held on parole at the fort, simply being required to 
report to the commander each day. The pure and gentle priest, 
Father Gibault, who had been chiefly instrumental in securing to 
Gen. Clarke the post of Vincennes, was then at Vincennes, and deeply 
interested in the welfare of Vigo. He had made every endeavor to 
secure his liberation, and finally, one Sunday morning in January, 
he, after church services, went to the fort, at the head of his parish- 
ioners, and informed Hamilton that they would furnish no more 
supplies to the garrison until Vigo was released. Hamilton, it 
seems, was a fair and just man. He had failed to find any evidence 
against the prisoner, and realized that he could not forfeit the good- 


will of the villagers. Vigo claimed that he was a Spanish subject, 
and as a merchant he had a right to travel among the Indians not 
hostile, and to trrfde with .them, not giving aid or comfort to the 
enemy. Hamilton had from the j&rst offered to release the prisoner 
on parole, but these terms Vigo had refused. But upon the repre- 
sentation of the villagers, under Father Gibault, he did release him 
with no other condition than that he should "not do anything 
injurious to the British interests on his way to St. Louis." Vigo 
at once embarked, with two companions, and in all haste passed 
down the Wabash, down the Ohio, and then up the river to St. Louis. 
Reaching this point as quickly as possible, he had fulfilled his 
terms of release to Hamilton. In haste he changed his apparel, and 
without stopping to refresh himself, was again in his canoe, and 
swiftly going ^own the river on his way to Kaskaskia, where he un- 
folded to Clarke the ex^ct situation of affairs at Vincennes. It was 
this information that quickly determined the movements of the 
general, and resulted, as related in the previous chapter, of the 
expedition that captured Hamilton and made the British army pris- 
oners of war. The inside history that enabled Clarke to make this 
important expedition was what passed chiefly between Vigo and 
Clarke. This was the generous offer of Vigo to furnish all the 
money he could spare to enable the general to .organize and lead 
his forces to Vincennes. The situation was desperate. Clarke could 
execute and Vigo could provide ways and means. The one was as 
essential to the enterprise as the other, and each was ready to fling 
the gauntlet in the face of fate. He at once placed a large amount 
of money in Clarke's hands, and this induced the French merchants 
to contribute liberally. Clarke gave to Vigo four drafts on the 
financial agent of Virginia, O. Pollock, then at New Orleans, in all 
amounting to $11,387.40. All knew that it was doubtful if these 
drafts would be promptly paid on sight, for all understood the dis- 
tress of the government for means to supply its armies and carry 
on the war. But no one could believe that payment would be 
delayed a moment after payment became possible. 

For the credit of the American character for honesty and grati- 
tude the history of its treatment of Father Gibault, Gen. Clarke, 
Francis Vigo, and the French merchants who made the sacrifices 
that broug'ht our countrymen so much, should be written in the 
sand or on the water. And of all these the cases of Clarke, Vigo 
and Gibault will forever stand the most conspicuous, and Marshall 
in his Life of Washington is of the opinion that of these cases of 
ingratitude and neglect " that of Francis Vigo was the worst of all." 
His services, outside of the money advanced, were great and daring. 
He was widely known as "the Spanish Merchant;" he was robbed 
of a valuable horse, $500 in money, and other valuables when cap- 


tured as a spy, and after he had advanced the money, being a 
wealthy man, had made no hurry to get his dues from Virginia. In 
1788 he met O. Pollock in Pennsylvania, and the second time pay- 
ment was refused for "the want of funds." The agent could only 
advise him to keep his drafts, as they would be paid " some time or 
other." Vigo in time, being hard pressed, sold the smaller drafts 
at a discount of eighty per cent, but held the large one $8,616, until 
1799, when in his extremity he handed it to Judge Burnet and 
Arthur St. Clair, Jr., for collection. Not a move was made even 
looking toward the payment for more than the third of a century. 
With his other misfortunes about that time Vigo' was overtaken 
with sickness that confined him to his house for a space of five 
years, and during that time his business became so deranged that 
he was reduced to utter poverty. 

Col. Vigo had continued his valuable public services after the 
conquests of Clarke. He understood the Indian character well, was 
respected by these forest children, and in him they placed implicit 
reliance. He was often sent on important missions, and his integ- 
rity and ripe judgment were never at fault. He was appointed col- 
onel, and was in command at Vincennes. He was the principal and 
trusted agent to visit the Indians and adjust matters between tnem 
and the whites. In all the years he mixed and had dealings with 
them they never mistrusted him, never doubted his word or his 
friendship, and they would not deceive him. 

In 1802 he and Gov. Harrison were elected delegates to the In- 
diana Territorial convention. These were the principal leading, 
public-spirited men at that time in this important body, whose coun- 
sels were as valuable as had been their actions in the preceding 
bloody dramas. July 20, 1790, Gen. Knox, then secretary of war, 
addressed a letter to him, expressing the thanks of the President 
and his own appreciation of the valuable services he had rendered 
to the country and his zeal for tlve public welfare, making especial 
mention of the services rendered to Maj. Doughty, Maj. Ham- 
tranck and Gen. Harmar. And in December of the same year the 
secretary of war addressed another letter to him again thanking 
him " for other and distinguished services." 

When past middle life, Francis Vigo married Miss Shannon, 
whose father was a settler on the Wabash, a little below Vincennes 
in 1784, from Maryland. All the family were massacred by In- 
dians except Mrs. Vigo, two sisters and a brother, who were at the 
time fortunately absent at Vincennes. No issue was born of this 

The nineteenth century dawned upon a free and happy country — 
peace, with all its blessings, had come. The wounds of war were 
healed, and the air was vocal with the songs of brightening cheer 


and hope. At this hour, at his home in Vincennes, was the poverty- 
stricken invalid, with no hope for the future save that of an abiding 
faith in the ultimate justice of his adopted country, for which he 
had done so much and for which he had sacrificed all. His attor- 
neys pressed his claim, and, no doubt, contrary to his wishes, told 
in glowing terms of his labors and sacrifices, and of his necessities 
that urged him ever to press his claims. His attorneys were active, 
and his friends who knew him best were earnest in his assistance and 
pleading for justice to the poor old broken man. They bore willing 
testimony to his good name and great deeds, and begged for justice. 
In 1834 President Harrison wrote: 

"I have been acquainted with Col. Francis Vigo, of Vincennes, 
for thirty-nine years, and during the thirteen years I was governor 
of Indiana I lived in the same town with him, and upon terms of 
the most intimate friendship With reference to his credibility, I 
solemnly declare I believe him utterly incapable of making a mis- 
representation of the facts, however great may be his interests in 
the matter; and I am also confident that there are more respecta- 
ble persons in, Indiana who would become the guarantees of his in- 
tegrity than could be induced to lie under a similar responsibility 
to any other person. His whole life, as long as his circumstances 
were prosperous, was spent in acts of kindness and benevolence to 
individuals, and his public spirit and attachment to the institutions 
of our country were proverbial." 

Gen. Clarke, date August 1, 1811, addressed a letter to Col. Vigo, 
in which occurs the following: 

"A letter from a man who has always occupied a distinguished 
place in my affection and esteem must insure the warmest and most 
cordial reception; an affection, the result, not so much of being 
associated in the placid stream of tranquility and the benign sun- 
shine of peace, as companions amidst the din of war and those 
struggles where the indefatigable exertion of every muscle and 
nerve were demanded. But it may be enough to remark that while 
one is the effect of your uniformly discreet and irreproachable con- 
duct in the intricate paths of civil and domestic life, the other is 
wrought by a strong sense of that gratitude due from your adopted 
country, having myself both witnessed and experienced the signal 
advantages flowing to our common country from your inestimable 
conduct; and what is more enhancing to such services, having ren- 
dered them at a time when under the cloud on which fate assumed 
the most menacing aspect." 

John Badolet, register of the land office at Vincennes, in a 
communication, testified as to his knowledge of Col. Vigo, and of 
his high sense of honor: "If the alternative were presented him of 
receiving a large pecuniary recompense for his inestimable services 


to our country and the pecuniary aid he has rendered it or simply 
receiving a public acknowledgment of it by the government," had 
no hesitation in expressing the belief that he would not hesitate a 
moment "in choosing the latter." 

Judge Burnet said of him: "I believe him to be as honorable 
and high-minded a man ag any other in the western country." 

Nathaniel Ewing says: "He is a man of the strictest integrity 
and honor." 

But it is useless to add, as might be done, to these individual 
tributes to the worth of the man. The whole of the liberty-loving 
world knew Francis Vigo, "the Spanish Merchant,"' the friend of 
America, and his great sacrifices and his greajt labors in her behalf, 
and that, too, in the darkest hour in which "fate assumed the most 
menacing aspect." 

Age and sickness and poverty had compelled this man to humble 
himself to beg of his adopted country to render unto him that meed 
of justice that our country's self-respect should have impelled it to 
have hunted this man out over the wide globe, to have forced upon 
him everything in its power, as inadequate as the utmost would 
have been, as a part of the just recompense so abundantly due. But 
is it not true that nothing can be more ungrateful than, at times, 
one's country? 

The dear old man lived on, his life dragged out, it would seem, 
that he might see the growth and glory of the great States of Illinois 
and Indiana filled with a happy and prosperous people and villages 
and towns start into existence where he had traveled in the wilder- 
ness and camped and traded with the savages and gone on danger- 
ous missions in behalf of the country. On every hand he saw the 
ripening fruits where he had mostly helped to plant, and the young 
and joyous generation reaping in the golden fields, while his dry 
crust was not sweetened by even the public acknowledgment of the 
government of how he had helped to do all this, much less any 
earnest attempt to repay the actual outlay he had advanced to its 
heroic little army of the west. In the long course of time the 
claim passed from attorney to attorney, from one agent to another. 
Seven times house committees reported favorably on it; twice sen- 
ate committees did the same, and against its payment no man in the 
world ever suggested a negative. 

December 16, 1835, Mr. John H. Smith, commissioner of 
Revolutionary claims of Virginia, made a report embracing the 
following : 

First. That Francis Vigo was " The Spanish Merchant " as he has been called 
by way of honorable distinction, who was renowned for his integrity, liberality and 
benevolence as well as his firm friendship for and disinterested and efficient sup- 
port of Virginia in the war of the Revolution. 

Second. That being the subject of a foreign power, he warmly espoused the 


cause of the colonies against the mother country, and made large sacrifices in sup- 
porting the western troops of Virginia. 

Third. That the bill referred to (for |8,616) remained in his possession until he 
suffered with a long and severe illness, commencing in 1802 and continuing several 
years, when he handed over the said bill to Judge Jacob Burnet, of Ohio, to obtain 
something, if possible, from Virginia upon it. 

Fourth. That the said bill was drawn for supplies actually furnished to the 
Illinois regiment, under the command of Gen. Q. R. Clarke, by said Francis Vigo. 

Fifth. That the said amount remains at this day unsatisfied and due to the said 
Francis Vigo. 

Continuing, he further says: 

It gives me pleasure to be able to make a favorable adjustment, and to ascer- 
tain the sum of money due from Virginia to a man who has rendered the most im- 
portant services to his adopted country, and who, if his neighbors who are among 
the most distinguished men in the part of the United States where he resides, are 
to be believed, is one of the most upright and honorable of men. 

This report had been delayed nearly half a century from the 
time of the original transactions. But it did not at once secure the 
payment of the long deferred claim. It must at all events have 
been encouraging news to the dying old patriot. For nearly a gen- 
eration he had already passed the alotted time of man on the earth. 

Just one year before Commissioner Smith made his report, Col. 
Vigo made his last will and testament, December 9, 1834. In it 
appears the following clause: 

Whereas, The county of Vigo has been named after me, and I feel toward it 
and its citizens a great degree of esteem and affection for many favors conferred 
and services rendered me, especially by the inhabitants of Terre Haute, it is my 
will, wish and desire and earnest request that if the claim aforesaid is recovered 
and the amount due me paid to my executors, that they, or some one of them, shall 
pay out of the sum $500 to the county of Vigo, to be laid out by the commissioners 
of said county, or in such other mode as shall be deemed most desirable by said 
county, ia the purchase of a bell for the court-house of said county, on which shall 
be inscribed, "Presented by Francis Vigo." 

It is, however, understood that in case said claim is not recovered, that said 
money is not to be paid, and the receipt of the treasurer of Vigo county for the 
sum, when paid to my executors, shall be binding and good against any said residu- 
ary legatee, and a good and suflBcient discharge to said executors, or either of them, 
for the sum aforesaid paid as aforesaid. And it is my will that said executors, their 
survivors or survivor, join with the said John Law, Albert T. Ellis and Luther H. 
Reed, Esq., in prosecuting the claim which I have on the State of Virginia, under 
the contract made with these gentlemen, should it become necessary to do so, and 
that he or they do everything which I might or could do for such purpose and 80 
far as is deemed necessary or advisable. 

The people of Vigo county extended to the venerable Colonel a 
mo'st cordial invitation to visit them on July 4, 1832. He was then 
ninety-two years of age, but gladly accepted the invitation, and 
came on his last visit to a people he loved so well, and was their 
honored guest at the joyous reception given him. The entire com- 
munity greeted him cordially and accorded to him every honor posi- 
ble to bestow, and from the kindly old face they were richly repaid 
by the beaming pleasure that lighted it up and brightened again 
his eyes. He had now despaired of, in his lifetime, if ever, the 
Government doing ought in acknowledgment of his claim, and it 


was, no doubt, that on this, his last visit to those alone, of all the 
world, who had given him such generous evidences of their appre- 
ciation of his life and deeds in their behalf, that it entered his mind 
to insert in his will the clause in reference to the court-house bell. 
In his dying hour he must have felt that here was at least a people 
freely extending to him all in their power to make amends for that 
long neglect of the country to do exact and even justice. 

He died in Vincennes, March 22, 1836, aged ninety-six years. 

In his poorly-appointed sick-room a great and good man lay dy- 
ing. He had grown long since accustomed to that depreciation that 
is so severe to old age and poor and feeble health---patiently and 
serenely amid these evidences of poverty he felt his life slowly 
passing away, and yet no rhurmur of complaint escaped him. When 
he was rich and the country that owed him so much was very poor, 
he gave so munificently, without the asking; nay, more, he 
left his home and country and came to the young nation in its 
darkest hour, and upon its altars placed his fortune and life. Now 
all was changed. The young nation had grown great, powerful and 
rich, and he was old, feeble, poor, childless and dying, having out- 
lived his own blood and near friends, having outlived his generation 
and times by many years, having outlived all except the cold 
neglect, if not ingratitude, of his country. 

In accordance with the direction in his will, his attorneys and 
executors pushed the collection of the claim. Without going into 
the miserable details of this protracted struggle, suffice it to say 
that after the lapse of nearly one hundred years judgment was at last 
obtained in the court of claims for the debt and interest, amounting 
to nearly |50,000. Time then had ceased to be of any importance in 
the case. Vigo was dead; lawyer after lawyer had worn out his 
life in the case and passed it to younger hands, and now there was 
nothing except the public sense and the coming historian to spur 
the authorities to ever arrive at a conclusion at all. 

Was the judgment promptly paid when finally obtained? Oh, 
no! It was appealed to the supreme court, because in the judg- 
ment was included interest on the original amount. One of our 
barbarous legal fictions is that the government is always ready to 
pay its debts, and therefore, unless in the bond, it must pay no in- 
terest. The case of Col. Vigo is a fine satire upon this dogma — 
this silly fiction that is a fit companion-piece to that of " The king 
can do no wrong." The ruler can do no wrong — the people can do 
DO right — has been the grievous burden of every civilization. It is 
the truth reversed. Such a sacred debt as that of Vigo's was resisted 
for a hundred years and then strong resistance to paying a small 
interest thereon, and in the meantime the plunderers of tbe public 
treasury had clutched in their large and grimy hands hundreds of 


To the credit of the supreme court a point was strained and the 
judgment, with interest, paid. It afforded the representatives of the 
estate no little pleasure to carry out the direction of the will in 
reference to the court-house bell in Vigo County, where it is now, 
from its tall cupola, with its deep, musical tones, clanging so 
merrily each passing hour. For oee I can say I never hear its 
deep notes floating out upon the air but it comes to me like the 
glad voice of the departed: "Presented by Francis Vigo." — 
"All's Well!" 



LET us suppose, dear reader, that you had been here when Co- 
lumbus came and found this continent, and further suppose 
that you had lived on to the present, and have changed in your ap- 
pearance and nature, as have the generations that came and passed 
away from that time to the present hour, and had now. sat down to 
tell a bevy of children the story of your eventful and changing life. 
It would tax your memory certainly, but as you proceeded, even you 
would become more and more interested in the narrative. 

Commencing with your earliest recollections as a little papoose 
strapped to a heavy piece of bark and leaned up against a great 
tree that stood near the bank of the river, about the center of now 
Main street, Terra Haute; then your school days, when you were 
carried down to the river and thrown in and taught to swim before 
you could walk, and then you passed on to the high school and 
learned to use the bow and arrow, rob birds' nests, capture the 
birds apd torture them to death slowly, and then learn to hunt and 
kill large game, and that you graduated into a big man when you 
hunted, tortured, killed and scalped men, and how you became a 
great chief, because you had more scalps to your belt than any other 
candidate in that election campaign ; then when you were a very 
old Indian, and had eaten a great many of the poor fellows you had 
slipped up on and killed, and your teeth had fairly worn out over 
your great feasts of men and dogs, and your arms had grown too 
weak to longer draw the strong bow or throw the deadly stone 
hatchet, that there came to Terre Haute one day some white men, 
and showed you their beautiful glass beads, and fireguns and pow- 


der, and gave you a drink of their fire-water. After drinking the 
fire-water you went to sleep, and napped somewhat longer than did 
" Rip Van Winkle," and when you woke up it was the year 1540, 
and you were then a Spaniard, again a boy. and your chief and fa- 
vorite diet was macaroni, with a deep and abiding faith in the effi- 
cacy of the inquisition to regulate the morals and religious senti- 
ment of all mankind. You were a loyal subject of Spain then, 
because Columbus had discovered the continent, and twenty- 
eight years after his arrival other Spaniards had landed and pushed 
west to the Mississippi, and as there were then no other white 
claimants to Vigo county this was all included in the ."find." The 
whole world then must have been boys, because you know a boy 
claims everything he finds, and if a bad boy, is ready to fight for it. 
As the first Spaniard settler in what is now Vigo County, you were 
quietly dieted on noodle soup from 1540 to 1702 or 162 years. 
This long rest given you arose from the fact that at that time the 
principal industry in Europe was fighting out their big holy wars. 
You see the people did not know what all the fighting and killing each 
other was about, but it was taken for granted that their dear and be- 
loved kings did, and this faith in the wisdom and goodness of the king 
was often strengthened in the darkest hour, by his being an infant, an 
imbecile, crazy or killing himself in some of his nightly orgies by 
eating and drinking too much. As -a Vigoan you would read about 
these great wars in Europe, and you, from your memories in the 
scalp trade, would conclude that in the course of time the Old 
World would become nearly as civilized as your people were when 
you were a happy and innocent papoose and a cannibal with a good 
appetite. In 1702, just when you were getting to bo a very old Span- 
iard, and was really getting very tired of a constant diet of maca- 
roni, you woke up one morning and lo, and behold, you were a 
Frenchman, with a nice mess of frogs for breakfast. A change of 
cooks and diet is good for the appetite and health, and now you 
went back in your life and was a rollicking devil-may-care courier 
des hois, nearly as wild and naked as when you were a well-grown 
papoose on the banks of the Wabash. As a loyal Vigoan you 
changed your allegiance from Spain to France, and of all the kings 
and potentates in the world you preferred that sensuous and most 
beastly of men, Louis XV., and thought he was a paragon of per- 
fection. You accepted the appointment as a local agent of the fur 
traders, and soon had a wife in every tribe that patronized your 
store. You made some good land trades when you " dickered " a 
bottle of awful whisky for two or three adjoining States. In time 
your county town was moved from Paris, France, to Quebec, but as 
much handier as this made it, you did not bother to go there to get 
your license in any of your marriages with the natives. You owed 


as you knew, allegiance to France or Canada, but you obeyed the 
more convenient law of the natives about marrying or getting 

Then there came many years in which it was doubtful whether 
what is now Vigo county belonged to the province of Canada or to 
Louisiana. Both sides belonged to France, but in defining the 
territory between the two provinces it was doubtful just where the 
line ran. It bothered you to be a Blue-nose and a Creole at the 
same time. 

Vincennes from its foundation to the close of the French occu- 
pation belonged to the province of Louisiana. Fort Chartres was 
the seat of government of the district of New Orleans and the prov- 
ince. Fort Ouiatanon on the upper Wabash belonged to Canada, 
and was under the control of the commandant at Detroit, and the 
dividing line was somewhere between Vincennes and Ouiatanon. Du 
Pratz says: "The dividing line between Louisiana and Canada 
was not very well ascertained. It is of little importance to dispute 
here about the limits of these two neighboring colonies as they both 
appertain to France." But this was of great importance to you as 
a good Vigoan. You could not be forever worried and distressed 
with doubts on the subject of where you should record your " marks 
and brands " or get your saloon license, or persuade the sheriff to 
summon you on the grand jury. When you had about determined 
to bring it as a leading question into the next election, in the year 
1732, the dividing line was definitely fixed, running east and west 
on the center of Main street, Terre Haute, through the county. 
Thus what is now Vigo county was divided on that line. The line 
passed east and west through the county, through Terre Haute and 
through the center of your cabin then standing in the center of now 
Main street. This was the first case in the county of a " house 
divided against itself" and it did not stand. In describing this 
line Terre Haute is called "the Highlands of the Wabash." 

You well remember what a dilemna you were in in the year 1736, 
when there came a call to arms from the Louisiana side to fight the 
Natchez and Chickasaw Indians and the English fur traders. Vin- 
cennes, the first ruler in Indiana, was then in command of Port 
Vincennes, and he obeyed the call and went with forty Iroquois to 
the war, and was killed, and the king appointed Louis St. Ange to 
the command at Port Vincennes. But you got along fairly well as 
part Canuck and part Creole, and as you were not certain to which 
you really owed obedience you compromised by no decided fealty to 

But November 29, 1760, Montreal capitulated and Canada be- 
came English. Do you remember that day reading the dispatches 
that you were now half French and half English, a sure enough 


" alf an' alf." This divisioD was getting to be serious, and you felt 
that you were liable to have some trouble with yourself. What is 
now the county of Vigo, even Terra Haute, your cabin and even 
yourself were divided in halves by the line between England and 
France. Fortunately only three years were allowed to elapse with 
you in this divided uncertainty, when in the treaty between the two 
countries all the territory east of the Mississippi was surrendered to 

You could readily adjust yourself to being an Englishman, and 
you were greatly pleased to have restored the unity of the whole of 
the territory of Vigo county. In less than a year, however, there 
arose new complications. The English had bought "a pig in a 
poke." A great conspiracy was formed among the Indians, and in 
1761 they determined to drive off the English and repossess the 
country. This uprising was discovered in time and frustrated. 
But in the spring of 1763, the greatest of all the Indian chiefs, 
Pontiac, formed an Indian confederacy and took armed possession 
of the northwest. Then all this Ohio valley for two years was un- 
der the control of Pontiac, and while you were supposing yourself, 
on the quiet when any of Pontiac's men were visiting you, a loyal 
British subject, yet England at best had no more real authority 
here then than she had around the north pole. Consequently the 
French officers had to remain at their posts to await the arrival of 
the English to whom they were ordered to surrender them. And 
Pontiac had closed "the glorious gate" to Wabash, the route by 
which they would come. In 1765 Lieut. Fraser was permitted to 
pass down the Ohio on a mission of conciliation to Pontiac's forces, 
but after a brief stay he was glad to ©scape down the Mississippi. 
He was followed soon after by Croghan, down the Ohio, who was 
captured near the mouth of the Wabash by a party of Kickapoos, 
who carried him a prisoner up the Wabash to Fort Ouitanon. Fort- 
unately he found the Weas quite friendly, and he was treated 
kindly and had much freedom, and he was soon entertained as an 
honored guest, on fresh dog garnished with lizards. He was 
turned loose and permitted to leave; passing down the Wabash he 
met Pontiac, and after they had talked matters over Pontiac finally 
agreed to accept the English Great Father in lieu of the French 
Great Father and cease hostilities. He and Croghan then together 
passed up the river, stopped at Terre Haute and told the news that 
the war was over, and this pfirt of the country was English. 

October 10, 1765, St. Ange, commandant at Vincennes and 
Fort Chartres, delivered his command formally to Capt. Sterling, 
of the Forty-second Highlanders — the famous "Black Watch," and 
in this manner Vigo county passed under English rule. 

You had no serious trouble further, and now was quite English, 


you know, and flattered yourself that matters were permanently 
settled. But in 1778 a new face came suddenly over affairs, by the 
appearance of Gen. George Rogers Clarke and Francis Vigo, as 
rebels against England. You must remember how you proposed 
to keep up an " armed neutrality " in this affair until after Vin- 
cennes fell, and then you became an original rebel. Your long 
previous life had finely adapted you to, not only sudden, but radical 
changes in your politics and allegiance. In 1779 you headed a 
call for a ratification meeting over the glory of what is now Vigo 
county, becoming a part of Illinois couDty, Va. June 20, 1790, 
under Gov. St. Clair, Knox county was formed, which included all 
the country between Hamilton and St. Clair counties from the Ohio 
to the British line on the lakes. 

Resume. — Our school children should be familiar with " the 
chain of title" to the lands in Vigo county. It is a part of the 
history of the locality. It is the important eras in our history, 
simplified into the story of how the possession and ownership of 
the land we occupy has come down to us. The following is a short 
and yet a lucid statement of the facts: 

When America was discovered by the Europeans, the lands of 
Vigo county and vicinity were occupied by the Miami Indians and 
their kindred tribes. Whether they gained possession by inherit- 
ance, by purchase, or by conquest none can tell. 

By right of discovery England claimed the central portions of 
America " from sea to sea " and made grants to Virginia, New 
York, Massachusetts, and Connecticut with such indefinite western 
boundaries that each claimed an interest in the territory northwest of 
the Ohio river. France claimed the valley of the river St. Lawrence 
and the " wilderness world westward and southward to its uttermost 
bounds." Spain claimed the regions along the Gulf of Mexico with 
indefinite northern boundaries. 

France first occupied the region northwest of the river Ohio, 
establishing trading posts and missionary stations. Later English 
colonists crossed the mountains for the purpose of occupying this 
territory. The struggle between the French and English to enforce 
their rival claims culminated in what is known as the " French and 
Indian " war. After the close of this war, by the treaty of Paris 
in 1763, the king of France ceded to his Britannic majesty, in full 
right, Canada with all its dependencies, including the region north- 
west of the Ohio. 

During the war of the Revolution, Virginia troops under George 
Rogers Clarke conquered this territory from England and occupied 
the military posts. At the close of this war, by the treaty of peace 
concluded at Paris in 1783, his Britannic majesty relinquished to 
the United States all claims to the government and territorial 


rights of the same and every part thereof, including the territory 
northwest of the river Ohio, the Mississippi river having been made 
the western boundary despite the claims of Spain and protests of 

The United States or the several States have a clear title to all 
the lands described in the boundary lines of the treaty, subject 
only to the Indian right of occupancy. [Vol. VIII, Wheaton's 
United States Reports. See the United States Statutes at Large, 
Vol. I, page 465, for similar decisions. J 

The title of the general Government was further subject to the 
claims of certain individual States. 

By an act of congress passed September 6, 1780, the States 
preferring claims to lands in the western territory were recom- 
mended to cede the same to the general Government for the good 
of the Union. In accordance with this recommendation New York 
in 1781, Virginia in 1784, Massachusetts in 1785, and Connecticut 
in 1786, ceded their claims to the northwest territory to the general 
Government, Virginia and Connecticut making certain reserva- 
tions, not including what is now Vigo county. 

Immediately after the conclusion of the treaty with Great 
Britain, congress undertook measures for acquiring the Indian title 
to the northwest territory. George Eogers Clarke and others were 
appointed to proclaim peace, and to treat with the tribes of this 
region. At Fort Mcintosh, January 21, 1785, they concluded a 
treaty with the Delaware, Chippewa and other Indian tribes, by 
which certain lands in Ohio were ceded to the United States. 

The territory northwest of the river Ohio was organized in 
1787, and Gen. Arthur St. Clair was appointed governor and min- 
ister of Indian affairs. At Fort Hamar, January 9, 1789, Gov. St. 
Clair concluded a treaty with the Delawares, Pottawattamies, and 
other tribes, by which the treaty of Fort Mcintosh was confirmed, 
and all lands east, south and west thereof claimed by said tribes 
were relinquished to the United States. At Greenville August 3, 
1795, Gen. Anthony Wayne concluded a treaty of peace with the 
Miamis, Delawares, Pottawattamies, Eel Bivers and other tribes, 
by which old boundary lines were confirmed and several tracts of 
land within the boundaries of Indiana were ceded to the United 

The Indiana territory was organized in 1800, and Gen. William 
Henry Harrison was appointed governor and superintendent of 
Indian affairs. 

At Fort Wayne, June 7, 1803, Gov. Harrison concluded a treaty 
with the above-mentioned tribes, by which a large tract of land, 
including Vincennes, was ceded to the United States. 

At Fort Wayne, September 30, 1809, Gen. Harrison concluded a 


treaty with the Miamies,Dela wares, EelKivers, Pottawattamies,Weas 
and other Indian tribes, by which they ceded to the United States 
nearly 3,000,000 acres of land along the Wabash river below the 
mouth of Raccoon creek, including the lands of Vigo county. 
While the boundaries between Indian tribes were not very definite, 
yet this treaty, with those made at earlier and later dates, extia- 
guished beyond doubt all title of the Indians to the lands of Vigo 

May 7, 1784, a committee of the Continental Congress reported 
an ordinance for ascertaining the mode of locating and disposing of 
lands in the western territory and for other purposes. 

This ordinance and subsequent acts provided for a survey of the 
public lauds into townships six miles square, by lines running due 
north and south, and others crossing these at right angles — the 
north and south lines dividing the land into ranges six miles wide, 
and the east and west lines dividing the ranges into townships. 
The townships were divided into thirty-six sections, each one mile 
square containing 640 acres, and these sections were divided into 
quarter sections. Owing to the convergence of meridian lines 
toward the north, to irregular Indian boundaries, and to large 
streams of water, fractional sections often occur. The sections 
are designated by numbers from one to thirty-six, the townships by 
numbers, indicating their distance from the base line, and the ranges 
by numbers indicating their distance from the standard meridian. 

In 1796 a surveyor-general was appointed and the survey of 
lands in Ohio authorized. In 1804 the powers of the surveyor-gen- 
eral were extended, and the survey of lands in Indiana territory 
was authorized. By the same act a district land office was estab- 
lished at Vincennes, the Vincennes district including the lands of 
Vigo county. 

The lands of Ihdiana were surveyed from the second principal 
meridian, 86° 28' west from Greenwich, and from a base line cor- 
responding nearly with 38° 30' north latitude. The lands of Vigo 
county are in Ranges 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 west of the second princi- 
pal meridian, and in Townships 10, 11, 12 and 13 north of the base 
line of Indiana. 

The method of sale was, first, extinguishment of Indian title; 
second, survey of the lands; third, return of the plats of survey 
to the district land office ; fourth, advertisement and public sale, 
afterward private sales. The lands were sold at a minimum price 
of $2 per acre, payable one-fourth cash, the balance in three equal 
installments within two, three and four years respectively. The 
credit system was abolished July 20, 1820, and the minimum price 
reduced to |1.25 per acre. On making the cash payment the pur- 
chaser received a certificate from the register of the district land 


office, which was assignable, and entitled the holder to possession 
of the land mentioned therein. When full payment was made, the 
register of the district office issued a certificate of the fact to the 
purchaser. "When this certificate was depot iced in the general land 
office, the United States, by the President, issued to the owner of 
such certificate a patent for the land mentioned therein. 

"A patent alone passes land from the United States to the 
grantee." [Peters, Vol. XIII, 498. J 

The lands of Vigo County were surveyed by Deputy Surveyors 
William Harris and Arthur Henrie, in the years 1814, 1815 and 1816, 
and the public sale was made September 13 and 14, 1816, at the 
Vincennes land office. 

Vigo county. — In 1790 the region now known as Indiana and 
Michigan was organized into a county and named in honor of Gen. 
Knox. Other counties from time to time were organized from the 
territory of this county until it was reduced to a narrow tract of 
land extending from the southern to the northern boundaries of the 
State. In 1817 the northern part of Knox county was organized 
into a county called Sullivan county, and in 1818 a portion of Sul- 
livan county was organized into a separate county, and named in 
honor of Col. Francis Vigo. 

Other lands. — Besides the lands sold by the United States to in- 
dividuals, there is the sixteenth section, or its equivalent, in each 
township, which the Government granted to the townships to aid the 
people in the maintenance of public schools. These sections are 
known as school lands. 

To aid the State in building canals to connect the navigable 
waters of Lake Erie and the tributaries of the Ohio, the United 
States granted to the State great quantities of land, known as canal 

Later, certain lands, returned by the deputy surveyors as swamp 
lands, were granted to the State to aid it in reclaiming swamp and 
waste lands. 




Virginia Extended Its Dominion Over the Northwest and Estab- 
lished Civil Government— Cession by the States and the Ordi- 
nance OF 1787— Rapid Settlement of the Miami— Indiana Terri- 
tory Formed— Harrison Appointed Governor— His Treaties and 
Wars— Fort Harrison— Battle of Tippecanoe— Captain John Tip- 
ton— Tecumseh Attacks Fort Harrison— Zachary Taylor, etc 

AS related in a preceding chapter, this part of the world became a 
part of the territory of Virginia, and was made Illinois county 
in 1778, and a civil government under the direction of the military, 
was authorized by the general assembly of Virginia, yet, owing to 
the invasion and capture by the British General Hamilton, of Vin- 
cennes, the new government was not in fact, until 1779, after Gen. 
Clarke had recaptured Vincennes and made prisoners of war of the 
garrison. In the spring of 1779, Virginia extended its authority over 
its northwest possessions, and appointed Col. Tod governor of Illi- 
nois county, with headquarters at Kaskaskia, This was a good 
appointment, and the new governor at once proceeded to organize 
the needful government machinery. 

While this was the end of the dispute as to the soil of this part 
of the world, it was by no means the permanent settlement of the 
land question in the form that we now know it, and, although the Indi- 
ans had by treaty several times ceded the country to the whites, yet 
stubborn claimants from time to time appeared. These troubles, 
however, will be mentioned in their proper order of time. 

Soon after the Revolution the northwest territory became a 
source of trouble to the general Government. Besides the claims 
of Virginia, which had been apparently so well established during 
the war, the States of New York, Massachusetts and Connecticut 
asserted title to portions of it by virtue of their respective ancient 
charters. As already mentioned, these defined the north and south 
lines of the grant, but as no one then knew what lay west, they 
simply took as their boundaries in this direction the boy's idea " of 
all out doors," and as Virginia's claim ran both west and northwest, 
it was liable to cross on to the claims of its sister States to the 
north. Congress, on September 6, 1780, requested the several States 
" having claims to waste and unappropriated lands in the western 


country to cede a portion thereof to the United States." January 
2, 1781, Virginia released her claim to the northwest territory, 
reserving 150,000 acres near the falls of the Ohio, which was 
promised by her to Gen. Clarke and the officers and soldiers of his 
command who marched with him; and also reserving to the French 
and Canadians of Kaskaskia, Vincennes and neighboring villages 
their titles to the lands claimed by them. But these just and rea- 
sonable conditions caused delay in accepting the cession. They 
made other or additional legislation necessary, and for this reason 
the final act of Virginia making the cession was not completed until 
March 1, 1784. New York following the first movement of Vir- 
ginia, ceded her claim March 1, 1781 ; Massachusetts April 18, 1785, 
and Connecticut made her final cession September 14, 1786. 

The ordinance of 1787 contains this provision: "That there 
shall be formed in said territory no less than three nor more than 
four States ; the western State to be bounded by the Mississippi, 
the Ohio and the Wabash rivers; a direct line drawn from the 
Wabash and Post St. Vincent due north to the territorial line 
between the United States and Canada, and [west] by said terri- 
torial line to the Lake of the Woods and Mississippi. The middle 
State shall be bounded by the said direct line, the Wabash from 
Post St. Vincent to the Ohio; by the Ohio and by a direct line due 
north from the mouth of the Great Miama to said territorial line. 
The eastern State shall be bounded by the last mentioned direct 
line, the Ohio, Pennsylvania and the said territorial line. * * 
The boundaries of these three States shall be subject to alteration 
if Congress shall find it expedient," with " authority to form one or 
two States in that part of the territory lying north of an east and 
west line drawn through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake 
Michigan." The wording of the proviso led to considerable con- 
tention as to the true meaning thereof, in adjusting the boundaries 
of the two additional States. This again was the result of the want 
of that geographical knowledge of the country necessary to a more 
accurate describing of metes and bounds. 

This was the first act of congress, placing the country without 
white inhabitants, but simply reckoned by the square mile as un- 
occupied territory belonging to the United States, in the start 
toward a completed territorial and State formation in the common 
sisterhood. They had learned enough in their military movements 
over the northwest to know that some time here would be a popula- 
tion demanding all the civil requirements of the original States. 
But they must have had a most imperfect idea of when this neces- 
sity would come about. And to those men permitted to live a few 
years and see the movement of population they no doubt saw 
crowded into decades what they had supposed would require cent- 
uries to accomplish. 


But when peace with all its blessings came to the colonies, so 
rapidly did emigration pour into the Great Miami that in the early 
part of the year 1800 the population was already sufficient to en- 
title the territory to be advanced to the second grade of govern- 
ment. Accordingly, May 7, of that year, congress passed an act 
for a division of the territory to take effect July 4, following. 

By this act all that part of the northwest territory lying " to the 
westward of a line beginning at the Ohio, opposite the mouth of 
Kentucky river, and running thence to Fort Recovery, and thence 
north until it shall intersect the territorial line between the United 
States and Canada, shall, for the purposes o^ temporary government, 
constitute a separate territory to be called the Indiana territory." 

Gen. William H. Harrison was appointed governor. He 
reached Vincennes early in the year 1801, The secretary having 
reached that place the July previous acted as governor until his 

The first important work for Gov, Harrison lay in the direction 
of dealing with the Indians in order to maintain peace and settle 
questions that might arise as to the extinguishment of claims 
they might make to any of the lands in the territory. He at once 
entered into negotiations with them. The Indian character, like 
that of any barbarous people, was much like that of young chil- 
dren, that are apt to consider trades or treaties but temporary af- 
fairs to be annulled or changed at convenience. The French, Eng- 
lish and Americans each in turn had treaties conferring all these 
lands, but there were still important questions to settle. 

By the close of 1805 Gov, Harrison had extinguished the In- 
dian title to more than 46,000 square miles of territory. But still 
the Miamis and their allies held on to their claims to the Wabash 
valley. They wanted the fish in the streams and the abundant 
game everywhere. This fed their families, and all were warm and 
happy in the winters in the deep woods of the valleys and they 
vowed they would not part with the good country. 

Tecumseh and his brother, the Prophet, headed a great con- 
spiracy, based upon their title to these lands, and determined to drive 
out the whites north of the Ohio from its source to its mouth. 
The Shawnees were the principal tribe in this movement, but this 
chief and his brother traveled among all the tribes and enlisted 
in the cause all who were opposed to giving up the territory. 

During the summer of 1809, Tecumseh and forty of his war- 
riors went to Vincennes and protested against the cession of the 
land. The following September, however. Gov, Harrison met some 
of the chiefs at Fort Wayne, and on the 30th concluded a treaty 
for all the land south of a line which should run from the corner of 
the old reservation on White river " from the ten o'clock sun to the 


south of Pisliewaw (Raccoon) creek," etc. This was called the 
" Ten O'clock Line," that the Indians might understand its course, 
as it started in a southeast direction from the mouth of Raccoon 
creek, now in Parke county. It passed diagonally through the 
southwest part of Parke, the northeast of Clay, Owen and Monroe 
counties, the southwest of Brown county and struck the north 
branch of White river in Jackson county. The next month, Octo- 
ber, the Weas, the heads of the original village of Terre Haute, 
went to Vincennes and confirmed this cession; soon after, the Kicka- 
poos gave their consent. These were surely the last tribes having 
any shadow of claim to the disputed territory. 

But all this only made Tecumseh more vehement and bitter in 
his opposition, and he openly declared that the line should not be 
run. His opposition delayed the settlement of this part of Indiana. 
In July, 1810, he sent a marauding expedition to the south, to steal 
horses and do other acts to provoke a war with the whites, but the 
Weas of Terre Haute sent word to Vincennes of the expedition, and 
it was thwarted. The next month, August, Tecumseh met Har- 
rison at Vincennes and again angrily declared he would not allow 
the surveyors to run the line, nor any settlement to be made by the 
whites near it. He concluded his grandiloquent and warlike speech 
with the fine sarcasm that "the white man had land enough, for he 
had sent spies as far as the Ohio and the whites did not tend half 
the land they had." 

However, in the face of these threats and boasts, the governor 
sent John McDonald, in October, 1810, who ran the northern line 
of the new purchase from a point on White river nearly east of Vin- 
cennes to the mouth of Big Raccoon ; thence to the State line. This 
line struck the Wabash near the center of now Parke county, and in 
law all south of this was open to settlement. Thus for some years 
Vigo and the lower part of Parke county were open to settlers be- 
fore the land north of it and in the reservation. 

The report of this line survey was filed in Vincennes November 
14, 1810, and in it McDonald makes no mention of any trouble in 
the work from Indians, but the Weas — the Terre Hauters — were very 
friendly. March 17, 1811, Gov. Harrison contracted with A. J. 
Holmes to lay out the purchase for settlement, but here the work 
stopped, as Tecumseh' s scouts were traversing the country as far 
down as White river, and the survey was postponed. 

Tecumseh now laid positive claim to the land as far south as 

It soon became evident that the conduct of the Weas and Pianke- 
shaws was to be doubted, and that they were probably taking sides 
Avith Tecumseh. In the meantime Tecumseh's force had grown 
very large, and Gov. Harrison, after exhausting every means possi- 


ble to pacify or satisfy these people, determined upon breaking up 
that chief's organization effectually and compelling a settlement of 
all disputed questions. With an army, therefore, of 900 effective 
men, he marched up the Wabash, on the east side thereof, and sent 
his supplies by boats up the river. He moved out from Vincennes 
September 26, 1811, and reached the Wea village of We-au-ta-no, 
" The Eisen Sun," " The Old Orchard " or Terre Haute, as at times 
it had been known by all these names, October 3. 

Here the governor halted, according to instructions, and built 
Fort Harrison, while awaiting the return of the messengers he had 
sent to Tecumseh at Prophetstown. These messengers were to de- 
mand of that chief that he surrender the murderers and stolen horses, 
and require that the Shawnees, Winnebagoes, Pottawatomies and 
Kickapoos collected there should disperse and return to their own 
tribes. He also sent forward men under Ensign John Tipton to 
explore the routes through now Parke and Vermillion counties. Tip- 
ton scouted along the bottom and terrace, " second bottom," on the 
east side of the Wabash to near Waterman, and then dropped down 
the river, crossed and examined the other side and selected a point 
for the army to cross. 

Ensign John Tipton deserves more than a passing notice in the 
history of Vigo county. He was Gen. Harrison's right-hand man. 
On his clear eye and quick good sense to observe, the commander 
safely relied in matters of vast importance. He was a fine proto- 
type of those men who gave the world those people who formed and 
fashioned the western character. He was self-made, and better still, 
self-reliant. His nature was strong and robust. As a parlor man 
or a dancing-master his failure would have been signal and com- 
plete, but among and of strong men he was a man, with all the term 
implies, and was as resolute as he was unlettered or deficient in 
spelling. He was the scout and chronicler of Harrison's army. As 
little as he knew about the art of writing, his reports to his com- 
mander contained exactly what that man wanted, and he could 
readily understand it. As a specimen of what he did in the line of 
writing and spelling, and the observations he made on this then new 
country, a few extracts are given literally: 

"friday 4th a fine day I went to hunt came to camp at three 
found thirty men commanded by Lieut mcmahon was to guard a 
boat going to the Vermillian river for coal I went with them went 
five miles Part Prarie & Part Timbered crosst a fine creek came to 
another &, campt. 

" Saturday 5th we moovd early through good land. Crosst a 
fine larg creek went through a fine prairie found a Bee tree and 
stopped to Dine and cut it this morning one of our mess took a 
swoling in his face and went Back. All the forepart of this day we 


had a ridg on our right and good land good springs on the left in 
the Evening we marched hard crosst four creeks Broken land high 
timber and came up with our spies as a larg creek I found land that 
is the best I have seen in this Day we crosst the Purohace Line 
(Big Raccoon creek) we traveled 30 miles N. N. West. 

" Sunday 6th we mooved early one mile came to the river at the 
Coal bank (Thomas') Found it was Below the Vermillian half a 
mile we took coffee mooved after the bote started down, the coal 
Bank is on the east side of Wabash, we went through a small Prai- 
rie crosst the river to the west side went in on the head of a barr 
and came out on the lower end of another on the west side went 
through a small Prairie then came to a big Prairie where .the oald 
Vermillian town was. we crosst the wabash half a mile above the 
mouth of vermillian river Before we came to the above town crosst 
vermillian river took a south course throng timber then throng a 
Prairie with a good spring and an oald Indian hutt then throng a 
beautiful timbered ground to a small creek -and stopt to let our 
horses graze then went through good land with a ridg on our right 
out of which came four sprigs and for two miles nothing but large 
sugar and walnut. 

" The hill and the river came close together we found a good 
coal Bank 14 mile below Vermillian we then crosst to the east side 
went three mile and campt with the Boat after coming 20 m and 
finding 2 Bee trees left them. 

" Monday the 7th we mooved early three miles and crosst Rac- 
coon Creek in the Purchace line thence fifteen mile to the garrison " 
[that is back to Fort. Harrison.] 

October 30 the General mustered his forces, told them that they 
were going out to fight Indians and marched out of Fort Harrison. 
He had learned of the country through Tipton and the messengers 
he had sent to Prophetstown ; had completed the fort and drilled 
and organized his army. The march at first was straight north and 
went into camp at night at one of the springs mentioned by Tipton, 
having marched seventeen miles the first day. The next day as per 
Tipton's journal: " We mooved early too of the oxen missing three 
of our men sent to hunt them we crosst Racoon creek saw our men 
went to guard the Boats on the 29th came to the river where we 
camped on our return from Vermillian we halted till the army came 
up then Rode to the river which was verry deep then campt our 
Boat Guard and the army took a north cours up the East side of the 
Wabash and Crosst to the west with orders to Kill all the Indians 
we saw fine news. The Governor's wagon Being left this morning 
in Consiquins of the oxen being last came up now and all the armey 
crosst in 3 hours. We Drawed Corn." 

The army encamped on the 2d of November at the mouth of the 


Big Vermiliou, and hastily erected a block-house partly jutting 
over the river twenty-five feet square. It was on the edge of a 
small prairie. This was garrisoned with a sergeant and eight men, 
and they had charge of the boats. On the 3d the army left the 
block-house, crossed the Vermilion and entered the prairies, the 
route passing just east of the State line. 

On the morning of the 5th the army encamped within nine 
miles of the Prophet's town. The night of the 6th was spent a 
short distance south of it, but the governor determined not to hurry 
in the attack until he had the enemy's exact position. 

However, early on the morning of October 7, 1811, the Indians 
under Tecumseh and the Prophet stealthily came out and surprised 
and attacked Harrison's army. A bloody battle was fought the 
most of the day, in which, inch by inch, the ground was stubbornly 
contested by both sides. The Indians rushed to the attack with 
reckless daring. They had been told by the Prophet that the white 
man's bullets could not hurt them. But they wete repulsed with 
heavy losses and retreated to a swamp where the army could not 

This was a historical day for the northwest and especially Indi- 
ana. It was the practical final solution of the question as to 
whether the white man or the Indian was to be master in the new 
country — whether civilization should advance or stop on the line of 
the Ohio and Wabash, and what is now the great garden and gran- 
ary of the world should yield its rich stores to mankind or remain 
a savage wilderness. It gave the watchword to the nation in- the 
general- election of 1840 of " Tippecanoe and Tyler too " — the log 
cabins and the coons and the hard cider that made the old hero, 
Harrison, President. The people of the country could understand 
these political battle cries, because they understood the incalculable 
service Harrison had rendered the world. 

Capt. Spier Spencer and Lieut. McMahan of the same company 
of the above mentioned Ensign Tipton's company, were killed, and 
immediately after the battle, by unanimous vote of the company, 
the gallant Ensign was made captain, Prophet's town was destroyed, 
and Gen. Harrison then returned with his army to the fort. This 
ended the famous campaign of 1811. 

It opened this portion of Indiana to the eager coming settlers 
when was at once begun that stream of white faces that has never 
stopped. Harrison left his army at their winter quarters in the 
fort, but Tecumseh had his roving bands at times marauding 
through the country, and during the winter and following spring 
settlers were shot sometimes within sight of the fort. 

The next year, 1812, the troubles rapidly thickened. The war 
with England was commenced, and the Indians were aided and en- 


couraged by the British in every possible way in hostilities against 
the whites. Between Fort Harrison and Vincennes there were but 
few white men. The Indians formed a new confederacy, and before 
Harrison could prepare and go out and attack them they swooped 
down, and September 4, 1812, made a desperate attack on Fort Har- 
rison. The fort was now under the command of Capt. Zachary 
Taylor, that grim old soldier, who knew all about fighting and noth- 
ing about surrendering. The enemy attacked with desperate valor. 
They fired the fort, and hand to hand the fight raged. The Indians 
were beaten off, the fort saved, and the dispirited assailants re- 
turned to the north, on their way committing the awful atrocities 
on the Pidgeon Roost settlement. Soon after, the great chief, Te- 
cumseh, was killed at the battle of the Thames, and then the Indi- 
ans at once repaired to Vincennes and made peace with Gov. Har- 

In October, 1812, Gen. Samuel Hopkins passed up the Wabash 
with his army, but his men became insubordinate and the expedi- 
tion failed. In 1813 he raised another force and followed Gov. 
Harrison's route. He laid out a new road through the northern 
part of Yigo and through Parke county. In this last mentioned 
expedition was Col. Zach Taylor. 

These final tragedies in the ending of the Indian wars in this 
portion of the country resulted in spreading through the older set- 
tlements a true knowledge of the great natural beauties and incom- 
parable wealth of this part of the world; it opened the country to 
the pioneers to come and possess forever ; it resulted in the death 
of the great conspirator against the whites — Tecumseh; it was the 
means resulting in making the wilderness the seat of unequaled 
empire; it gave our country two Whig Presidents and one Vice- 
President. Taylor followed Harrison here and co-operated with 
him, and then followed him into the presidential office, and by a 
singular coincidence both of these men died soon after they were 
inaugurated and were serving in the most exalted office in the world. 




The Old Indian Orchard — Johnny Appleseed, etc 

THE reader is admonished just here that it will require the lively 
exercise of his imagination to go back more than three hundred 
years and try to see this locality as it appeared to the first civilized 
beholder. That first man was no doubt a Frenchman — following 
the setting sun, the "Beautiful River" (Ohio), the Wabash and its 
tributaries, the game and the more valuable fur-bearing animals, 
he roamed at will, shooting the streams in his light canoe, and car- 
rying his trusty rifle — this self-exile, with his sudden appearance, 
must have startled the denizens of the wilderness and the solitudes. 
From stream to portage, from portage to stream, on and on, like the 
Wandering Jew, he pursued his aimless, ceaseless course. He had 
left, with no shadow of regret, civilization behind him. For it he 
cared not, but was joyous in the new wild world unfolding so grandly 
before him — the new liberty, the free sunshine and air, and his 
nature was soon as wild and untrammeled as that of the beasts and 
birds that greeted him on his way. He cared little for the past and 
nothing for the future. Life to him was the Now and its free air, and 
his philosophy was " after me the flood," and so far as we are con- 
cerned he was not given to anticipate the future farther ahead than 
the next meal. So if he could put upon paper in fit words what met 
his gaze from day to day, the last thing that would have occurred 
to him would have been to do so. 

Three hundred and seventy years ago the Spaniards landing on 
the coast of Florida, and in the pursuit of gold and precious gems, 
plunged into the unknown wildernesses, reached and discovered the 
Mississippi river, and they pushed on in a short time to the Pacific 
ocean. As usual among explorers, they claimed, in the name of 
their Government, everything before them, and everything to the 
right and the left of them. They were the first white men to see 
the continent as it came from the hand of God, ready prepared in 
the vast eons of time for the permanent home of the highest and 
best civilization. Could we by some miracle bring back again the 
picture reflected in the camera of the first white man's eye that ever 
beheld this spot on the world that we know as Vigo county, what 


would it reveal? The woodland and the three prairies in the county. 
The small mounds just north of Terre Haute were the silent and en- 
during evidences left by the Mound Builders. The woods deep and 
dark, with a heavy undergrowth, and clinging vines. The prairies 
jutting up to these sharply defined timber walls, some rolling away 
in swells as beautiful as those of the lazy ocean. The others, level 
and flat, covered mostly with shallow water, and grass often as high 
as a man's head on a horse. Others again, pastured by the buffalo 
and deer, until there was a shorter and richer growth of grasses. 
The lakes and ponds where now are farms, and the air filled with 
birds, swans, cranes, geese, ducks and nearly every conceivable vari- 
ety of water fowl. On the high ground the grazing buffalo, often 
in countless herds, or, if migrating, there extended away a long 
black line reaching to the front and rear beyond his vision, moving 
in military precision after their leaders, to or from the southeast or 
northwest. The deep-trodden trails of these animals were then the 
only marks upon the face of the ground. The elk, the deer and the 
antelope were upon this rich pasture land. The prairie wolf, with 
its mean and hungry look, silently passing here and there to wait the 
nightfall, when its sharp yelp and its grewsome howl would mingle 
with the fierce screams of the prowling and more dangerous panther of 
the forests. In the woods were the bears, the panthers, the wild 
cats and the black wolf. The latter a far more dangerous animal 
for man to encounter than his skulking congeners of the prairie. 
On these watery and marshy prairies were sometimes small, beauti- 
ful groves, setting like gems in the sea. The waters were filled 
with shining fish, and in the streams were the cunning and sleek 
coated beavers, teaching civilized man how to build dams and utilize 
the waters. Where is now Terre Haute he would have seen a mis- 
erable, straggling Indian village, with their scattered wigwams, 
made of bark, and the smoke straggling up through the hole in the 
center of the top. Here were the naked savages fighting for exist- 
ence on the very borders of brute creation — filthy and wretched can- 
nibals, either driving their brother savage, or being driven on and on 
to ultimate extinction. The birds and beasts were tame and the 
people were wild. Insect life swarmed like rising clouds, and the 
snake, spotted with deadly beauty, silently glided beneath the rank 
vegetable growths. 

The first hour of the arrival of the white man was the moment 
of the beginning of the change wrought out in the short centuries in 
this beautiful panorama that lay spread out over the face of Vigo 
county and the surrounding country. Slowly has the change in the 
whole face of the county come, but it is complete. The utilitarian 
hand of civilized man struck ruthlessly at all these natural beauties. 
The dark old woods have been hewn away, as the great smoking steam- 


ers have driven off the swift and graceful silent canoes, so has the 
soft velvet sheen of the prairies disappeared before the mold-board of 
the plow. Fields and fences, orchards and ornamental trees, houses 
and barns, bridges and railroads, and mills and clanging factories, 
and their tall chimneys filled with eager fires, have covered the earth 
and obliterated the shifting scenes, the lights and the shadows, and 
the entrancing landscapes, and the tread of the busy feet of men on 
the stone pavement is now where once in security the wild beasts 
licked their cubs. 

The youth of to-day can only gain some little idea of the work 
wrought here by his fathers as he may in some measure compre- 
hend the changes that have come since civilized man first asserted 
dominion over the land. He simply sees what was here when he 
was born, and without a thought " it was always so." His views of 
life will be enlarged as he informs himself of who and what has 
gone before him, and the details of how it really all came about. 
That as wide as the gulf is between the long ago and now, it was 
really all patiently worked out as he works his little tasks in the 
intervening time in the school hours. 

Alas the story can only be so imperfectly told that it may fail to 
interest him. If it does, then there is but the one consolation — he 
may never know his loss. 

Somewhat later on, travelers came, who wrote down what they 
saw, and have left us something of the impressions made on their 
minds the first time they looked upon the country. Capt. Thomas 
Hutchins, of his majesty's Sixtieth Kegiment of Foot, afterward 
geographer to the United States, who made occasional visits be- 
tween the years 1764 and 1775, made in his journal such minutes: 
" Two French settlements are established on the Wabash called 
Post Vincient and Ouiatanon ; the first is 150 miles and the other 
262 from its mouth. The former is on the eastern side of the river 
and consists of sixty settlers and their families. They raise Indian 
corn, wheat, and tobacco of an extraordinary good quality, superior, 
it is said, to that produced in Virginia. They have a fine breed of 
horses (brought originally by the Indians from the Spanish settle- 
ments on the western side of the River Mississippi), and large stocks 
of swine and black cattle. The settlers deal with the natives for furs 
and deer skins to the amount of about £5,000 annually. Hemp of 
a good texture grows spontaneously in the lowlands of the Wabash, 
as do grapes in the greatest abundance, having a black thin skin, and 
of which the inhabitants, in the autumn, make a sufficient quantity 
of well-tasted red wine. Hops, large and good, are found in many 
places, and the lands are particularly adapted to the culture of rice. 
All European fruits — apples, peaches, pears, cherries, currants, 
goosberries, melons, etc. — thrive well, both here and in the country 


bordering on the Kiver Ohio * * * * The annual amount of 
skins and furs obtained at Ouiatanon is about £8,000. Their route 
is by the Miami river to a carrying- place, which, as before stated, is 
nine miles to the Wabash, where this river is raised with freshes, 
but at other seasons the distance is from eighteen to thirty miles 
including the portage. Carts are usually employed in transporting 
boats and merchandise from the Miami to the Wabash. The whole 
of the latter is through a level country. ***** Be- 
tween the Wabash and Miami there are beaver dams, which, when 
water is low, passengers break down to raise it, and by that means 
pass easier than they otherwise would. When they are gone the 
beavers come and mend the breach; for this reason they have been 
hitherto sacred as neither Indian nor white man hunt them." 

The journal of Capt. Croghan, who was carried- a prisoner up 
the Wabash by the Indians in 1765, tells how the country appeared 
to an Englishman's eyes, with all his natural prejudices against 
the French: " On my arrival there ( Vincennes), I found a village of 
eighty or ninety French families, settled on the east side of the 
river, being one of the finest situations that can be found. The 
country is level and clear and the soil very rich, producing wheat 
and tobacco. I think the latter preferable to that of Maryland or 
Virginia. The French inhabitants hereabouts are an idle, lazy 
people, a parcel of renegades from Canada, and are much worse 
than the Indians. They took a secret pleasure in our misfortunes, 
and the moment we arrived they came to the Indians exchanging 
trifles for their valuable plunder. As the savages took from me a 
considerable quantity of gold and silver in specie, the French 
traders extorted ten half-johannes (about $40) from them for a 
pound of vermilion. * * * Post Vincent is a place of great 
consequence for trade, being a fine hunting country all along the 
Ouabache, and too far for the Indians which reside hereabouts to 
go either to the Illinois or elsewhere to fetch their necessaries 
* * * The country hereabouts is exceedingly pleasant, being 
open and clear (prairies) for many miles; the soil is very rich and 
well watered; all plants have a quick vegetation, and the climate is 
very temperate through the winter. The great plenty of furs 
taken in this country induced the French to establish this post 
(Ouiatanon), which was the first on the Wabasb, and by a very ad- 
vantageous trade they have been richly recompensed for their labor. 
On the south side of the Ouabache runs a big bank in which are 
several fine coal mines, and behind this bank is a very large meadow 
clear for several miles." 

A characteristic of the French colonists was the practice of 
planting orchards. Wherever was made a settlement that was ex- 
pected to be permanent, fruit trees were planted, and long before 


the English occupation the inhabitants reveled in the annual burden 
of lusciousness that came to them almost without labor or care. 
Tradition puts the establishment of orchards about Detroit in the 
year 1720. Hutchins says that nearly all the species of large and 
small fruit had been planted at the posts on the Wabash, and were 
thrifty before his time. This is the earliest explicit mention of 
horticulture in this section. The probabilities are that fruit trees 
were brought as early as 1735. As early as 1711, of the vicinity 
of Kaskaskia it was said: "Grain grows here as well as in France, 
and every kind of vegetable roots and herbs; there are also all 
sorts of fruits and of excellent taste." 

The French here were so isolated from the world that they made 
few changes in manners or customs during the time from their 
coming until the British came into possession. Simple, happy and 
contented were these scattered people. Volney, who visited Vin- 
cennes in the eighteenth century says: "The language of these 
people is not a vulgar provincial dialect [patois) as I had been 
told, but tolerable French intermixed with many military phrases. 
Their written language was worse than their speech. Their home 
and their country was the little spot of ground around the widely 
scattered forts in the howling wilderness. Here they passed their 
careless and happy lives. The rich soil, bountiful as mother earth 
ever offered her sons and daughters, required so little labor to pro- 
duce all they needed, that serious, M'earying labors afield were 
unknown to them. They moved their barns instead of the accumu- 
lated manure, because this was the easiest to do. Their little cul- 
tivation of the soil was exceedingly primitive — wooden plows ex- 
cept the share — the beam ten or twelve feet long; two solid wooden 
wheels in front of the plow, one taller than the other to run in the 
furrow; no chains or whiffle-trees. Oxen pulled this by a pole. 
They used both oxen and horses, and what little harness was used 
each one made for himself of raw-hide or twisted withes. A cari- 
ous shaped yoke was fastened in front of the ox's horns. This 
plow and a heavy iron hoe was about the extent of farming utensils. 
Even with such farming they could produce enough for home sup- 
ply, and ship down the river to New Orleans, barge after barge 
laden with flour, pork, tallow, hides and leather, and from New 
Orleans went cargoes of this stuff to France and the West Indies, 
and in return came sugar, European fabrics and metal goods. In 
1746 there was a great scarcity of provisions at New Orleans, and 
the French settlements of the Illinois sent in that winter upward 
of 800,000 pounds of flour. These French never learned to use 
corn to make bread — they made no corn meal, but consumed all they 
used for food as hominy. 

The French occupancy of the northwest were these vsddely sep- 


arated specks in the trackless wilds. They made little or no per- 
manent impression upon the country that passed from them to the 
march of the pressing Anglo-Saxon. They and their simple habits, 
and, generally, pure and patriotic lives, have gone — the older gen- 
eration passed away from earth, and the younger adopted Ameri- 
can ways and habits. None of these interesting people made a per- 
manent abiding place in Vigo county. They were here, frolicking, 
singing, dancing, gibbering and trading with the natives, but it was 
to go and come only. Their long occupancy was an interesting era 
in the movement of civilization and the volcanic -Gaul, as Carlyle 
has termed the French. They adjusted themselves to their new 
surroundings, and created a new society — "the Gaul and his highly 
religious civilization, grafted on that of the native wild children of 
the plains. They were ready to have at any time their allegiance 
changed for them, and in a moment, from flag to flag, they followed 
the commands of the home government — ^changed readily every- 
thing, except their religious faith, and to this day, wherever you 
find their descendants, you may count upon them, as a rule, as being 
still loyal to the mother church. Their best houses were poles 
stuck in the ground and covered with clapboards, fastened with 
wooden pegs, or frequently with bark. 

The old Indian orchard was a beautiful and noted spot when 
first seen by English explorers, and was well known to the early 
settlers of Vigo county, and especially Terre Haute. In its mem- 
ory, as it has long since passed away, as it once appeared, the 
poetic romancer has woven a thrilling legend of a captive white girl 
and a Shawnee Indian. The spot is just south of the Van track, 
where it strikes the river. It was used for some time in the early 
day as a common burying ground. A few graves and their leaning 
stones yet remain in bad conditon. Just above it was a high knoll, 
now denoted by the "cut" of the railroad. This was one of the 
most beautiful spots that was to be seen along the winding banks 
of the Wabash, from its source to its mouth. Here was a com- 
manding view of the beautiful river, sweeping away in the distance 
like a silvery ribbon. The white man found here a few stunted, 
gnarled and scraggy apple trees, that gave its name. It was from 
the first the "old Indian orchard," and among the Indians was no 
knowledge of how these evidences of civilization came to be there, 
and hence the wild poetic mind of the natives would readily invent 
the groundwork of the romance that tells of the Indian "Nemo" 
and the white-Indian girl "Lena," who met and loved, and how, 
when the savages gave up their captives, the poor girl who had 
beeji captured and adopted by a warrior, whose home was at the 
"old Indian orchard," was taken back to her family in Pennsyl- 
vania, but when she was told that this was her sister and that her 


brother and that her white parents slept in the near graveyard, she 
thought of her Indian lover and her home on the Wabash. How 
eventually her faithful dusky lover followed and found her, and 
how they stole away from civilization, married in the woods, came 
back to her old home her Indian father gave, and all was desolate, 
but here they built a wigwam, and lived happily until he was killed 
by the Miamis, and Lena then killed herself and fell upon her hus- 
band's body, etc. The historical part of the legend is that when 
she stole away from her white people in Pennsylvania, she had put 
some apple seed in her pocket, and planted them here. 

The fact is, these apple trees simply explain that the Frenchman 
had come here and married a squaw, and this was his home, and 
he was simply doing as did all Frenchmen — ^^at once planted such 
fruit trees as he could procure the seed. How long he had staid 
here as a member of the Indian family we can form no idea. If 
the Indians that were here had any tradition concerning him they 
never told it, but true to their instincts, substituted the outlines of 
the legend that the imagination, of the writer extended into the 
romatic lives of Nemo and Lena, and their little boy, or papoose, 
who was seven years old when his father was killed, and who grew 
to be a warrior, and was killed by the side of Tecumseh at the battle 
of the Thames. 

That is the Indian way of recording history, helped out by the 
imaginative white man, and that has done a great deal of this senti- 
mental nonsense that has clothed the Indian character in false 
colors, and braced up much of this folly of government making of 
them wards for the people to pay taxes to feed and support. The 
savage, as against the civilized, harldy has a valid title to life, much 
less to the dominion of a great continent. And he can gain rights 
only as he civilizes himself — ceases to be a cannibal, and becomes 
domestic in his nature — turns from the wild, and conforms to the 
new and better order of affairs. It is not the business of the toil- 
ing white man to be forced to pay tribute to civilize or educate him, 
he must do these things for himself, or in the struggle for life he 
may simply follow nature's inevitable laws and perish, fade away, 
and leave not a wrack behind. A nation that has wards to feed, 
clothe and educate, must have slaves to render the unpaid labor. 

To the east, as you stood upon the eminence of the old orchard, 
was the prairie coming as close as where is now Fifth street. Lost 
creek with its sluggish waters meandered near where is now the 
Union depot. It passed on southeast of the city, as it had been 
changed from its original course to the northwest to the river, the 
channel choked by debris and in going south seemed to disappear 
as a stream in a wide swampy district without current. Hence it 
was called Lost creek. It however did have an outlet in high 


waters into the river south of town. All that part of the city where 
is now the Union depot, Tenth and Eleventh streets, was covered 
with water, where the wild fowls would come in countless numbers. 
One very venerable pioneer tells me he has seen the time that with 
a long pole thousands of these birds could have been killed within 
what is now the city limits. This stream was turned to the north- 
west, and now empties into the Wabash just north of Terre Haute. 
In connection Dr. Swoffard and M. Hollinger give still another 
theory in reference to the apple trees in the old orchard. They 
agree that when they were boys they heard the old men who 
were here the first frequently refer to those fruit trees, and their 
belief was that a noted character who made regular trips into the 
wilderness in the latter part of the eighteenth century, and was 
known as "Johnny Appleseed," from his habit in his aimless 
travels of carrying with him apple seed and planting them here and 
there on his way. This man was well received by the Indians, and 
the whites looked upon him as their truest and best friend from 
Marietta, near which was his claimed home, to the outer posts of 
the earliest pioneers. He often, it is said, would pass through the 
country and warn the whites that the Indians were upon them, and 
they would heed the warning and flee to the forts and block-houses 
for safety. It was said that he was always the first to know when 
the savages were to start on a marauding expedition, and, swifter 
than they, he would pass through the scattered settlements and give 
the alarm. This mild maniac would make his rounds among the 
Indians, and back to the whites every year. His going and coming 
was apparently as aimless as the movements of the winds, except 
when moving in that swift silence, and day or night he would pound 
on the cabin door, and in a loud whisper, " The red devils are com- 
ing!" and then was gone into the night and darkness, but on and 
on until all knew he had passed through the desert and that the 
bloody savages were following. 

Johnny Appleseed deserves his place in history — a lunatic, 
whose gentle nature planted the apple seed and whose mission was 
much that of a ministering angel to the wigwams and the cabins of 
the northwest. 

All these were the advance preparations of the final coming of the 
log-cabin — squat and rough, it was the first foot-prints of enduring 
dominion — destroying much that was wild and beautiful, but re- 
placing it with that abundance and glory that is benign, growing 
and ever advancing. 




Capt. Zachary Taylor in Command— Indian Attack and Repulse— 
Maj. John T. Chunn— Drummer Davis— How He Guarded the 
Graves of His Comrades— The Historical Curve of the Road— 
Maj. Sturgis the Last in Command of the Fort— Etc. 

THE beginning of the permanent possession of this part of In- 
diana and what is now Vigo county may properly be said to 
date from the building of this historical structure. It stood near 
the old "Indian Line," and for some years it was the frontier gar- 
rison on the borders toward the country of the hostile Indians. 
It was in its day a place of great importance, and was the land- 
mark of the far-off coming settler from the east and the south. 
Under its shadow civilization paused in safety in its slow but grand 
march across our continent. 

This refuge and place of safety to the affrighted pioneer and 
his family, as they so often in their advances in the wilderness 
fled by the light of their burning cabins from the painted and piti- 
less savage, has wholly gone, and no remaining traces mark the 
spot where it stood. Seventy-nine years have come and gone since 
Gen. W. H. Harrison came and erected the old fort. They have 
been great and changeful years. The one first structure in the 
county so fraught with great events and full of memories has 
passed away ; its old logs, at least many of them, were cut and 
made into mementos, walking canes, ink-stands, etc., and now but 
a few of these are to , be found in the possession of some of the 
older citizens. Where the fort stood is about three miles from 
Main street, Terre Haute. 

Gen. Harrison and his army arrived in September, 1811, com- 
ing from Post Vincennes up the east side of the Wabash. His in- 
structions were to select some point within the old "Indian Line" 
and there build a fort and drill his army, with a view to marching 
Eigainst Tecumseh and his brother, the Prophet. When he reached 
the Highlands — Terre Haute — on the east side of the Wabash, the 
beauty and advantages of the spot decided him at once as to the lo- 
cation he would select. Just south of the chosen site was the scat- 
tered Wea village. On the ground was standing the timber needed, 
and during the months of September and October the trees were 


felled and hewed and the walls of the fort were put up. The mclos- 
ure was 150 feet square — a stockade of heavy timbers. The two 
corners to the west were the block-houses, forming the outer walls, 
and the eastern corners were bastions, two-story, and projecting 
from the second story. These were pierced on each face with em- 
brasures above and below, to fire upon the enemy and guard against 
the approach to fire the building. The western line, toward the 
river, was formed by the soldiers' barracks. These were merely 
strongly -built log huts. The entrance or gate was on the last. On 
the north side was the guard-house, and on the south side was the 
well and the magazine. The stables, shed, etc., for the stOck, were 
along the north side. 

After the fort was completed and Gen. Harrison had been in- 
formed by his messengers and spies, he marched out and hunted up 
the Prophet's army and fought the battle of Tippecanoe. After 
that successful campaign he returned to Fort Harrison, and in a 
short time to his headquarters at Vincennes. 

In 1812, the next year, the fort was in command of Capt. 
Zachary Taylor, of the Seventh Infantry. His company consti- 
tuted the garrison. The fall of this year was signally marked by a 
general sickness throughout the entire Wabash valley. The 
disease was described as epidemical fever. From this sickness the 
garrison suffered severely, and at one time there were hardly well 
men enough to mount guard. Capt. Taylor had a severe attack, 
and many of the men were wholly incapacitated for any service. 
It was supposed that this condition of the garrison had become 
known to the Prophet, who had now slightly recovered from his dis- 
aster at Tippecanoe, and stimulated and aided by the British, he 
planned an expedition to capture Fort Harrison. 

Thursday September 3, 1812, immediately after retreat-beating, 
the discharge of four guns was heard by the inmates of the fort in 
the direction where two young men were known to be engaged in 
making hay, about 400 yards distant. The commander in a mo- 
ment mistrusted the meaning of the firing, and when the men failed 
to return to the fort at night he was convinced they had been killed, 
but owing to the darkness he did not send out to see until the next 
morning. About 8 o'clock a corporal with a few men were dis- 
patched to look for them, but to be watchful for an ambush by the 
savages. The squad soon returned with the bodies that had been 
scalped and shockingly mutilated. 

The commander had arisen from a sick bed, and during the most 
of the night he was looking after every preparation and seeing that 
every defense possible was arranged. He realized the weakness of 
his force and understood the nature of the enemy that was about to 
swoop down upon him. 


Late on the evening of the 4th, an old chief, named Lenar, 
with a force of about forty men, mostly chiefs of various tribes that 
had been collected by the Prophet, came in sight of the fort, bear- 
ing a white flag, and a Shawnee Indian, who spoke good English, 
called out that Lenar wished to speak with Capt. Taylor in friend- 
ship, and that they would come the next morning to get provis- 
ions. This stratagem was for the purpose of allaying all suspicion 
of an attack, but did not deceive Capt. Taylor. At retreat-beating 
that evening he had out every man able to be out of bed and per- 
sonally inspected each one to see that all was in good order; dis- 
tributing cartridges so as to supply every one with sixteen rounds. 
The guard which, owing to sickness, had been but six men and two 
non-commissioned officers, was now increased. Capt. Taylor, in his 
dispatch to Gen. Harrison, after the attack, said: "From the un- 
healthiness of my company I had not conceived my force adequate 
to the defense of this post, should it be vigorously attacked, for 
some time past." During the night he was on his feet every mo- 
ment he had strength to do so, but was compelled to take his bed 
at an early hour. Before retiring he again visited his men and 
cautioned them to the greatest vigilance, and ordered one of the non- 
commissioned officers to walk around on the inside the whole night 
and examine everything, as there were places the sentinels could not 
see from their position. He warned all that they mig^t expect an 
attack before morning. He had not been deceived. 

About 11 o'clock at night the sentinels commenced firing. Capt. 
Taylor sprang up from his bed and ordered every man to his post. 
Soon it was discovered the Indians had fired the block-house on the 
southwest corner, which contained the property of the army con- 
tractor — the stores of provisions, etc. Now the discharge of fire- 
arms became quite brisk on both sides, and immediately the alarm 
of fire spread through the fort. This sent such consternation that 
for several minutes there was confusion, so much so that the com- 
mands of Taylor were unheard or unheeded. So intense was the 
darkness of the night that, although the upper portion of the block- 
house was occupied by the corporal's guard, yet they did not dis- 
cover the approach of the Indians or discover them setting fire to 
the building. They had started the fire in the holes that had been 
licked under the timbers by the cattle trying to reach the salt stored 
within. The flames soon communicated to some whisky in the 
lower part of the block-house, and thence quickly ascended to the 
roof and raged fiercely, and for a time it looked as though they 
could not be stopped, but would sweep the whole structure. Here 
were the fierce flames about them and outside in the darkness were 
the more savage and pitiless assailants. The stoutest hearts were 
ready to sink in hopeless despair — all was lost. The crackling 


flames, the rapid firing and the increasing hideous yells of the sav- 
ages thirsting for blood, the cries of the women and children who 
had taken refuge in the fort, all added to the horrors of the moment. 
All knew of the weakness of the garrisor and the strength and 
ferocity of the foe. 

Bui most fortunately they had a commander equal to the occa- 
sion. In the wildest of the confusion he was cool and collected. 
His commanding voice rang out in commanding tones. He ordered 
water brought, and ordered a squad to mount the roof and tear 
away that part next the burning barracks, while the remainder 
poured a heavy fire toward their assailants from the block-house 
and bastions. The light from the Indian's gun,* when he would 
shoot, gave the mark to these splendid riflemen in the fort, and 
before the flash of the savage's gun had passed it was answered by 
a bullet from the bastion. This was the only protection that could 
be given the men on the roof who were fighting the fire, but it was 
effective. But one man was killed and two wounded while at this 
dangerous mark on the roof, and the fire was soon checked. This 
gave new hope to the men, quieted the screams of the women and 
children, and then the fire was so furious upon the Indians that they 
had to fall back out of range of the riflemen. Before daylight the 
strong breastworks were put up in the burned gap, but all night 
long the Indians continued firing both balls and barbed arrows into 
the fort. 

Some evidence of the terror of the attack and the appearance of 
the fire in the dead of that very dark night is told, but is not 
authentic, that two of the best soldiers were so bewildered that they 
leaped over the pickets in despair and rushed out into the darkless. 
Of course, they were seen by the Indians; one was cut and harked 
to pieces and was found scalped and nearly an unrecognizable mass. 
The other escaped immediate death, but had been shockingly 
wounded before he could hide from his pursuers in the darkness. 

The Indians kept up the attack until 6 o'dock the next morn- 
ing, and as soon as daybreak enabled the soldiers to s6e them their 
fire from the embrasures was furious and effective. 

The Indians drove together, keeping out of range of the fort, 
all the horses and hogs belonging to the garrison or citizens, and 
shot them in full view of the people in the fort. All the cattle, 
about seventy head, they collected and drove off with them as they 
went away. 

Gen. Taylor reported two killed and one wounded. This was a 
heavy loss, unusually severe, when it is borne in mind that Capt. 
Taylor's report showed that there were but fifteen effective men 
in the company at the time of the attack, the remainder being s'ck 
or slightly convalescent. The Indian force was estimated at several 


Capt. Taylor in his report to Gen. Harrison said: 

" At 11 o'clock at night I was called up by the firing of the senti- 
nel, and I ordered the men to their posts. My orderly, who had charge 
of the upper block-house, called my attention to the fact that the 
Indians had set fire to the lower block-house, in which were the stores 
of the contractor containing materials which were soon in flames on 
the roof. The alarm of fire, the yelling of the Indians, the cries of 
women and children and desponding of the men consisting of only 
about fifteen, produced a panic, but my presence of mind did not 
forsake me, and by throwing off the roof of the adjoining building 
and keeping it wet only about eighteen feet of an opening was made 
by the fire, and by pulling down the guard-house I had kept the 
vacancy filled with pickets so the enemy could not enter. Two men 
were killed and one wounded, all by their own carelessness." 

John Dickson and Jonathan Graham and families were in the 
fort at the time. Graham often told that the women drew the 
water and he carried it up and put out the fire and wet the adjoin- 
ing roof, and that when this was off his hands the women loaded the 
guns while he fired through one of the port holes. 

In 1813 the Indians massacred some of the settlers living south 
of Honey creek. This was a band of Potawatomies. Of this 
raid John Dixon told that, in after years, in talking with one of the 
chiefs of this tribe, he told him that the next night after the mas- 
sacre the band approached Dixon's cabin with the intention of kill- 
ing the family, when they found all the few neighbors in the cabin 
holding a prayer-meeting, and becoming afraid of the "Great 
Spirit " they quietly left. 

While there was no further attack on the fort after the Indians 
fell back out of range a little after' daylight, yet they hovered about 
all day, and were seen moving in bands at every point. During the 
following night some time they stole away and retreated to White 
river, committing small depredations on their way, especially on a 
small settlement on that river. 

The heroes in the fort were in a distressing condition. Their 
stock all gone and their provisions destroyed by fire ; nothing to eat, 
and hardly a hope of relief if the enemy should be reinforced and 
again attack them. 

Capt. Taylor immediately took steps to communicate affairs to 
Gen. Harrison at Vincennefe. He despatched two men in a canoe 
down the river, but they were driven back by the enemy and had a 
narrow escape. He next selected his orderly sergeant and a private 
and ordered them to go to Vincennes, keeping in the deep woods on 
the way. They reached Vincennes, and immediately Harrison 
started a force of Kentucky volunteers under Gen. Hopkins to the 
relief of Taylor. This relief force had nearly 4,000 men. They 


came to Fort Harrison in haste, and after all was put in good order 
there they were to go in pursuit of the savages toward Peoria. 

Gen. Harrison was so pleased with the conduct of Capt. Taylor 
that he at once recommended his promotion to brevet major upon 
the army register. This was the beginning of the rise of that 
young officer until he was finally made President of the United 
States in 1848. 

It was nineteen years after this that we find the gallant Taylor 
across in Illinois engaged in fighting the Indians. This was the 
Black Hawk war, which in 1S32 closed with the battle of Badaxe, 
which ended the wars and the existence of the Indians east of the 
Mississippi. When Taylor was here on the Wabash, fighting the 
red man, he was under and acting in concert with Gen. Harrison. 
When on the Illinois river, in 1831-32, he was acting in concert 
with Jeff Davis, Gen. Winfield Scott and Abraham Lincoln, and the 
noted "Old Ranger," Gov. John Reynolds, of Illinois, by virtue of 
his office was in command of the forces. 

Capt. Spier Spencer and Lieut. McMahon (this lieutenant's 
name had been so quaintly written by Ensign Tipton) were killed, 
and their bones have returned to dust near where was once the 
shadow of the fort they died so bravely defending, sleeping on 
the banks of the river that was the gateway for civilized man that 
linked the north to the south, over which the canoes of the cou- 
rier des hois had piloted the way to the steamboat, the canal and 
the railroad freighted with the world's rich commerce. The names 
of the others killed and wounded are not found in the records of 
this day, and they may have to go into history, as so often happens 
to real heroes as " unknown." 

The two men killed that were said to be making hay were named 
Doyle. They were buried about half a mile below the fort on the 
bank of the river. Those killed in the battle were buried nearly 
two miles east of the fort on the Durkee road, and in passing a hill 
as you travel this way you will notice a sudden bend or swerve in 
the road just at the brow of the hill. This sudden bend in the 
road has a history. It is a monument, a respect we are paying to 
the heroes who fell in the fort. The circumstance of the case was 
as follows: Drummer Davis was the man who beat the long-roll on 
that dark night of the attack on Fort Harrison. He was a stub- 
and-twist Englishman who had deserted the British army at Detroit 
and came and joined Harrison's forces, and was a kind of general 
drum-major, not only for Harrison's army, but for Vigo county as 
long as he lived. On July 4 he was always on hand; on election 
days he drummed merrily away while men voted and fought and then 
drank and fought again. He gave no more heed to fighting than 
voting, but beat the long roll, the long reveille, the long charge and 


the long retreat; it was all long beating, and pounding just a little 
harder when the noise and fighting grew more furious. He was a 
royal character. He lived and drummed his old days away, and 
when not drumming he would get the boys around him and fight 
over his battles, in startling reality, beat an imaginary drum with 
imaginary sticks, and "show how battles are won." The effective 
implement of war with the grim old soldier was the drum. With 
Zach Taylor to do the fighting and Davis the drumming, they could 
whip all creation. He had that bluff English manner that spoke 
and moved in all things in the positive and superlative mood. It 
admitted of no contradiction or doubting, and the stumpy old vet- 
eran bore his diploma from the battle of Fort Harrison that gave 
him an open leeway among all men to know whereof he spoke, and 
to bring from the gaping crowd of boys that fascination and awe 
that his oracular words always inspired. 

When he left the army he settled in Yigo county. He had 
fought all over creation, and therefore he knew the best spot on 
earth, most assuredly, when he had seen it and fought it out there. 
This brought him to Vigo. When he was quite old he lived with 
his son-in-law, Stewart, across the river from Terre Haute. When 
his comrades were buried he had drummed the most heartfelt 
"evening retreat" of his life at their funeral and over their graves. 
In his eyes no mortal ever deserved or had ever received so grand 
a funeral. His drum had spoken the deepest and tenderest 
thoughts, so eloquent, so pathetic, that had ever swelled the grim 
old soldier's heart, and over these unmarked graves was sacred and 
holy ground to him. It was the one link, rather the golden chain, 
that ever carried his thoughts from the divine music of his drum to 
that echoless shore to where the gnarled old stocky soldier has long 
since gone. 

It came to the old drummer's knowledge that they were going 
to lay out the Durkee's road, and that it was intended to run it over 
the hill and exactly over the spot where he had buried his fallen 
comrades. He got down his old long black rifle and ordered his 
son-in-law to take him across the river. He sternly informed them 
that he did not know just when he would return, if ever. This was 
all the information he gave them as he ascended the bank with his 
gun on his shoulder. 

He repaired to the little knoll where were the graves, and seated 
himself with his gun across his lap. After a time the surveyors 
came along laying out the road. When they saw him of course 
they paused and inquired what was the matter. He quietly sat 
there until they told him what they were doing, and then he told 
them in return what he was doing: 

"My comrades' bones are here. I helped bury them. When I 


heard what you intended doing I came over. The road will not he 
run over their graves while I live. I don't expect to live long, 
and I expect to die right here, but I should not be surprised if 
somebody else died before I do. That's all I have to say." 

Respect for the dead and the living caused the surveyors to 
make the sudden curve that may now arrest the curious attention of 
the wayfarer who but seldom knows the history of it. 

But there it is. Let it remain forever, not only the silent mon- 
ument to the fallen heroes of Fort Harrison, but equally so to 
Drummer Davis. There is a stronger link than life that binds the 
memory of these heroes. Drummer Davis died in 1847. 

Fort Harrison was continued as a military post pntil about 1822, 
when it was abandoned and dismantled, and, piece-meal, disappeared, 
wrth little or nothing now to mark the spot where it stood. There 
were some posts of the main building inhere as late as 1848 — a mere 
tumbled down ruin. 

In 1815 it was commanded by Maj. John T. CI;iftinn. By the 
kindness of Dr. Swofford I was shown the original of the foLlowing 

Fifth Military Department, \ 

Headquarters, Detroit, 10th May, 1816. \ 

Sir: Having been informed by Maj. Morgan that he has marched out of the 
department by order of Gen. Jackson, and that in consequence Maj. Morgan 
thought it his duty to order vou to occupy with your command the fort he had left, 
you will continue to make Fort Harrison your station and consider yourself com- 
mandant thereof. Such of the public property that without great expense [can] 
be removed from Fort Knox to Fort Harrison, you will cause to be removed and 
placed in as much security from depredation and from the weather as your stores 
will admit. If the quantity of small arms is very great you will communicate with 
the oflBcer of the ordnance department, to learn if any arrangement has been made 
by hiH department for the removal of the arms and surplus ordnance stores. Take 
care, however, to have your command as well furnished as possible with the means 
of defense, and always be on your guard against the Indians, never permitting 
them to take any undue liberties and punish promptly any insult they may offer. 
It is the best way to keep on good terms with them. You will at the s^me time 
prevent any person from abusing or maltreating the Indians, considering yourself 
as their protector in all that regards their just rights and privileges. 

You will be pleased to send me a sketch of the fort and grounds in its vicinity; 
Btating the number the barracks will contain; the nature of the soil about the fort; 
the general quality of the land near you, and also, whether the position is well 
chosen; whether it be healthy and the quality of the water. 

Be pleased also to give a statement of the different tribes of Indians in your 
neighborhood and the amount of Indian warriors in each tribe. Also, the state of 
the fort as to comfort and defense, and generally ev^ry information touching the 
command. * 

With respectful consideration, I have the honor to be, sir, your most obedient 
servant, Alexander McComb, 

Maj.-Oen. Commanding dth Military Department. 
To Haj. Cetonn, Third Regiment Infantry, Commanding at Fort Harrison. 

Maj. Chunn was succeeded in command by Maj. E. Sturgis, 
and it is tradition that Sturgis was the last in command of Fort 
Harrison. In 1820 Chunn was in Detroit, and about that time he 
left the army, and remembering the beautiful country on the Wa- 


bash, he returned to Terre Haute and made this his home the re- 
mainder of his life — died in 1847. Some of his descendants bear- 
ing his name are still here. 

These are the outlines of the historical old fort — the advance post 
so long that stood on the outer bounds of civilization, looking 
toward the northwest; looking away in the dim future to the now. 
A watchful sentinel, under whose eye the savage quailed and moved 
backward, backward, backward, fighting slowly, fiercely, until beyond 
the Father of Waters, beyond the mountains and the descent of the 
slope of the Pacific, with the tread of the invincible white man 
pressing upon his sullen heels, the advancing column ever grow- 
ing and swelling into that ocean of restless humanity ; the retreat- 
ing remants dwindling and fading away, leaving their bones whiten- 
ing their path, and as they finally appear upon the western shore, 
jaded, spiritless, hungry and forlorn, their once wild and fierce 
manhood gone, they turned, holding out to .their pursuers the ex- 
tended hands that begged for bread. 

To the first few people that came here under the shelter of the 
guns of the old fort, its memory was fresh and green to them dur- 
ing life. When Terre Haute was but little more than a neighbor- 
hood settlement, the fort was their metropolis. The officers and 
their families were called upon in every society movement. The 
band of the fort would furnish music for the first Virgiiiia reels that 
were ever raced over the primitive puncheon floors. The ladies of 
the fort were the cream of society, where the pioneer girls leiirned 
the fashions and how to wear so gracefully those tortoise shell great 
combs that were to them as the apple of the eye. They joined in the 
celebrations, the pic-nics and the Fourth-of- Julys. They mingled 
with the people at births, weddings, sickness and funerals, and were 
most welcome guests on all occasions. They lived in the old fort, 
and this was the "head house" to all Vigo county during the 
years of its young life. Its lights are fled, but its garlands are not 

A blessing and a tear to its memory ! 




F. F. V. 

First Fellow in Vigo— First Family in Vigo— First Few in Vigo— 
First Furrow in Vigo— First Five Years— 1810-1815— Uncle Jo. 
LiSTON— The Shannon Massacre— Etc. 

THERE is not only a pardonable, but a commendable feeling in 
the old Virginia stock, indicating his pride of his people and 
admiringly applying to certain leading families the title of F. F. V. 
— the first families of Virginia. This smacks of an aristocracy, but 
it was one after all whose coat of arms came from mother nature 
and was her diploma of royal or superior qualities. This old Vir- 
ginia pride has been jeered at, and in some cases it was no doubt 
deserved, but there is a strain of nobility of nature that cherishes 
and respects true greatness for itself. It is the cultivation of that 
kind of honor and self-respect that is elevating and ennobling. 

A few years ago, when the noted " Long John " Wentworth was 
mayor of the city of Chicago, some sprig of royalty from the old 
world visited this country and notified Chicago that he would reach 
there with his retinue on a certain day. This, of course, started up 
a great commotion. One of the wealthy men of the place in some 
excitement called on the mayor to consult with him about giving 
royalty a proper reception. His first suggestion was that the mayor 
should select one hundred of the " first families " of the city to take 
charge of the ceremonies. The mayor said: "Very well; besides 
your own family, of course, please write me out a list of the other 
ninety-nine." The gentleman was thoroughly nonplussed. He 
could not name another. After annoying him for some time, the 
mayor, who was a member of the " Old Settlers society " of Chi- 
cago, handed him a list of the first settlers in the county, with the 
dry remark, " These are the ' first families,' and there can be no 
mistake here. These are the names in our county's Blue Book, and 
in my opinion there is no bluer blood in the world than runs in 
their veins." And was he not right? 

There is something more than an idle whim that, in the centen- 
nial year of our nation, impelled the President and the congress of 
the United States to call upon all the counties in the Union to as- 
semble their early settlers and the descendants of early settlers, and 
gather the history of the respective counties' settlement and place 


it in permanent form for future generations. It was an attempt to 
preserve the memories and record of the nation's builders; an effort 
to render a meed of praise to as worthy a race of men as has ever 
lived; men of grand and heroic stamp, the pioneers of civilization, 
who blazed the way and prepared for the coming of civilization. 

Who was the first pioneer that came to Vigo county '? Not who 
was the first white man who visited this spot in the vast wilderness, 
to trap and hunt or to trade with the red men, but the first white 
man who was the advance of the people who are here now, who se- 
lected this spot as the one favored place upon earth where he pro- 
posed to stick down his Jacob's staff and dwell forever. Who was 
he or they and when did he or they come? Although only eighty 
years have come and gone, possibly only seventy-nine years — 1811- 
1890 — yet it is a question already somewhat difficult to determine 
with absolute certainty, perhaps impossible to ascertain. True, the 
point is more curious than important, because all who came, say dur- 
ing the first decade of the settlement of the" county, were practically 
identical in the matter of winning the desert to the homes of their 
children and we who were to follow them. The first five years, sappose 
we commence after the Indian attack upon Fort Harrison in 1812, 
there were not, it is supposed, 300 people all told in what is now 
Vigo county. And it is only a chance one of these that can now be 
named. There is a tradition that Michel Brouillett opened a trad- 
ing-post in this county at the mouth of Brouillett creek, in 1797. By 
the name of course he was a Frenchman, and a trader with the In- 
dians. It was not the country probably that attracted him, but the 
trade that it offered. 

The Brouilletts — Michel and Lawrence — it seems became good 
Americans, and this settlement was of a more permanent character 
than that of the ordinary French traders. Michel was at one time 
taken captive by hostile Indians, and they made a holiday for the 
purpose of torturing and burning him. He was tied to a tree and 
the fagots prepared, when, at the risk of her own life, an Indian girl 
interfered and had his sentence changed to that of " running the 
gauntlet." This was for the squaws and children and squaw-men to 
stand in two rows and compel the prisoner to run between them, 
while each one would try to kill him, and ordinarily it was certain 
death. But Brouillett was strong, active, and so quick that he came 
out badly wounded, but got away with his life, and afterward mar- 
ried an American woman, accumulated property and died in Vin- 
cennes, where he had long made his home. 

It was his brother, Lawrence, that made the noted ride on horse- 
back as a courier from Vincennes to Kaskaskia. 

They were good citizens, and some of their descendants are now 
in Vigo county. 


Among those who purchased and improved property in Terre 
Haute was Michel Brouillett, but on the record, it appears as 
" Mitchell," a natural mistake. As a rule, however, during the 
long occupancy of the French of this part of the country, they 
were at peace with the Indians, and frequently had temporary trad- 
ing places that they would visit at intervals. Reference to these 
French couriers and traders at some length is made in preceding 
chapters. Owing to this fact of the traders being temporarily here 
long before the permanent settlers came, it caused the question to 
come up in the shape of — Who turned the first furrow in Vigo coun- 
ty? This seemed to be agreed upon as the real point that settled 
the question among the old settlers themselves, when they came to 
discuss the matter in late years. It was assumed, no doubt correct- 
ly, that the man who came and plowed the land did not come as a 
soldier, trader or explorer, but to make a permanent home. 

One authority informs me that Samuel Middleton, Peter Mal- 
lory and one other, the name unknown, came together in 1810, and 
on what is now Col. R. W. Thompson's farm, four miles south of 
the city, " turned the first furrow" ever plowed in Vigo county; 
that they broke and planted in corn several acres, and were then 
driven off by the Indians, and went to Vincennes. The next year 
Samuel Middleton belonged to Harrison's army that came up and 
built the fort. Middleton died in 1857. He had located west of 
Teri'e Haute just across the line in Illinois. Pdter Mallory settled 
in Fayette township, Vigo county, where he died in 1861, a very old 
man who retained his mental faculties to the time of his death. My 
informant says that when he was a lad he had often heard Middleton 
tell how he had plowed the first furrow in Vigo county. Dr. Swof- 
ford remembers distinctly of hearing Middleton often tell of this 
circumstance, and the year it occurred. 

In this connection we give the following letter, dated 1875: 

Editors Terre Eaute Express: I want to correct some mistakes that 1 see in 
the columns of the Terre Haute Journal; not that it was the intention of the writer 
to misrepresent the facts in the case as stated in regard to this account of the death 
of Thomas Puckett, and of his being classed among the oldest settlers of Vigo 
county. As this is mentioned as the history of the county, I wish it to be given cor- 
rect; not that I would in any way detract from Thomas Puckett anything that 
may be due him as a pioneer, but the true facts in the case are these: That in the year 
1811 I turned the first furrow that was turned in what is now called Vigo county, 
on the road leading from Terre Haute to Lockport, on what is represeuted as the 
Dean farm, I. with my father, Edmond Liston, and William Grear Adams, William 
Drake, Reuben Moore and Martin Adams, broke, fenced and planted seventy- 
five acres of corn, and sold the corn raised to Harrison's army, while building the 
fort near Wabash river. Since that time I have not been absent from Vigo 
county to exceed four months at any one time. During the said time I was engaged 
through fear pursuing Indians that were committing depredations on the settlements 
below, and in burying the dead that were killed by them. Isaac Lambert, John 
Dickson, Hudson, Chatrey and Mallory all cultivated the lands under the protec- 
tion of the fort. 

Notwithstanding I was here the time above mentioned, I have no recollection 


of Mr. Puckett being in Vigo county until the year 1816. I believe it is true that 
he built the house mentioned on the Modisitt lot, in the fall of that year, after the 
sale of lots in Terre Haute. So far as he being in conjunction with me in break- 
ing the soil of Vigo county it is a mistake, as we never were in connection with 
each other in any capacity whatever. 

Some time ago I heard that it was proposed to have a meeting of the old 
citizens; that is, the pioneers of Indiana come together and rehearse incidents of 
the early settling of the county. The move would please me very much, as I be- 
lieve that I can give as near or nearer a true history of the settling of Vigo county 
as any other man that now lives, for I claim to be the oldest man now living that 
first settled in Vigo county. I am now (1875) eighty-seven years old on the 23d 
day of last January, and can read without spectacles, and enjoy as fair health as 
any one of my age. Of course, according to the course of nature, I can not be 
here long, and would like to have a visit with the old pioneers of Vigo county. 

With good wishes to all, etc., 

(Signed) Joseph Liston. 

This, it will be noticed, does not contradict that account given 
above of Samuel Middleton, Mallory and the unknown, except as to 
"the first furrow." And even in this the two accounts are not irrec- 
oncilable. Middleton and companions were driven off in 1810 
after their crop was in, and it is not stated when they returned, and 
they were quite a distance from where the Liston crowd made their 
settlement. The former may not have returned when the latter came, 
and therefore Liston had no reason to doubt but that his settlement 
was the first. In his list that he gives of those who " cultivated 
lands under the protection of the fort," it would seem that he called 
up his memory and gave the names of all whom he remembers were 
here in 1811 — outside of the fort, the total population in the coun- 
ty, and he recalls, in addition to himself, Edmond Liston (his fa- 
ther), William Grear Adams, William Drake, Reuben Moore, Martin 
Adams, Isaac Lambert, John Dickson, Mr. Hudson, Mr. Chatrey 
and Mr. Mallory. To this list may be added the names of Moses 
Evans, of whom it is said he came in 1812 to what is now Linton 
township, in the prairie bearing his name. And about the same 
time and place came James French, a bell-maker, who made many 
bells for the Indians, and also a man named Campbell, on the prai- 
rie east of Prairieton, whose child was stolen by the Indians, and 
never recovered, although diligent search was made for years. 

It has been asserted that George Clem settled in Honey creek 
township in 1812. This is probably two or three years too soon. 
He built north of where the State road crosses the creek. He 
died on his farm in 1835. 

This is evidently the same Mallory that was with Samuel Middle- 
ton. It is possible in the sixty-five years that had elapsed since 
Jacob Liston came here, his memory may have been at fault in re- 
gard to Samuel Middleton and the unknown who was with Mallory, 
whom he mentions. His whole letter shows a remarkable memory, 
that seized and held its facts like a steele-trap, but we must re- 
member there was no one he could consult while he was penning 


his letter to see that he had not forgotten to mention some one of 
the 1811 settlers. 

Joseph Liston died in 1875. He came from Ohio to Vigo county 
on horseback, the same stylo that many others of the early pioneers 
came in. His family and all their worldly goods were packed on 
two horses, the household goods on one horse, and two boys on top 
of the goods, and this horse was not freighted much heavier than 
the other one, on which was the wife, with one child strapped on 
behind, and the other in her lap, while the man on foot, with his 
rifle on his shoulder, piloted the caravan, and thus "the star of em- 
pire wends its western way." [In Gookin's history of Vigo county 
is given a very erroneous account of Liston, which says he came in 
1816, and settled in Prairieton township. He had simply removed 
that year to Prairieton from Fort Harrison prairie. — Ed. J 

Who of these new men had families at that time Liston does not 
mention. It is much to be regretted that there was no Boswell at 
the side of this venerable pioneer to have written down the names 
of the members of each family. There is no doubt that some of 
them had wives and children, because the next year these women 
and children were in the fort when the fight occurred in that dread- 
ful night attack. In the account of that battle especial mention is 
made of "the screams of women and children" when the fort was 
on fire and all seemed to be lost. No doubt Mr. Liston could have 
recalled every chick and child and given the name even of every 
dog then in Vigo county. It may be that up to 1814 he could have 
given from memory a complete census of Vigo county. And what 
a treasure trove this would be now in the story of the Vigo county 
pioneers ! 

Then it is in the memory of those living that there was then the 
Briggs family in the fort, and one of the daughters, at that time 
a little girl, named Mary Briggs, who married later in life Mr. 
Wright, was one who helped mold bullets for the soldiers during 
the fight. 

Also that there was another girl there near the same age of 
Mary Briggs, who helped mold bullets and who afterward married 
Brotherton, whose sons are still living here. These two girls would 
clearly indicate there were two families not mentioned by Joseph 
Liston, who must have settled here in 1811 or 1812. It is sup- 
posed that George Clem, the first settler in Honey Creek township, 
came in 1812. He located just north of where the State line crosses 
the creek, near where George Kruzan lived. Mr. Clem died on his 
place in 1835. His descendants are among our worthy citizens. 

In 1880 Kev. Aaron Wood preached a historical discourse on 
early Methodism in Vigo county. He said that on Honey creek, 
as early as 1813, there was a church society, the first in the county. 


He says that John Dickson, Isaac Lambert, William Medford, Will- 
iam AVinters and Capt. Hains formed that first society, and held 
meetings generally in Dickson's cabin. And he mentions Jona- 
than Graham and wife as being in the fort, where was also John 
Dickson and wife at the time of the attack in 1812. He mentions 
Barns, Brown, Ostrander and Wilkins, but does not sav that they 
were here in 1812, yet the inference is they were. 

Isaac Lambert settled on Honey creek and made his improve- 
ment, and had a mill on the creek. 

Peter Mallory settled west of the river, in the southeast of Sec- 
tion 5, 13, 9. He had three sons, Martin, Calvin and Thomas, who 
removed years ago to the west. 

Harold Hays must have been one of the very earliest settlers, 
as he was a soldier and about here when Harrison built the fort. 
He died here in 1820, and was buried in the old Indian orchard 
graveyard, and a modest sandstone marks his grave. 

This, perhaps, is very near a complete census of the male inhab- 
itants who had settled in what is now Vigo county before or during 
the year 1812. The reasonable inference is that the most of these 
were young and unmarried men, and all of that kind who were 
afraid of nothing mortal, but who, in a mere dare-devil spirit, 
pushed their way here and rather enjoyed the dangers that con- 
stantly hung over them like a dark shadow. The very few who had 
their families took the sensible precaution to settle almost within 
the shadow of the fort. And where they were all men and were 
three or four miles from the fort, they considered that only a small 
or short foot-race if the savages came in too great numbers for 
them to stand their ground. 

These were that class of pioneers of which you would find 
at least two and sometimes three or four men in their log-pen house 
" keeping bach," that is, during the first few years, doing their own 
cooking and washing. 

As permanent settlers their footing was very uncertain; they 
were for years always ready to move at once when they saw danger. 
They could take all they had except the truck growing in their little 
patch farms, and still they would be literally flying light. They 
had nimble legs and nimbler wits, as well as keen eyes and a true 
and steady aim along their old long, black, flint-lock rifles. They 
welcomed the Indian when he came in friendship, and when he was 
hungry divided their scant stores with him and let him depart in 
peace. But when he came in his war-paint it was very different, 
and the bravest of them well knew that he could not get within 
range to kill the white man without being discovered and the fore- 
most surely killed, and then the white man, although as one to a hun- 
dred, would outwit them and escape with his life, to rally his com- 


panions, perhaps, to swoop down on the marauders and strike them 
without mercy. 

Christmas Dazney was born at the Old Orchard in 1797, on 
Christmas day, of course, but he was r half-breed — half French and 
half Indian. His father was a Frenchman, a trader, in Kaskaskia, 
who married a squaw. 

Christmas Dazney became a good white man, and was faithful 
to the Americans in the war of 1812-15, and in all the troubles of that 
time with the Indians. He became a citizen of what is now Parke 
county, where the government, for his loyal services, gave him a 
section of land. He married and raised a family, and sold his land 
and went with the Indians when they were renioved to Kansas. 
After his death his widow married an Indian named Peoria, and as 
the Indians pronounced this " Paolia," from this comes the name 
of Paola, Kas. 

This was the start of immigration into Vigo county. That was 
stopped in the year 1812, and for three years there were few, if any, 
additions to the population. The controlling causes of this break in 
the stream were two, namely: The fall of the year 1812 was noted 
as "the sickly season," In Gen. Taylor's account of the fight in 
the fort he speaks of this as the most discouraging part of the situa- 
tion of the garrison. This was more dreaded and more effective in 
its attack upon the soldier than the painted warriors. An epidemic 
fever appeared to prevail all over the country. 

This, no doubt, had its influence, but the far stronger reason was 
the breaking out of the war of 1812-15, between England and America. 
This immediate locality was the seat of war; that is, the English 
had gone among the tribes of Indians and had used every induce- 
ment to bribe them to raise their tomahawks and strike the Ameri- 
cans. The unsettled conditions of war were such that from 1812 to 
1815 there is now no evidence that there was any increase in the 
immigration to what is now Vigo county during those three years. 
There is no evidence there was any new arrival as a settler, and 
the probabilities are there was none. Joseph Liston says that he 
was out of the county " through war " during four months after he 
" plowed the first furrow in Vigo." The Indians, acting in concert 
with the English, had made some incursions south of this, and it 
was in aiding to repel these that Listqn and probably the most of 
those he mentions as being with him were temporarily out of the 

While the war of 1812-15 caused a cessation of the little stream of 
immigrants, it also interrupted those pursuits of peace, making 
farms and raising crops, of the few that were here. It is probably, 
therefore, safe to estimate that the first five years in the history of 
the settlement of Vigo county, 1810-15, there were not twenty-five 


actual settlers. This is a very small, but a very select list of the 
pioneers. Surely it is important enough to deserve, in the history 
of Vigo county, a separate chapter to itself. 

Joseph Listen lived to a great age, beneficently spared to watch 
over the growth of Vigo county. He died on his farm at the ad- 
vanced age of ninety-four years. And standing at the head of his 
newly-made grave, his panegyrist pronounced Joseph Listen the 
father of Vigo county. His death occurred at his home in Piersou 
township September 12, 1875, leaving, in the language of his 
obituary notice, " a legion of relatives and friends to mourn his 
loss." He was a native of Kentucky, born nine months prior to 
the surrender of Yorktown. He had lived to see his great-grand- 
children married, and some of his own children looking as venera- 
ble as himself. But few lives in all times covered such an era in 
the world's history, and fewer still were a part and partaker of 
events of such transcendent importance. He was a soldier of the 
war of 1812-15 with England. He had been a soldier under Gen. 
Harrison when Fort Harrison was made a garrison. He was a 
private under Capt. Toussant Dubois, Col. Thomas Scott, against 
the Indians oE Prophet's Town. He was also under Capt. Corne- 
lius Washburn, with Gen. Hopkins' expedition against the Peoria 
Indians in 1812. In all his military career he acquitted himself 
bravely and well. For these services he was given 160 acres of 
land and was in receipt of a pension of $8 a month at the time of 
his death. He married Louisiana Lloyd, his second wife, in Sulli- 
van county, July 10, 1845, Avho survives him. 

It will be remembered that in his account of the first furrow 
plowed in Vigo county, he mentioned Martin Adams as being with 
him. At an old settlers' meeting in Terre Haute, iii 1875, this 
man, among others, was present, and Martin Adams said: "I was 
born in Mercei: county, Ky., near McAfee's station. I came with 
my father in 1809 to the place I now live in, in Clark county. On 
the way we stopped at Curry's prairie; there we met Joseph Liston, 
Drake and others deliberating whether they would come to Fort 
Harrison prairie. They were in fear of hostile Indians. We were 
receiving dispatches [by hand] daily from Gen. Harrison as to his 
treaty that was unfavorable to peace. Joseph Liston said if any 
one would join he would go. The two Adamses, Drake, my father 
and myself joined him, and we came with three wagons. This was 
in April. That spring I saw Joseph Liston plow the first furrow in 
the beautiful prairie. * * * My father plowed that spring 
where now the eastern portion of the city of Terre Haute is built 
I can only determine its location as being west of a creek [Lost 
creek] that disappeared on the prairie [in the swamp] and was 
west of the timber that lined the Wabash river. His plowing was 


for the Miami Indians and I did the driving for him. There were 
two villages of Indians here at that time pretty close together ; one was 
on a high rise that overlooked the river. The squaws were very- 
much delighted at the style we plowed the -round; the reason they 
were amused was because if we had not done the work they would 
have to do it. * * Out on the edge of the prairie we built our 
huts and enjoyed ourselves when not at work cutting bee trees." 

This is conclusive testimony of the manner how the Liston set- 
tlement came, and it will be seen that these were all influenced by 
Joseph Liston. He was the ruling spirit. He knew the beautiful 
grounds, and for them he was anxious to brave the dangers from 
the savages " if any one wold join him." 

There is pregnant history in every word uttered ' by Martin 
Adams in his talk to the old settlers, and, to our infinite regret, he 
closed his remarks with the sentence: " I could give my personal 
experience, but that would not interest you." Never did mortal man 
make a greater mistake. This was exactly what posterity will 
always regret that he did not give. His " personal experiences " 
were the very beginning of the history of Vigo county. 

Liston not only plowed the first furrow, but built the first 
cabin in Vigo county. It was floored and roofed with white walnut 
bark. An ax, knife, tomahawk or hatchet were his chief tools. 
His entire household goods were a kettle, two cups and two stools. 
The bedding was chiefly the clothes the family wore during the 
day. His constant dangers and hair-breadth escapes were many. 
After Fort Harrison was built he would often, when danger ap- 
proached, take all to it. He was trusted by Harrison, and often 
sent to reconnoiter the Indian camps and report upon their doings 
and contemplated raids. He could slip around and watch the 
movements of these red men unseen and then fly to the fort and to 
warn the people of coming attacks. 

Mr. Crist, who knew him well, after his death wrote of him: 
" Often have I heard this gray-haired man say — and I have thought 
with much truth — that ' people of this day and country could not 
be made to appreciate what labor and hardships the present luxuries 
cost the early pioneer.' " 

At this meeting was Mrs. Sallie Brokaw, aged seventy-two 
years, who was born in Vincennes in 1804. Her mother came to 
the Wabash valley with Gen. Harrison. 

On this occasion Capt. T. C. Buntin was drawn almost by force 
to the stand and there addressed the old settlers substantialy as 
follows in reference to the Buntin family: " He regretted the ab- 
sence of his sister, a sprightly young widow, residing in Indianapo- 
lis, who was born at Vincennes in 1776, and is to-day in the posses- 
sion of all her faculties. I intended to exhibit her as a well- 


preserved relic of the last century." He then gave an account of 
the troubles borne by his family. His mother was a Shannon, the 
daughter of an adventurous Irishman. The captain's grandfather 
Jeft the settlement, went west and was never heard of afterward. 
The Indians were then friendly with the French, but massacred and 
robbed all others. A party of hostile Indians attacked the Shen- 
non cabin, where was his grandmother and her three children, the 
two elder daughters having gone away on a visit (one of these 
became the wife of Col. Francis Vigo), Capt. Buntin's mother was 
one of these three children at home, and was at that time about seven 
years old. The Indians killed the mother, then the babe in the cradle, 
and the two little girls were running, trying to escape, when they were 
overtaken, and the younger was tomahawked and fell dead by her 
sister's side. Mrs. Buntin had, in the French fashion, a blue cloth 
tied around her head, and the tomahawk was raised to strike her, 
when in French the child happened to exclaim " OA Mon Dieuf^ 
The blue cloth and this exclamation saved her life, the Indians 
believed she was French. They hurried away, leaving this little 
girl alone with her dead mother and sisters. During all that day 
she trudged along trying to find some house where she could gain 
entrance. The people were all French, and though friendly enough 
disposed were deaf to her appeals to be taken in. They were 
afraid it would oflPend the savages. At last she was received into 
a house by a man who could not withstand the appeal, and she 
remained in the protection of this good family until she was fifteen 
years of age when she married Mr. Buntin. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Moore, long a resident of Pierson township, a 
sister of Joseph Liston, was the first white female settler in Vigo 
county. When along in the nineties the " mother of Vigo county " 
could still be met on the streets of Terre Haute, where nearly 
eighty years ago she was the young pioneer woman. She was 
close to her one hundredth year when she died. 

The Mail of Terre Haute a few years ago made a list of those who 
were then here and who were born in the last century as follows: 
Daniel Barbour, Fayette township, born in New York, in 1780; Beebe 
Booth, Terre Haute, ; William Blocksom, Honey Creek town- 
ship, Del., 1795; D. D. Condit, Terre Haute, N. J., 1797; William 
Caldwell, Sugar Creek township, Tenn., 1791; James Caruthers, 
Nevens township, Tenn., 1799; John Crews, Sugar Creek township, 
Tenn., 1795; Joseph East, Terre Haute, Penn., 1799; Curtis Gil- 
bert, Terre Haute, Conn., 1795; James Hite, Terre Haute, Ky., 
1794; M. A. Jewett, Terre Haute, Mass., 1798; Sandford Larkins, 
Honey Creek township, R. I., 1797; Morris Littlejohn, Pierson 

township, Va., 1772; Joseph Liston, Pierson township, ; 

Samuel McMurre, Lost Creek township, 1798; James D. Piety, 


Prairie Creek township, Ky., 1796; Chauncey Kose, Terre Haute, 
1794; Samuel K. Sparks, Terre Haute, 1785; John Scott, Terre 
Haute, 1793; Zenas Smith, Terre Haute, 1796; William Vermil- 
lion, Fayette township, 1799; Williajn L. Weeks, Linton township, 

The paper says: "For want of accurate information, which we 
hope to supply hereafter, a number are omitted, among them John 
Dickerson, John Sheets, Zadoc Reeves, William Eldridge, J. C. 
Foxworthy, and H. P. Brokaw." 


The Second Wave of Pioneers— Who They Were. 

Still o'er these scenes my memory wakes, 
And fondly broods with miser care; 
Time but the impression deeper makes, 
As streams their channels deeper wear. 

— Shakespeare. 

AFTER three years of war — 1812-15 — and peace once more 
came to the country and especially to the northwest, then again 
were the great doors to the new country thrown wide open to the 
eager and waiting people in the old States to go to the good land in 
search for homes and fortune. It was like the breaking away of 
the obstruction that dams up the waters that rush forward when 
the way is cleared, bearing all before them. 

If taken by itself there is a strange peculiarity marking the 
movement of the pioneers. That is this: They would travel over 
hundreds of miles of country that was unsettled and often as rich 
and beautiful as was presented in the face of nature, yet hardly 
looking to the right or left on the way until they had reached that 
point of destination they had in their mind when starting from the 
old homes. They were indifferent, apparently, to what they saw as 
they traveled and camped on the long road, where they would some- 
times have to stop for days beside swollen streams, or a wagon 
broken, or some member of the family sick. There were chance 
cases where families had matters thus determined for them, and who 
located at long distances from the intended point, but these were 


exceptions. It Avas the wars and marches of armies through por- 
tions of the upper Mississippi valley that first carried back to the 
old settlements the news about the new country and its natural 
wealth. Then when the first pioneer came he was eagerly watching 
for an opportunity to send back word to the friends he had left be- 
hind, and urging them to come at once, and this would fix the ob- 
jective point to the movers. It was the social and gregarious in- 
stinct combined with the attachment to friends and the playmates of 
youth, more than the difference in the sections that so often deter- 
mined the question. But there were some who started in a general 
way to the promised land, and after many weeks they would go into 
camp by a spring of sweet water on the edge of a beautiful grove, 
and the next morning, when rested, would look out over the beauti- 
ful landscape, and inform the family that they were " at home." 
This was the start of many places where are now flourishing cities. 
Such was the story of the first settlers at Springfield, 111. 

There is no official record of course, in reference to what is now 
Vigo county, from the first comer to 1816. Here are six years that, 
so far as record facts go, is a complete blank. We must rely on 
tradition, the scant references to this locality in the general history 
of Indiana,and circumstances that are tolerably well established facts. 
In conversing with those who are now aged citizens, but who came 
here mere infants, or were born here, they can tell you who they re- 
member, and where they lived and who, as they often heard, were 
called old settlers when they can first remember, but they can 
only now recall whose farm had a few little sour seedling 
apples, where they went with such keen appetites to get some of 
them when very young, and they can remember whose cabins looked 
to their young eyes as being very, very ancient. These can give 
you some idea of the comparative periods of settlement of many of 
the pioneers, but, what the historian so much likes, no fixed day or 
date. Then the next thing is that here and there you will find an 
old man who will tell you very accurately what, as a child, he had 
heard talked over by the older people. Some of these brave woods- 
men were like the old soldier who, in old age, would often shoulder 
his crutch and show how battles are won. 

In his reminiscences of Fayette township, Dr. B. F. Swofford 
says that Jacob Newcomer (in this case there was certainly a pe- 
culiar fitness in the name) came and settled in Vigo county in 
1813, and squatted on land just north of the village of Sandford. 
He was not a land buyer, and could hardly be considered more than 
a transient settler. However he put up a little round pole cabin 
and lived in it a year or two — probably until the fall of 1815 or 
1816 and then pulled stakes and went west to grow up with the 
country, and be another newcomer to the local historians even away 


beyond the Mississippi. His coming was two years after the Lis- 
ton crowd, and in the heat of the war of 1812-15. 

It will be remembered that at that time these lands were for 
sale at the Vincennes land oflBce, on the credit system, therefore 
Newcomer was not deterred from buying for want of ready funds, 
but he had his plans, no doubt, and what was the use of going to 
Vincennes when he had no one to dispute his claim to everything 
west of the river, not only to the State line, but for that matter 
within thirty miles of the Mississippi river. This typical new 
comer filled his little place in the new country, and is entitled to 
recollection merely for his coming and going. So far as now is 
known he was the one arrival in Vigo county in the year 1813. 
Jacob could not have been a very social or even talkative being. 
He brought his family, and when he went away they went with him. 
All of them have long since ended their earthly pilgrimages, and 
let us hope their shades are r.esting in peace and perfect happiness. 

Curtis Gilbert. — December 20, 1815, came Curtis Gilbert. The 
arrival of this bright youth was an important day to the then future 
county of Vigo. He was nineteen years of age when he arrived 
bringing on a keel boat a stock of goods for his employers to Fort 
Harrison to trade with the Indians. Here he spent sixty-three 
years of his honorable and useful life. Gilbert and Demas Dem- 
ming were cousins, and it was his influence, therefore that brought 
some of the best of the first settlers to Vigo county. The Gilbert 
family were noted for longevity, and either of the males or females 
there were few that did not live to be past eighty years of age. 

Curtis Gilbert was born in Middletown, Conn., June 8, 1795. 
He died at the residence of his daughter, Mrs. W. S. Warner, at 
Palma Sola, on the Manatee river in Florida, Sunday, October 28, 
1877. His early life was devoted largely to the acquirement of a 
thorough English education, and at the age of seventeen, the school 
visitors of his native town granted him a certificate to teach school. 
He had completed his education in the Middletown high school. 
He taught school one term in his native place. October 31, 1813, 
he left his home to seek his fortune in the far west. He traveled 
in a boat to Amboy, N. J., then by land to Bordentown, and em- 
barked for Philadelphia, on arrival there stopped at the old West- 
ern hotel. There was a stage line from there to Pittsburgh, but the 
fare being $30 he concluded to save this and walked the entire dis- 
tance, having made arrangements for his trunk to be forwarded. 

In penning these sentences, the writer had recalled to his mind 
most vividly, a trip made a few years ago from Pittsburgh to Phil- 
adelphia in the fall of the year, about the same season and proba- 
ably substantially the same route over the mountains where Curtis 
Gilbert trudged afoot so many years ago. The writer spent the 


whole time in crossing the mountains on an observation car, and the 
overwhelming magnificence of the scenery, the rapid unwinding of 
this unequaled panorama, made the strongest and most interesting 
picture upon his mind that was ever presented. It was at that 
rare season in the Alleghanies of the " Festival of the Folinge "- — 
nature's supreme and sublime work of peaceful and quiet beauty ; 
such rich coloring; such blending of harmless flowers, brawling 
brook, away to mountain top; such billows of boundless variegated 
colors winding away from the deep gorges to the end of the powers 
of vision into the morning brightlight, and the numerous bouquets 
of rainbows over there in the soft and velvety banks; then again in 
great promontories of spangles, arched and sweeping drapery, and 
the entranced beholder, as he sped along, could readily fancy that 
the hand of the angel was the magician unrolling this stupendous 
scenery. To the infinite regret of the looker-on the foot of the 
mountain on the other side came too quickly,, and the picture faded 

The young man spent more days than the writer did hours 
between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. Did he, do you suppose, in 
after years, when come the reminiscent days, ever attempt to con- 
vey to his friends' minds some of the pictures of the Alleghenies 
that he must have carried with him to the grave ? 

At Pittsburgh he had to await the arrival of his baggage ten 
days. Now, a young man would esteem it a great hardship if he 
could not go to bed in Philadelphia and be promptly on time nest 
morning at Pittsburgh for breakfast. The river at Pittsburgh was 
very low, and he had to wait for a rise. He took passage on the 
first keel boat and reached Marietta, from there on foot to Zanes- 
ville, and from there he pushed on to Springfield, Ohio, where he 
met Col. William Wells, to whom he had a letter from John Pratt, 
of Middletown. This letter was as follows: 

" This I place in the hands of Mr. Gilbert, a young gentleman 
who leaves for a tour in your country for the purpose of satisfying 
his curiosity respecting the advantages offered there to men of 
industry, enterprise, education and correct principles, all of which, 
you may be assured, he carries with him. He is the son of one of 
my very respectable neighbors, who is anxious for the welfare and 
happiness of a beloved child. I have, therefore, taken the liberty 
to introduce him to your polite attention; your kind notice will be 
thoughtfully acknowledged by your friend, and you may thereby 
claim the abundant blessings of his affectionate parents and family," 

A model letter of credit, which was verified to the full in the 
long and noble life of the bearer. It secured the young man a good 
friend. Business was so dull at Springfield that his friend sug- 
gested he should go to Newark, but here it was the same, and he 


returned to Springfield and taught school a short time, and he soon 
obtained a place in a store in Zanesville with Mr. Walpole, and this 
man was the prime cause of Mr. Gilbert's coming eventually to 
Vigo county. He left Zanesville in a pirogue and went to Marietta, 
where he made the acquaintance of a man named Robinson, who 
wanted lo send a horse to Cincinnati, and the young man accepted 
the opportunity to go there. At that time there were only about 
2,500 people in the place. He waited here until Mr. Eobertson 
came down on his boat and ofPered him transportation to New 
Orleans, which the youth accepted. It took them a month to reach 
the latter place. An uncle of Mr. Gilbert lived in New Orleans, 
and with him he remained two months. But the threatened British 
invasion was so depressing to business that by the advice of his 
uncle he retraced his way up the river on a barge to Louisville, and 
from there on foot to Cincinnati, where he arrived December 4, 
1814. He was a clerk a short time in the store of Bailey, Green & 
Bailey, when the firm decided to send a stock of goods to Vin- 
cennes, and selected Mr. Gilbert to go with Mr. Bailey in the enter- 
prise. They came down the Ohio, and up the Wabash, but on the 
way young Gilbert was taken sick and had to be left at Harmony. 
Recovering, he joined Mr. Bailey at Vincennes, where he had 
charge of the firm's business. In the fall the Vincennes house 
determined to send a stock of goods to Fort Harrison. A keel boat 
was fitted out and landed at its destination December 20, 1815. The 
boat was located on the western shore opposite the fort as the safest 
place, and a part of the goods taken into the fort. Soon after this 
the partnership of Bailey & Gilbert was formed, by the terms of 
which Bailey was to send goods, and Gilbert to manage and sell to 
the Indians, at and above the fort, and share equally the profits. In 
the summer of 1816, Mr. Gilbert made a trading post at the mouth 
of the Vermillion — built three log cabins, one a store, one Indian 
quarters, and one to smoke venison hams. He had an interpreter 
he brought up from Vincennes. At first he took goods to this point 
in a boat, but afterward they were carried on ponies. Mr. Gilbert 
was taken very sick that fall, and as soon as he was able to clamber 
in a skiff came to the fort. The Indians were now hostile, and he 
was warned to return his store to the fort. 

In July, 1816, Gov. Posey issued Bailey <fe Gilbert license to 
trade with the Indians " at or near Raccoon creek." The partner- 
ship with Bailey having expired, he formed the new firm of Gilbert 
& Brooks (Andrew), with whom he continued in business until he 
was elected clerk of Vigo county. 

December 4, 1817, he was commissioned by the postmaster-gen- 
eral as postmaster at the fort, and acted as such until that office 
ceased, October 26, 1818. His first quarterly report showed the 


office in that time transacted $15.68. Letters were advertised iu 
the Wcstei^n Sim, Yincennes. Postmaster Gilbert was notified by 
the department April 6, 1818, that Congress had just established 
the route " Fort Harrison, through Monroe and Lawrence counties 
to Brownstown," and requested information as to distances, towns, 
streams and mountains, and added at tiie end of the letter "No 
expense should be incurred in procuring information." It is hardiy 
necessary to add that there was no prosecution of Mr. Gilbert as 
a "star router." This office at the fort was discontinued and an 
office opened at Terre Haute, and the following is the receipt 
explaining the change: 

Terre Haute, 2l8t November, 1818. 
Received of the postmaster at Fort Harrison, Indiana, unpaid letters, which 
have been advertised, to the amount of six dollars and ninety-six cents; paid letters 
to the amount of eighteen cents, and one free letter; also of unpaid letters, which 
have not been advertised, to the amount of |10.30, and one free letter; and of un- 
paid newspapers to the amount of thirty-eight cents, a roll of blank forms, a letter 
box and a key for opening the mail. 

[Signed] W. W. Hunt. 

Keeping in mind that at that time postage was as much as 25 
cents on a letter, this would not indicate that there were many in 
the office. 

The post-office was moved from the fort in October, 1818, to the 
two-story frame building erected by Mr. Gilbert on the northeast 
corner of Ohio and Water streets. This was Mr. Gilbert's property 
at the time of his death. He had secured the lot by a private 
arrangement before the sale of lots by the town company, and the 
price was fixed after the building was erected. This was the first 
frame building in Terre Haute. There were four or five log cabins 
and, among others, the once famous Eagle and Lion Tavern, on the 
corner of Wabash avenue and Second street. The upper part of 
this building was, in fact, the court-house until the first court-house 
was built. 

Mr. Gilbert was elected first county clerk over Mr. John M. 
Coleman, and continued to fill the office of clerk and recorder of 
Vigo county for twenty-one years. His commission for recorder 
bearing date March 4, and for clerk, March 11, 1818. The next 
year he was appointed judge advocate of the odd battalion of the 
First Brigade of Indiana Militia. 

In 1821, a sickly year, he lost his wife and only child. In 1823 
he made a visit to his old home in Middletown. September 6, 1824 
he was elected to the board of trustees of the public library of Vigo 
county. He took an active part in organizing the Branch bank in 
1834, and was made a director of it. He was prominent in the 
movement to change the drainage of Lost creek as it is now. This 
movement excited much opposition at the time, but was forced 


through, and was one of the most important improvements for the 
health of the people. The act authorizing it passed the legislature 
January 21, 1837, and the following March the county commis- 
sioners appointed James B. McCall, James Barnes and Joseph 
Barnup, commissioners to cause a survey. They reported the route, 
which was adopted. 

Mr. Gilbert was chosen a member of the first two councils and 
was made temporary president thereof at the first meeting. At the 
expiration of his third term of office in 1839, he declined a re-elec- 
tion, and in 1843 he gave up his town residence and removed to his 
farm on the east side of town, where he made his family residence 
until the time of his death. He lived to see his cornfield platted 
in town lots and the farm become a part of the city. 

He was a charter member of the Masonic Lodge No. 19, organized 
here at an early day, and was the survivor of all his fellow charter 
members. Mr. Gilbert was elected president of the Terre Haute 
branch of the State Bank, November 4, 1845. The general depres- 
sion over the country affected this institution, but by his untiring 
energy and prudence it was established in the public credit as 
first class. This position he resigned on account of ill health in 1849, 
but was re-elected in 1850 and served until June 22, 1853, when 
he was succeeded by Levi G. Warren. At the expiration of the char- 
ter he was again made president with full authority to wind up its 
affairs. This trust was forced on him by the directors, and so suc- 
cessfully was this task performed, that it added, if that were possible, 
to his reputation for financial skill, integrity and energy. This 
ended his official and public life, and he then gave his time exclusive- 
ly to his large private affairs. 

He married his first Avife in Terre Haute, Catharine, daughter 
of Gen. Peter B. Allen, September 15, 1819. She died February 6, 
1821. He married Mary C. King, November 26, 1834. She died 
October 20, 1858, in her forty-seventh year. She was born in West 
Suffield, Conn., and came to Terre Haute in 1831. 

By the last marriage there were ten children, seven of whom 
survived him — three sons and four daughters. During the last six 
years of his life he spent the winter months in Florida, where, at 
the residence of his daughter, at Palma Sola, on the banks of the 
Manatee river he died. A short time before his death his friends 
were alarmed at the evidence of his rapid waning strength, but on 
the bright and beautiful Sunday that was his last on earth, he was 
unusually bright and cheerful, but in the evening he quietly and 
painlessly passed away. In the language of one who knew him 
long and well: "He has well and truly performed the duties of life, 
leaving behind no stain or blemish to mar the history with which 
his name is blended. He was a brave, strong man, and although so 


weakened physically, he was yet equal to all the emergencies of life, 
even to the pai-ting with it." 

Some bright writer who wrote of old times in Terre Haute and 
who personally knew him, says: "Curtis Gilbert was a pioneer here. 
He Avas the Hrst clerk in this county. His fine, correct, neat, well- 
kept records will never cease to attract attention. He was essentially 
accurate in all he did. He was of medium size, thoughtful and 
serious looking, and exceedingly regardful of the sensibilities of his 
fellow-citizens. No man perhaps ever lived and died in Vigo county 
more universally respected than this firm, earnest and honest man." 

The children of Curtis Gilbert are: Harriet (Gilbert) Beach, 
wife of John S. Beach; Joseph; Mary C. (Gilbert) Blake, wife of 
Joseph H. Blake; Helen C. (Gilbert) Warner, wife of Warburton 
S. Warner ; Edward Gilbert ; Henry C. Gilbert, and Martha Gilbert, 

Joseph Richardson. — A few months before Curtis Gilbert ar- 
rived at Fort Harrison with his boat, Joseph Kichardson and Abra- 
ham Markle had come out to the new country in the search of fut- 
ure homes, coming on horseback all the way from Geneseo, N. Y. 
They continued their course through the wilderness, until they 
found a resting place under the hospitable roof of Fort Harrison. 
These men looked with admiration on this beautiful land, and after 
resting a short time in the fort started back to New York after 
their families. These men were delighted with their exploration, 
and immediately upon their return they set about preparations to 
come here and bring their families. 

When all was ready they crossed the Alleghany mountains in 
wagons to Olean, on the Alleghany river. Here they constructed 
three boats, one of the three belonged to Mr. Richardson, another 
to Abram Markle, and the third to Daniel Stringham. Some of the 
others in this convoy of boats were Joshua Olds and family, Mr. 
Bedford, the latter died on the way, and his widow and four sons, 
Henry, Richard, Moses and James, and one daughter, Sarah, came 
on to Fort Harrison. This daughter became Mrs. John F. King. 

Daniel Stringham, whose sou became the noted Commodore 
Stringham, and whose daughter became Mrs. Jane Wedding, the 
wife of Judge Randolph Wedding, also the Fitch family, was in 
Markle's boat on this trip. The May family were also of this com- 
pany. Andrew Brooks, a gunsmith in the fort, and who fixed many 
an Indian's gun, married one of the May girls. These three rudely 
constructed boats bore the first important colony of families that 
ever came to Vigo county. True, they only reached here and un- 
loaded their boats at their new and permanent homes in the early 
part of the year 1816, yet they were practically here and had 
selected this place in the year 1815. 

The building of their boats at Olean point delayed them until 


the month of February. The convoy floated down from that point 
to Pittsburgh, and down the Ohio to the mouth of the Wabash, and 
with poles pushed the boats up to Fort Harrison. 

The safe arrival of the colony was a f^te day to the soldiers in 
the fort. They were welcomed with unaffected joy. A salute of 
fifteen guns was fired as they hove in sight:" The little garrison 
were out in their gayest and best uniform, their guns brightened 
up, and all were precise and very dignified as they presented arms, 
but when the women and children began to clamber up the bank 
the soldiers and officers forgot dignity and all that, and broke ranks, 
hurrahed, and threw up their caps. It is said that at once a basket 
of wine was produced for the ladies, and something "just a leetle 
stronger" for the men, from the medicine chest. 

Mr. Richardson brought on his boat a covered family carriage, 
and it goes without the saying that this was the first ever seen in 
what is now Vigo county. It will be remembered that Gen. Harri- 
son's headquarters chariot, when he came here as the head of the 
army, was an ox-wagon, and that the next morning out from the 
fort on their way to the battle of Tippecanoe one of the General's 
oxen had strayed off during the night, and this nearly left the great 
commander on foot with bag and baggage, and his army was mate- 
rially weakened by sending out men to hunt the lost ox. This fam- 
ily carriage did not long remain a covered one. It was all the 
seven wonders in one to the Indians, and it could not be guarded 
from their stealing strips of the leather cover until it was very soon 
all gone. 

Mr. Richardson had for that time a large supply of such farm 
implements as were then used. He had selected his place to make 
a farm on Fort Harrison prairie, but by circumstances, among others 
to save a debt of loaned money, he went to Clark county. 111., and 
took in payment of his debt the lands on which he laid out the town 
of York. Thus Vigo county was cheated of one of its earliest and 
best settlers. But at all events two of his children became resi- 
dents of Terre Haute as will appear farther on. 

Joseph Richardson had married Mary Bennett. He died at the 
age of seventy-five years. Mrs. Richardson died in 1851. Their 
children were John, William and George Berkley, and three daugh- 
ters, Martha, Aula and Elizabeth. 

George Berkley Richardson was bora in Geneseo, N. Y., Decem- 
ber 25, 1804, one of a family of eight children. He was twelve 
years old when he came with his parents to Fort Harrison. At the 
breaking out of the war, although aged fifty-seven years, he prompt- 
ly responded to the President's call to arms, and performed active 
and faithful service for his country. He became a resident again 
of Terre Haute, in 1868, and this was his home until he passed 


away, May 21, 1880, at his residence, 306 South Fourth street. His 
ailment was a long and painful one, that wholly baffled the under- 
standing of all the physicians. It lasted nearly two years before 
the end came. A post-mortem examination revealed the fact that 
it came from a fish bone, which he had unconsciously swallowed; it 
was shaped something like a fish hook, and penetrated from the 
rectum to the bladder, yet the communication between these two ves- 
sels was so slight that it could only give the physicians the faintest 
hint as to the trouble. His strong constitution bore up nearly two 
years under this attack, which was little else than one prolonged 

George B. Kichardson was a man of quiet, unassuming nature, 
possessed of a high sense of honor, and regarded the adherence to 
the obligations of truth and honesty imposed upon mankind as 
sacred duties. He died peacefully, apparently unconscious that he 
was passing away. He left a son and a daughter (Mrs. Aula Mc- 
Donald) and three sisters, Mrs. Dr. Edward V. Ball, died in August, 
1890; Mrs. Dr. Tutt, of Kentucky, and Mrs. Henry A. Steele, of 
Newark, N. J. 

In 1828 Sarah Elizabeth Richardson, who was only three years 
old when the family arrived here, was married to Dr. Edward V. 
Ball. In 1830 he built his residence on Second street, No. 28 
north, now occupied by his venerable widow and daughter, Mrs. 
Mancourt. On this spot Mrs. Dr. Ball has made her home sixty 
years. -It is yet a fine large two-story frame mansion, far more 
massive and imposing in appearance than when it was first occupied 
by the newly married couple. It has been raised to a two-story, and 
additions added from time to time, simply keeping step with the 
general advances of the town. When built it was rather to the out- 
side of property to the east, but nothing like so far out of the heart 
of the city to the east as it is now to the west. 

Dr. Edward Voorheis Ball died at his residence in Terre Haute, 
March 29, 1873, after a lingering illness of more than eight months, 
in the seventy-third year of his age. He was widely known in the 
Wabash valley as one of the eminent physicians, and highly respect- 
ed for his many virtues of head and heart. " He came to this local- 
ity," says one who knew him long and well, "for then there was no 
village of Terre Haute, in 1817, from near Morristown, N. J, He 
studied medicine in Vincennes, with Dr. Schular. He regularly 
commenced the practice of his profession in Terre Haute, in 1825. 
He was truly kind and Christian in all his ministrations, liberal and 
considerate. In 1842, during a religious awakening, while Henry 
Ward Beecher was preaching here temporarily, he united with the 
First Congregational Church. * * * For a number of years 
he was a deacon." 


He left surviving one son, Dr. L. Ball, and three daughters, one 
the wife of Rev. W. M. Cheever, the others Mrs. Charles E. Peddle 
and Mrs. Mancourt, of Terre Haute. 

Mrs. Sarah Ball, relict of Dr. E. V. Ball, died at the old family 
residence, in Terre Haute, August 9, 1890, nearly the last of those 
interesting early pioneers of Vigo county. 

D. C. Allen died at his residence in Prairieton township, Mon- 
day, June 30, 1890, aged sixty- two years. He was a son of Henry 
Allen, one of the first settlers of this county, and in an early day 
sheriff of Vigo county. 



THE log cabins of the pioneers were the powerful lever that 
pressed the Indians that skirted along the Atlantic shore back 
toward the Alleghanies, and then across the mountains and on to the 
Mississippi river, and across that and then to the Bocky mountains, 
and eventually across these snow-clad ranges and down the slope 
and finally to the Pacific ocean. Nearly three hundred years were 
consumed in these long and often bloody journeyings of the two peo- 
ples so distinct in color, race and instincts. They were antagonistic 
races that could not well exist together. The Indian's supreme im- 
pulse was that of absolute freedom — liberty in its fullest extent, where 
there was no law other than that of physical strength and courage. 
Might was right, and from that the weak had no appeal save that of 
the stoic's divine right of death. The Indian's death song was there- 
fore a part of his deep seated philosophy, and whether cooped up on 
the tall cliff — Starved Rock — and slowly starved to death, slain in 
battle, or died of disease, his last and supreme act was to chant his 
weird death song. Death, then was not his one dreaded, invisible foe. 
When he could fight and kill no more, then it was his friend — the 
angel with outstretched wings in his extremity, tenderly carrying 
him away from his enemy and his pain. His ideal was that animal 
life typified in the screaming eagle of the crags, or the spring of 
the striped tiger, whose soft foot had carried it in reach of its un- 
suspecting prey. 

The rugged and weather-beaten pioneer, he, or his ancestors, had 
fled from tyranny and religious persecutions, severely austere 


toward his own real or imaginary faults, welcoming any infliction 
that would only purify, as by fire, his soul, and fleeing from the per- 
secutor of the body, he erected his altars to a God that was simply 
inappeasable, not only for his own sins, but for the yielding to 
temptation of the first mother of the human race, and this he unfal- 
teringly believed "brought death into the world and all our woe." 
This creature of curious contradictions, while over-exacting toward 
himself, and welcoming any and all self-inflicted stripes, slept on his 
arms for anything mortal that dared to intimate an approach on his 
religious rights or beliefs. Yielding all to his God, he would yield 
nothing to anyone or anything else. He would put a padlock on 
his mouth, that it might not speak any evil, and his very thoughts 
in the stocks, that he might not think evil — silence and dreams of 
the glories of heaven alternating with the groans and outcries of the 
damned, and eyes closed to all earthly things ; he tried to control 
the strong impulses of his heart in its love for wife or children in 
the fear that God would be jealous and might blast forever his soul 
with a frown. And from the depths of his troubled life he would cry 
out that he could do nothing to please God — that he was utterly un- 
worthy and totally wicked; that his whole inheritance, through a 
thousand ancestors was sin, and it would be but a supreme mercy in 
his Maker to cast him out forever. He invented his own penance, 
inflicted his own judgments, clothed himself in sackcloth and ashes, 
and finally consigned himself as the only mercy he deserved to the 
endless tortures of hell. 

This was the fugitive, the waif cast upon the troubled waters, 
that came from the old to the new in the hunt of religious liberty 
and a home. Unkempt and unwashed, rough and storm-beaten, 
with long, bushy hair, and in his leather jerkin, this apparition 
stood before the savages of the Missisoippi valley, rifle in hand, one 
foot thrown before the other, braced, erect, his keen eye directed 
straight into the wild man's soul, there he had put his heavy foot 
down, and the quick instinct of the savage told him never to take 
it up again. The wild man struck like the coiled snake; the crack 
of the white man's rifle echoed through the old forest trees and 
stilled the serpent's rattle forever. 

The first habitation was an opened-faced brush house, if such 
a thing can be called house at all. It was between two trees stand- 
ing close together — a pole across, and leaned against this was brush, 
bramble and leaves piled on ; two wings projected from the ends simi- 
larly constructed, and the whole front open, and here was the camp 
fire. The furniture was a pile of dry leaves on one side of this 
brush dwelling. This was rather a poor protection, yet there was a 
time when it has been all some of the earliest pioneers had during 
their first long winter in the remote wilderness. They possibly had 


simply wintered here intending to resume their journey when w'arm 
weather came. Sometimes they thus camped, waiting the fall of 
the high waters in the stream. These advance couriers of civiliza- 
tion were encumbered with no camp equipage; the old heavy rifle, 
and the hunting knife, and the few leather clothes they wore were 
all they had. Then, too, they may have reached the one spot in the 
wilderness they had traveled so far to find. Just there a stream or 
a spring of sweet water, the giant trees extending their strong pro- 
tecting arms, and the abundant evidences of game on every hand 
may have been the determining cause, or as was often the case, liv- 
ing away back in Vermont or North Carolina, the young man had 
met some hunter and trapper, and had made eager inquiries as to 
where he could find the best place in the new country, and the 
hunter had mapped out to his mind the long road to that particular 
spot. How he would pursue a certain course, guided by the sun 
and the North Star, or the moss on the trees, and just where he 
would cross certain rivers and streams, and follow these to such a 
point, then deflect to the right or left and strike a certain prairie 
and after a while he would pass a mound or a lone tree, and then in 
the blue distance a point of timber, and from that another point, 
and then for days and days upon the prairie sea, and again reach- 
ing the timber another stream, and follow up that to where a creek 
or arm emptied into it, thence up that stream, and a small prairie 
and a grove, and then on and on to the timber and streams again, and 
here a spring would be reached — a natural camping place and per- 
haps the end of the long journey, and to-day his grandchildren, born 
on the old farm where he first stopped and put up his brush house 
may not know or Ipe able to find the spring that was his objective 
point when he so bravely started from his old pioneer father's home 
in North Carolina. The brush covering protected him somewhat 
from the inclement elements, the fire in front served a double pur- 
pose — it warmed and dried him when wet or cold, and kept away 
the fierce wild animals that otherwise would have attacked and de- 
voured him. If during the night it burned low, the screams of the 
panther, or the howls of the close coming wolves would admonish 
him to throw a few sticks on the fire, or sometimes amuse him- 
self by firing at the eyes of the beast that was so near him that its 
gleaming eyeballs made an excellent target. 

The first months of this man's life were in the most primitive 
manner. He procured his food by his rifle, supplemented with the 
natural fruits and berries of the woods, learning to eat many of the 
roots that he could dig. He neighbored much with the Indians, 
and often got of them some of their coarse materials for making bread. 
The one chief deprivation, both to him and the Indians, was the 
want of salt. This no doubt was the one luxury of which he would 


often dream that he had left beliiiid him when he ventured out from 
civilization. Early in the spring he was hunting in the woods for 
the wild onions that are among the first to push their green stems 
above the soil, and in the wild sheep-sorrel he found the delicious 
acid that his system so much needed, then the May-apples, and then 
the berries, the paw-paws, the nuts and wild grapes, the buds, the 
bark of certain trees, and at a certain time in spring the tap-root of 
the young hickory were all in their turn within his reach, and 
were utilized. 

This was the first little wave, the immediate forerunner of the 
round-log cabin. He had soon learned many of the Indian ways, 
and their expedients in emergencies. He was a demonstration of 
the fact that a civilized man will learn to be a wild man in less than 
a fifteenth of the time it will take to teach a savage to become civil- 
ized, or to like any of the ways and habits of civilized life. 

Had he forgotten to think in this lonely silent life ? He would 
visit his distant neighbors in their wigwams, approaching as quietly 
as they, enter with a grunt, seat himself, light his pipe, and all 
would sit and smoke in silence. An occasional grunt or a nod of 
the head, and never a smile, this had come to be his idea of enjoy- 
ment in social life too. He learned to go to the deer-licks, as had 
the Indians, for other purposes, as well as those of finding the deer 
there and shooting them. He had learned to find certain clays that 
the savages ate. He soon knew as much of wild woods life as did 
the natives. 

One day, late in the spring, while hunting, he met an Indian, 
who startled him with the news that a pale-faced neighbor had come 
and actually had settled as near as fifteen miles up the creek. This 
was the most astounding news he had ever heard. Only fifteen 
miles — why, this is settling right in my door-yard, and not so much 
as even saying by your leave! Can it be possible? I can't btand 
too much crowding. He quits the chase, and returns straight to 
his cabin, cooks and eats his supper, and sits on his log and smokes 
and thinks, yes, actually thinks, till his head fairly swims over the 
day's news. He goes to bed and sleeps and dreams, and millions 
of people are pouring into his cabin, and behind them still comes 
the eternal stream of humanity, laughing, crying, shouting, strug- 
gling, and the great wave is upon him and he is being smothered, 
when, with a mighty effort he wakes, and the owls are hooting 
from the tree tops, and the wolves are howling beyond his cabin 
their mighty lullabies. And he is so thankful it is but a dream, 
but he again thinks over the news, and finally determines on the 
morning he will go and visit his near neighbor and make his ac- 
quaintance, and turns over on his dry leaves and is once more sound 


He pays the visit the next day, and his suddeu and strange ap- 
pearaice is nearly as great a surprise to the newcomers as was the 
news to him the day before. He finds the man busy chopping, and 
for the last mile had been guided by the ring of the ax, and seated 
on the log, they tell each other the latest news from the settlements 
and from the wigwam villages. The new neighbor tells him that 
he and wife had come on foot from Vermont, and had arrived some 
weeks ago, and did not know that they had a white neighbor within 
a hundred miles. He described how he had carried the rifle, the 
ax and the few little things they had brought, and his wife carried 
the hoe, the only farming implement they had, and hung on the hoe 
over her shoulder was the small bundle of her earthly ppssessions ; 
that they had heard of the rich country in the Wabash valley, and 
had got married and started for the good country, where they could 
make their home and their farm, and in time hoped to have a plenty; 
they had planted the two or three potatoes, the half dozen pumpkin 
seeds and the few hills of corn, and the first year they hoped to 
raise some seed. The gun, the ax, an auger and the hoe were their 
marriage dower with which to start life. They had brought a few 
trinkets, and on their way had exchanged these for some skins and 
furs, that were so necessary. The man and wife had put up the 
round-log (or pole) cabin, and covered it with bark. It had simply 
a door for entrance, and a stick-and-mud chimney — no floor, except 
such as nature had made, but here and there was laid a dried skin, 
and in one corner the man had made a one-legged bedstead, and 
crossed this with raw hide whangs to support the bedding of skins. 

Reader, did you ever see a one-legged bedstead? Well, I have, 
and more too, I made one when a youth, and this was the only 
piece of cabinet work I ever even attempted. But I made it, and 
was very proud of my work, and well remember the pride with 
which it was shown to visitors. 

It is made by making the one leg, and then in the corner of the 
room you bore a hole in each wall; one of these holes receives the 
side rail from the post and the other receives the end rail from the 
same post. The two walls of the building form the other side and 
end of the bed, and there you have it — fit for a king! if the mind 
is content. Upon these primitive beds of our fathers has come as 
sweet repose as ever found its way within palace walls and on the 
great mahogany teester bedsteads draped in silks and satins and 
the costliest laces. 

The small "clearing and girdling" was planted by the wife 
mostly, while the man felled trees, chopped logs and gathered and 
burned the fallen timber. The wife worked with the heavy hoe, 
and the man with the ax and gun. The few seed they planted grew 
at a remarkable rate, and now they had in store a little bread, a few 


vegetables and abundance of meat. His gun and traps had brought 
them meat and fur and feathers, and honey they had found in 
abundance in the forests. Before the year had expired they made 
a raft, and loaded it with their stores, and went to the trading post, 
and exchanged honey, furs and pelts for such manufactured articles 
as they needed, and ammunition and salt. They had enough to buy 
a pony of the Indians, and by the second year were farming in great 
content. Their most profitable crop was the corn, which would sell 
at the fort for $1 a bushel. 

But a few years have passed and the land begins to be dotted 
with log cabins. That is every few miles on the way could be seen 
in the distance the blue curling smoke lazily ascending from these 
outside low mud-and-stick chimneys. This now is the glorious lof- 
cabin day and age. Let us examine one, and if we can, secure the 
shadow ere the substance has gone forever. As you approach you 
are impressed with the squat and heavy solid appearance of the 
building. The roof is of split clapboards, weighted with heavy 
poles. There is not so much iron as a nail in all the building. 
The batten door is made of the same kind of boards, and swings 
on wooden hinges, and has a wooden latch, to which is attached a 
leather string that passes up and through a small hole to the out- 
side. To pull this string is to raise the latch and permit the door 
to open. To lock the door it is only necessary to pull the string in- 
side and then one on the outside can not open it. Hence, there is 
much friendly significance when one says to the other " my latch 
string always hangs out for you." You will notice as you approach 
that to your right and near the end of the cabin, but some feet in 
front of a line with the front of the house is a very small cabin, a 
kind of baby to the main building. This is the meat house. The 
lord of the manor is evidently a little proud of this larder, and 
hence it sets a little in front of the line of the dwelling. It be- 
speaks for him a good provider, " and juicy hams and red gravy," 
galore. Farther off there you see the stables covered with straw, 
and the stacks of grain and hay, and over there is a long rack made 
of rails crossed over a pole about two feet high, filled with straw, 
and about the premises are cows and calves, and horses with long 
hair and bushy manes and tails, and razor-back hogs, the largest 
parts apparently the head from their long snouts. On every hand 
there are evidences of plenty and content. Pull the latch and 
walk in where a hearty and cheery welcome will greet you, even 
the long-haired curs will "bay you a deep-mouthed welcome" that 
will be stopped only by the authoritative voice of the master. The 
wide, blazing fire, extending nearly across the whole end of the house 
adds to the brightness, and the iron lard-lamp, with a rag for a wick, 
the recent great improvement on the scraped turnip that did duty as 


a lamp, yon hardly notice as it burns away stuck in a crack in one of 
the logs. The good wife and the strong and red-cheeked girls are 
preparing the evening meal. The spare ribs hanging in front of the 
fire are turned frequently, and their odors at once whet your already 
keen appetite. The bread is in the oven and on this is a lid with 
the edges curled up to hold the heaps of coal that are on the top, 
while there are still more under the oven. An iron pot is hanging 
by the crane that is boiling furiously. While these preparations 
are going on, take an inventory of the room. You are in one of the 
two split bottom chairs. The old chest can hold or be seats for 
three or four of the family; then there are two or three three- 
legged stools. Then there is a bench made of a split log. with legs 
to it, that is seats all along one side of the table, but is moved 
around at pleasure. Over there is " granny " with her " specs," 
the brass rims nearly worn out and all looking as old as she does 
except the new yarn string that holds them in place. That is her 
corner, on her low stool where for years and years she has knit and 
knit and knit, never stopping, even when she told of when she was 
a little girl and often lived in the fort when the Indians would go 
marauding over the land. At the other end of the 14x20 room 
are two beds setting end to end, with barely room for a person to 
squeeze between them. On these were such fat high feather beds 
and over these such gay figured red and light- figured woolen cover- 
lets. These were woven away back in the old settlements. Such 
gorgeous figures, sometimes eagles with outstretched wings, or 
horses and dogs or buffaloes, and even in a square in one corner 
were elaborate attempts at letters, but which as you never could see 
exactly right side up you never could read. A gay calico " val- 
lance " hung around the legs of the bedstead and you know that these 
hide under each big bed a trundle-bed. Tou see this was the orig- 
inal folding bed, and from this at one time universal .part of the 
furniture of the cabin came that barbarous expression from some 
old sour bachelor about "trundle bed trash." 

Opposite the door, which stood open nearly the year round, except 
at night, was the window, the half of two of the logs cut away, making 
a hole a little over a foot wide and two feet long, and the light came 
through greased paper that covered the opening. The floor was of 
puncheon, split logs, the face dressed down nicely with an ax, and 
the edges were tolerably straight, but cracks frequent. On the 
walls were hung strings of sage, onion tops, and a beautiful wreath 
of red pepper. Some loose boards were laid on the cross-beams, 
and the stairway was cleats fastened to the wall. This was the 
girls' boudoir, and from the rafters hung dresses and female cloth- 
ing, and in one corner close to the roof were the shoes that were 
only worn on Sundays when going to meeting. The ingenuity and 


taste of the girls had secured a barrel, and over this was spread a 
pictorial, Brother Jonathan, that had in some way come to the 
family long ago. This was their dressing case, and on the barrel 
were combs, ribbons and trinkets, and a 4x5 framed mirror hung 
gracefully above the dressing case against the wall. But leaving 
the privacy of the girls' private room we go below again, and scon 
discover that we had overlooked some of the most interesting 
things in the living-room. In the wooden racks over the door were 
the two guns of the family, and hanging from either end of these 
racks were the pouch made of spotted fawn skins and the large 
powder horns, with the flat end, wooden pegs in the small end that 
the hunter always pulled out with his teeth when he would pour 
out the powder in loading. The women were as proud of their 
household utensils as were the men of their new buckskin hunting- 
shirts or their guns, and chief among these was the cedar "pigon." 
This was a bright red, medium sized bucket, with one of the staves 
long and formed into a handle. The broom stood handy just out- 
side. This was made of a young hickory split up into small strips 
and turned over gracefully and tied in a wisp. For many years 
after we had the modern brooms these were still to be seen in every 
house and were the scrub broom. 

But supper is now ready and steaming hot, the dishes are send- 
ing out great volumes of appetizing odors, and you and the men 
and boys are all seated around the bountiful board. The women 
and children wait for the second table. How can you wait in pa- 
tience while the good man invokes heaven's blessing upon what he 
is pleased to call the Lord's attention to this " frugal fare." He 
likes that phrase, and his boys often think that to get to say it is 
sometimes the chief impulse to the ceremony. When the good 
man addresses his Maker, he changes his language materially from 
every-day use, somewhat as he does his clothes when he goes to 
church. For instance he emphasizes distinctly all the ed's, saying 
bless-ed, instead of as commonly "blest." 

The blessing over: "Now help yourself," is all the ceremony, 
and all that you feel you need. The broiled venison steaks, the well- 
browned spare ribs, the " cracklin " corn bread, the luscious honey 
piled in layers, and the cold sweet milk and the hot roasted sweet 
potatoes, with appetites all around the board to match this feast fit 
for the gods. You eventually quit eating for two good reasons : Your 
storing capacity is about exhausted, and then you notice such a hun- 
gry, eager expression in the faces of the children who are standing 
around and furtively watching the food on the table, and no doubt 
wondering if you will ever get through. Each one, when he finishes 
his meal, without ceremony gets up, and as no change of dishes is 
thought of, the particular youngster who is to eat after that partic- 


ular person is quickly in the place, and proceeds to stay his appe- 
tite. This arrangement is one of the children's, and no doubt often 
saves serious scrambling for places. The supper over, the pipes are 
filled, and the women have so quietly whisked things away and 
cleared the table, how they did it and where they put them you can 
not for your life tell, yet they are gone, and the day's working and 
eating are over, and in a few minutes the trundle-beds will be 
pulled out, and the children at the head and at the foot will fill them 
something after the fashion of a sardine box, let us bid these good 
people good-bye. 

The Improved Log Cabin. — Nothing more distinctly marked the 
advance of the settlement of the country than the change in the 
architecture of the log cabins. I have tried to describe the open-faced 
brush and the round-log cabins that were so distinctly the first era. 
In a few years if you go back to see your friend, as you are very apt to 
do, as you will remember that supper a long time, you will find a 
two-story hewed-log house, the cracks between the logs "chinked 
and pointed " with clean white lime mortar, and it may be the walls 
inside and out are heavily whitewashed. It may be covered with 
shingles even, and glass windows with 6x8 glass put in with 
putty. Hard oak planks, cut mayhap with the whip-saw, are on the 
floors above and below. An outside rock chimney towers above 
either end of the building. A shed-roofed kitchen, Avhich is also 
the dining-room, is along the whole length of the main building. 
A leaning ladder of easy ascent takes you " up stairs " which is one 
big room, while the lower part of the main building is divided by 
a partition. The upper floor is the sleeping room of the boys and 
the " hands," while the room partitioned off is the girls' room, and 
which they consider the " parlor" as well as the bed-room. The 
old folks have their very tall feather bed in the main or living room, 
but under it is the trundle bed, as there is probably another under 
every bed in the house, and although the number of beds has 
greatly increased, if there is company to stay all night, this will ne- 
cessitate " pallets " on the floor. There is still the great wide fire- 
place and the cheerful open fire, and if it is winter, every evening 
just before dark a new back-log is rolled in with handspikes and 
into its place, and a " fire-stick " quite as large as one man can 
handle is placed on the short heavy dog-irons. But a second and 
smaller back-log is on top of the main one, and then the great 
yawning fireplace is soon full of the bright blazing fire. A hang- 
ing crane is here as well as in the kitchen fireplace. In the same yard 
is still the old round-log cabin where the family lived before the new 
house was built. This is now the loom-house. It is also lumbered 
up with barrels and boxes and piles of lumber and hoes, tools, and 
probably there is still a bed in it. The people are now wearing 


home-made clothing, and here the girls deftly weave those bright 
linseys with their bright red, white and black stripes. 

On the outer walls of the loom-house were now stretched the 
coon and possum skins, and the roof was used to dry apples and 
peaches in the fall of the year, and in this lumber house, tied in 
sacks and hanging from the cross beams were the garden seeds, the 
bunches of sage, boneset, onion tops, and the dried pumpkin on 
poles on which were placed the rings as thickly as they could be 
placed. The barrel of kraut stood with its heavy weights on it in 
one corner of the kitchen, and by the side of the fireplace was the 
huge dye-pot and on this a wooden cover, and this was often worn 
smooth being a handy seat by the fire. Even stories were told, that 
seated on this there had been much " sparking " done before the 
older girls were all married ofP. When a young man visited a girl, 
or for that matter a widower or bachelor paid any marked attention 
it was universally called " sparkin'." 

This hewed-log house was sometimes neatly weather boarded, 
painted and had a neat brick chimney, and you could not very readily 
tell it from a frame house. Here children were born, grew to ma- 
turity, married and commenced life nearly in their one-room log 
cabin, which more rapidly gave way to the nice frame or even the 
great brick mansion, with the ornaments and luxuries of modern 
life. Where now may be seen buildings of granite, marble and iron 
that gleam in the morning sun in blinding splendor that have cost 
hundreds of thousands, nay, even millions of dollars, once probably 
stood the round-log cabin that had been built from the standing trees 
about the spot by the husband, aided only by the young wife, with 
no other tools than the ax and the auger. These honest, patient, 
simple-minded folk never bothered their heads to anticipate the regal 
edifices of which their humble cabin was the beginning. Their earn- 
est and widest aspiration was merely " be it ever so humble there is 
no place like home." Around these wide but humble hearths they 
saw their children grow up to strong men and women, honest, un- 
sophisticated, rough and blunt in manner, but ignorant of the 
knowledge of the vices that so often lurks beneath the polish and 
splendors of older societies and superfluous wealth. Their wants 
few and simple, within the easy reach of every one, their ambition 
brought them no heartburnings, no twinges of conscience and none 
of that pitiable despair, where what we may call that higher sphere 
in the circles so often brings — where there are no medicines to min- 
ister to a mind diseased. 




PEACE had been declared between Great Britain and America. 
Peace had also been permanently established between the 
whites and Indians in the Wabash valley, and the .restless spirit of 
American pioneers had found another outlet. 

This year may be fixed as that of the real commencement of the 
grand movement of pioneers to Vigo county. The war with En- 
gland was over — the second war for American independence ; the 
dispute with the Canadians as to the title to the lands in this region 
was also settled; the Indian problem was practically solved and 
their last claim to the soil adjusted permanently, and then, too, the 
soldiers of the war of 1812 had returned to the older settlements 
and fully informed their friends all about the new and beautiful 
country of the Wabash valley. From the Carolinas, passing up 
through Tennessee, Virginia, Kentucky, on to Pennsylvania, New 
York to Maine the restless and adventurous were disturbed like the 
fields in the early spring's sprouting, in the advance to the upper 
Mississippi valley, so soon to be the garden and granary of the 
world. It had started all along the line, and in the few years we 
see the trauscendant wonder of 25,000,000 people with all those 
elements of the highest civilization and wealth, take the place of 
waste, the wild beasts and savagery. There is nothing parallel to 
this in the entire annals of mankind. In the life-time of people 
who came here nearly grown and before their eyes has passed this 
tremendous drama. A very little band of those living witnesses 
to all this are still with us, and I, for one, confess that I look upon 
these venerable few with an interest, almost an awe, that to my 
mind attaches to no other person or persons in the world. 

The old or mediaeval ages when a boundless fete day and wild 
joy and adoration attended the return of the nation's warriors from 
their expeditions of victory and conquest, the honored and glorified 
guests of all the nation, are now read of by our youths with all the 
intense interests and imagery of a healthy and active boy's soul. 
Their excited imagination can recall the scenes in the parks and 
groves about Rome and Athens that were consecrated to the honor 
and entertainment of the nation's returned heroes. And the ac- 
counts of the triumphal processions engage deeply even the older 


and more sober heads. These great occasions were well calculated 
to expand the bud of young patriotism to fullest bloom, and there 
is nothing that the people can bestow upon their sun-bronzed war- 
riors but that is freely given. 

They had conquered a city and brought home their beautiful 
captives chained to their chariots as the triumphal procession passed 
along the streets, and the great lords killed thousands of cattle and 
fed their dependants, and rolled out tierce after tierce of strong 
drink that the people might rejoice to their full. In their expedi- 
tion and war they had added perhaps territory to the empire, but 
as often had besieged the city and starved them and then assaulted 
and put the people to death and burned the town as a penalty for 
their long and stubborn resistance. 

The civilization of that age recognized only as great victors 
those of the sharp and bloody sword. At that time transplanting 
peoples that new nations and new civilizations might be budded 
and might grow and spread their benign influences over the world, 
the one instrument of culture was the flaming sword of the plumed 
knights of battle — the mailed warrior was the husbandman, and 
the fruits he garnered were the captives and slain — slavery and 

Place this wonderful movement of the northwest by the side of 
the great historical war eras of the past, and the full import of the 
saying that " Peace hath her victories as renowned as war," will 
come to you with tremendous force. "As renowned," indeed! 
There really is nothing to compare between them. One is simply 
waste and death, the other is the better and higher life and all its 
joys and boundless blessings. One converts happy homes into 
waste places and mourning, the other reverses this in all things 
and makes the waste places ring with joy and creates the millions 
of happy homes, and lifts up the poor, wretched and ignorant and 
develops the earth's greatest and best. 

To my mind these venerable few of the early pioneers now left 
to us are the nation's guests ; being its foundation builders they are 
the great and all-conquering heroes, a part and partakers of the 
greatest victories won since the dawn of creation. It matters not 
how humble the part they played in the wonderful drama, yet here 
they are, all that is left to us of the men and women whose old 
eyes when bright and young helped work out the supreme prob- 
lem, partook of it, and saw it all come step by step. Seat them 
then in honor in the great triumphal car at the head of this proces- 
sion of 25,000,000 of happy and joyful people, whose captives are 
their children in the golden chains of love. This is the fruits of 
their victories. This is the triumph that we see. Could you bor- 
row their vision and their memories, you would look back and see 


their comrades and companions whose bones have moldered in their 
uumarked graves many years. The rough sandstones at the head 
of others' graves placed there by loving hands that have long since 
ceased to pulse with life — that are tumbled and broken and the 
rains and the winds have nearly erased the crude lettering that so 
briefly told their short history upon earth. Living or dead, their 
supreme work sanctifies their immortal names. Their resources at 
the hour of commencing their great work were their bare hands 
and stout hearts. No martial blare of trumpets, no applauding 
world looking on, no bugle blasts or fluttering flags to fire their 
souls to frenzy, but in the solitudes, the storms, the pathless, un- 
known lands, where lurked dangers and death to rise up in unseen 
waves to confront and destroy them, they moved on to the supreme 

In a very little while it will be only the printed page that will 
be left to tell posterity anything at all of these men, women and 
children, who came and saw and conquered. Everything in this 
world perishes, passes away forever, except the impressions of the 
types upon the virgin paper. Wars and their effects, empires and 
principalities, civilizations and religions, nations a ad their works 
may come and go, but these live on forever, bearing the seeds of 
their ever-renewing life of their own immortality without the loss 
of a syllable or letter, "they are," as Lord Bacon has well said, "as 
ships that sail between the vast seas of time, making one nation a 
partaker of the knowledge of other nations." 

The arrivals of the year 1816 and something about them — such 
as can now be collected from the records and from the few left of 
those who came that year and commenced to make their homes in 
what is now Vigo county — is the immediate purpose of this chapter. 
In this list we can now enumerate the following: 

Abraham Tourttlot. John M. Coleman. 

Eliakim Crosby. Caleb Crawford. 

Carey Marcellus. Kobert Graham. 

Thomas H. Clarke. James Cunningham. 

Charles Bullitt. William S. McCorter. 

Thomas Bullitt. William White. 

Hyacinth Lasalle. Joseph Kitchell. 

John Owens. Alexander Chamberlin. 

Phineas M. Cooper. Jacob Lane. 

The above names are taken from the oldest official record that 
refers to the people of Yigo county. These are the land records, 
not only the entries, but the deeds and anv other recorded docu- 
ments or papers. It is not certain that some of these did not come 
sooner than this, but it is certain that they were here at that time, 


because the record says so. But after the most diligent search 
there cau be no evidence found. that is proof that any of these came 
earlier than the year given. The tombstones, obituaries and recol- 
lections of those who knew them while Jiving have all been con- 
sulted to the utmost, and they have therefore been put among the 
arrivals of 1816. 

Among the others known to have come in that year has already 
been mentioned the colony from Geneseo, N. Y. 

Joseph Eichardson, wife and seven children — four sons and three 
daughters. Richardson brought far more wealth than the average 
pioneer. He entered as much as twelve sections of land. Govern- 
ment land then sold on credit at $4 per acre, and afterward, when 
the price was reduced to $1.25 per acre in cash, this caused a great 
temporary loss to Mr. Richardson, so much so, indeed, that it was 
much the work of a life time to regain it. This is but another 
instance of the wrongs coming of the ignorance and folly of states- 
men in trying to dabble forever in the private affairs of the people. 
If those men who then made the laws could have anticipated or 
realized a little of the present, they would have given these people 
homes simply for occupying them, and then have limited the amount 
that each person could possess the fee simple title to, say, 160 acres, 
and probably each head of the family 320 acres. The truth was, 
this land was the people's. They had to earn and get it before the 
government could have any claim to it. All the right a good gov- 
ernment can have to the soil is that of a few simple regulations 
tending to prevent the monopolizing of it by the strong and greedy 
— simply, in some measure, to see that the weak are not crushed by 
the powerful. The men who "want the earth" always have the 
most plausible arguments about " developing," etc. 

Andrew Brooks was a gunsmith, and it is not known what year 
he came, but it was among the very first. He repaired guns in the 
fort for both whites and Indians. He married one of the May girls, 
and for a long time repaired all the guns in this portion of the 
country. He was a good workman and could make a gun complete; 
a quiet and respectable citizen. Joseph Richardson had married 
Mary Burnett. He died in York at the age of seventy-five years. 
She died there in 1851. 

His daughter, Matilda, married Dr. McCulloch. He practiced 
medicine in Terre Haute many years. 

Maj. Abraham Markle brought his second wife when he came to 
Vigo. His sons were William, Abraham, Henry, George, Fredrick, 
Joseph and Buonaparte. The Markle family, John Dickson and 
family, Isaac Lambert and family settled on Otter creek. These 
two men were brothers-in-law, and they built the first water-mill in 
the county on Honey creek, south of Terre Haute. Before they 


put up their mill the people had to go to VinceDiies or pound their 
corn paeal in a mortar, sometimes in the fall of the year grating it 
on a tin grater. This grater was a simple enough 'affair. It was 
made of a piece of tin punched with many holes and bowed and 
tacked to a board, the rough side out. After the corn became too 
hard for roasting ears, and before becoming flinty dry, it grated 
very well, and if you were very careful to keep your knuckles off 
the tin you could soon prepare enough for the family meal. 

Joshua A. Olds came with the Markles in 1816. They came 
down the Alleghany and Ohio and disembarked at Evansville, and 
came by land to Vincennes. His family was wife, son George, 
Elizabeth, Sarah, Electa and Emily. Isaac was born after they 
came to the west. He is the only surviving son, and Mrs. Lester 
Tillotson is the only surviving daughter of the Olds family. Isaac 
lives in Kansas. Mrs. Tillotson lives in Terre Haute in the house 
where she and her husband lived, at the corner of Second and Swan 
streets, over fifty years ago. 

Joshua A. Olds was a valuable acquisition to the pioneers. He 
l^as a skilled millwright, and could do much and very clever cabi- 
net work. He made most of the first chairs ever seen in Yigo and 
the surrounding country, as well as built the first mills in this and 
Parker counties. He was a native of Salem, Mass. His wife was 
Mary Lanburner, a native of Canada. Mrs. Olds died in 1819. 
He died in Montezuma in 1848. 

Sarah Olds (Mrs. Lester Tillotson) was thirteen years old 
when they came to the old fort. She distinctly remembers that 
there was one house in Evansville, the point where they disem- 
barked to go across the country to Yincennes. This one house 
seemed to be the whole of the town, and was residence, store, town 
hall and general rendezvous for Indians and whites who had any- 
thing to trade. The mental inventory left upon her young mind is 
that the entire store consisted of three barrels of hickory nuts. 
With such a fair start in the world — all these nuts in stock, surely 
the young and ambitious city might say with Tarn O'Shanter: 

The storm without might roar and rustle. 
The Evansvillians did nae care a whustle. 

Mr. Olds built his round-log cabin, and the first year only 
attempted to put a puncheon floor under that part occupied by the 
beds. The other part of the room was a clean and well-swept dirt 

Of all the people who came to Vigo county in 1816, as old or 
older than Mrs. Tillotson at the time, she is the only one surviving. 
She was born in February, 1803, and is now well along in her 
eighty-eighth year, tall, straight, and as active, mentally and phys- 


ically, as the average woman of fifty. Seated on one of the chairs 
made by her father sixty odd years ago, she told the writer her recol- 
lections of the past seventy-five years, when she was a good big girl 
thirteen years old on her way with her father's family to the Wa- 
bash country. Her mind seemed to be no more at fault in going 
back over that three-quarters of a century than if it were all the 
happenings of a few weeks or days ago. 

She remembers that the mill of Lambert & Dickson on Honey 
creek was built on a sandy foundation, and the raging waters came 
and it was partially wrecked, was repaired, but again it was de- 
stroyed totally. 

Maj. Markle's mill was built on Otter creek, and this was a bet- 
ter mill and for some years was the dependence for bread for the 
people for many miles around. That then her father went to Rose- 
ville to build the mill at that place for Chauncey Rose. Thus when 
still a young girl she came to see much of Mr. Rose, and tells of 
that gentleman offering to sell to her father a tract of land now 
almost in the very heart of the city of Terre Haute — sell it for a 
very small sum and all on credit, with the assurance that he could 
take his own time and convenience to pay for it. That her father 
feared debt that he could not meet, and of course never dreamed 
that it would be of much more money value than at that time. 

She told about her husband buying the lot where she now lives, 
paying |100 for it; then in the very center of fashionable residence 
property, that for the same money he could have bought probably 
any forty acres now in the fashionable residence part of the city. 

As she talked on, these things in their realization seemed to come 
to her much like a dream. Where the post-ofl&ce now stands was then 
"away out to the cemetery" — how could the city go there? Thus 
the graveyards of to-day are the heart of the throbbing city to- 
morrow, and the splendid city of to-day is the ancient and buried 
ruins to-morrow. 

In this New York colony was the Redford family. The father 
died on the way, and was buried, and the widow, four sons and a 
daughter came on, and made Vigo county their home. The sons 
were Henry, Richard, Moses and James. The daughter, Sarah, 
married John F. King. The Redfords settled on Fort Harrison 

There was also the family of Capt. Daniel Stringham, with his 
houseful of boys. It was a son of Daniel Stringham who had 
run away to sea when a lad before the family came west, and became 
the eminent Rear Admiral Silas Horton Stringham. The String- 
hams settled in the lower end of Fort Harrison prairie. One of the 
daughters of Daniel Stringham became Mrs. Jane Wedding — mar- 
ried Judge Randolph H. Wedding. They lived near where is now 


the Orphans' Home. Jane Stringham was Judge Wedding's sec- 
ond wife. Of this union there was no issue. Admiral Stringham, 
who died in Brooklyn, was the last of the Stringham family. He 
was born in Orange county, N. Y., in November, 1797, and entered 
the navy at the age of thirteen. Mrs. Jane Wedding had preceded 
her only brother to the grave some years. 

Mrs. Tillotson remembers there was the Fitch family also in the 
New York colony of 1816. They stopped a short time at Fort Har- 
rison and then went to York, 111., and made their home. They came 
in Markle's boat. 

A paper of 1866 gives the following: On Tuesday, June 12, 
there was a gathering of the remnant of the old settlers that came 
from York State to Vigo county in Capt. Daniel Stringham's flat- 
boat at the residence of Judge Wedding, two miles east of Terre 
Haute, on the National road. It was in celebration of the fiftieth 
anniversary of the landing of the boat-load of emigrants to locate 
in Vigo county. It was a family boat (flatboat) under command 
of Daniel Stringham. Maj. John Bond and Col. Webb's family 
were on the boat. Webb settled in Gill's prairie, Sullivan county. 
The boat landed at Fort Harrison June 12, 1816. 

Of these three families on Stringham's boat there survived at 
that time (1866) the following: Zebina C. Hovey's wife of Bloom- 
ington, Iowa; Mrs. Judge Wedding, of Vigo county, and Mrs. Gil- 
key, of Crawfordsville. These were all the children of Capt. Dan- 
iel Stringham. Of Maj. John Bond's family were Mrs. Jones, of 
Fayette township, and her neighbor, Mrs. Johnson. Of the Webb 
family there were none living. 

These five persons were then the only survivors of the three fam- 
ilies that came here in Stringham's boat. [Particulars of Judge 
Wedding are given in the next chapter. Settlers, 1817 — Ed.] 

Ezekiel Buxton, John Earle, Lewis Hodge, Dr. Charles B. Mod- 
esitt, Eobert Carr, Abner Scott and Henry Bedford were of the com- 
ers of 1816 who settled in Terre Haute. Bedford has already been 
mentioned as one of the Bedford sons whose father died when on 
the way with his family. 

Dr. Modesitt had come alone to look at the country, particularly 
the new town of Terre Haute, and at the sale of lots he made sev- 
eral purchases and then returned to Virginia, and on horseback 
brought his wife and child to their new home. This child, then 
four years old, afterward became Mrs. Chauncey Warren, who is still 
spared to her family and wide circle of friends. 

Dr. Charles B. Modesitt had been educated for a physician. In 
the language of Capt. William Earle, who wrote so cleverly of his 
boyhood recollections of Terre Haute and its people: "He was one 
of those rare old gentlemen that we meet but once in a lifetime — 


tall, erect, with hair as white as snow, he was the very embodimeut 
of 'old Virginia,' ay, even Culpeper county itself. He was ex- 
tremely polite, would say ' Sir ' to old or young, white or black, . 
man, woman, boy or girl. He was very kind to us little boys, and 
kept an orchard of sour apples on purpose for us to rob." Capt. 
Earle wrote this when an old man, on board his ship, at the other 
end of the Avorld. The picture is so clever and true that it merits 
immortality. Dr. Modesitt was a man of extensive affairs, and such 
was his public spirit that the history of the founding of the city 
where he made his permanent home, and its rise, is his history, and 
the two are inseparably blended together. In the practice of his 
profession he traveled night and day over all this part of the 
country. He established the first ferry on the river. He built his 
two-story log house on the corner of Third and Poplar streets, 
where his son, James A., was born in 1§21. He died in 1847. His 
family of children surviving were Frances Anna, Welton M. and 
James A. Modesitt. Caroline and George died young. James A. 
was born, as stated, in September, 1821, and died April 15, 1880. 
Welton M. was born August 27, 1815. He attended school at the 
State University, and attended Judge Walker's Law School in Cin- 
cinnati, where he graduated and practiced law two years in Terre 
Haute; joined the Congregational church and attended the 
Beecher-Stowe Theological School, and was ordained a minister. 
The next eight years he ministered to two churches in Vigo county, 
on Otter creek. He went to New York in 1859, near Buffalo, at 
Akron. He was in the army one year, with Banks, then with Grant 
on the Potomac. After the war he took charge of the church at 
Leroy, near Buffalo, where he is now in charge. He resides with 
his daughter in Buffalo, N. Y. 

Frances A. married Ch-auncey B. Warren in 1832, and still sur- 
vives, and with her family resides at the old homestead on Sixth 
street. Particulars of her are given in the sketch of the Warren 
family in another part of this volume. 

John Jenckes may well be ranked with the settlers of this year, 
although he did not get his family housed in the little log house 
prepared for them until 1818, yet he was to all practical purposes a 
" settler " here two or three years before that. He was born at 
Providence, E. I., in 1790, and died in Terre Haute in 1860, lack- 
ing but a few days of his seventieth birthday. When a lad he went 
to sea on the ship "Ann Hope," belonging to his brother, and at 
that time the largest vessel that ever had sailed from Khode Island 
(a thousand tons burden). In this vessel he made a trip to the 
East Indies, the vessel's return cargo being silks and teas. The 
youth made two other voyages in other vessels, going to Pernam- 
buco, Rio Janeiro, the Bermuda Islands, St. Helena and the West 


Indies. When the war of 1812 broke out he desired to enter the 
navy with his cousin, as a midshipman under Commodore Perry, on 
Lake Erie, but was prevailed upon by his mother not to do so. In 
1814 he left Rhode Island for Kentucky, and resided about one 
year in Paris, of that State, engaged in sheep-husbandry. In Oc- 
tober, 1815, in company with Prentiss, Sawyer and Shaw, he left 
Lexington on horseback, with a guide and tent and packhorse, 
crossed the Ohio river at New Albany, and came up to Vinceunes, 
and from there along up the east side of the Wabash, carefully ex- 
amining the country along Honey creek up to Raccoon creek, and 
east as far as Eel river. He made his selections in Vigo county in 
anticipation of the land sales to take place soon. He returned and 
spent some time attending the land sales, and bought several tracts 
in the county, and these he held mostly to the time of his death. 
April 6, 1818, he took possession, with his family, of the little 
round-log house that Thomas Puckett had built for him, about 
three and one-half miles south of Terre Haute, and there he lived 
forty -two years to a day. 

He immediately planted a quarter section of his land in wheat, 
and raised a large crop, but this article was so plentiful in the 
country, and there being no markets, that the surplus was worth 
but little more to him than the straw. 

Judge Jenckes was one of the associate judges in the first court 
in Vigo county, his associates being Demas Deming, with Hon. 
Thomas H. Blake as president judge. Mr. Jenckes was elected State 
senator, and served his term at the then capital of the State, Cory- 
don, in a two-story log house, for capitol. The senate occupied the 
upper room and the house the lower room. The difference now in 
the quality of State houses and then is as greatly in favor of the 
modern architecture as was the old superior to the modern in those 
virtues of the members that were, as Caesar would have his wife, 
" above suspicion." Judge Jenckes never joined any church, his 
life was honorable and exemplary as the end was gentle and peace- 

The Pound family settled on Prairie creek, in 1816. The reli- 
able evidence on this point is found in the address of Elijah Pound 
at the old settlers' meeting, September 11, 1877. The following is 
the speech in full as reported: " I left Ohio with my father and fif- 
teen of the family in the fall of 1816. We 'landed' on Prairie 
creek about the first of November. I never got much learning and 
never got much sense. [Laughter.] We had all the honey, veni- 
son and turkey we wanted, but our bread-stuff was very hard to get. 
If we had continued to live as we did then we would have enjoyed 
life much more than we do now. I have ten sons born to me; m 
sons and sons-in-law all vote the Democratic ticket." [Laughter. 


Here are sixteen arrivals in one family in the year 1816, that settled 
down on Prairie creek, and commenced their lives in their new homes. 
If each one of that family did as well as Elijah, who tells us of his 
ten sons, with a general lumping of his sons-in-law, then they were 
the kind of people to come to a county where nearly everything was 
in abundance except people. They were, judging by the expressions 
of Elijah Pound, an old-fashioned, hard-working, honest people. It 
was Thomas and William Pound, brothers, that came with their 
large families in 1816. And Joel Kester and family about the same 
time as the Pounds came, and settled in the same neighborhood. 
Thomas and his wife, Sarah Pound, had the following children: Will- 
iam, Elijah, Joseph, Sarah, Rebecca, Eunice, Malissa and Eliza- 

This Elijah Pound is the son mentioned above, and who said 
at the meeting that his " ten sons and his sons-in-law [not enu- 
merated] all voted the Democratic ticket." The Pounds and the 
Kesters intermarried, and it is therefore not- to be wondered at, as 
you travel through that part of the county, nearly every place you 
come to on your way belongs to one or the other of the branches 
of these families. 

One of the important accessions to the county was the Ezra 
Jones family, originally from Vermont. Mr. Jones, wife and nine 
children, in the winter of 1815, came in sleighs to Olean Point, on 
the Alleghany river, and then floated down that river and the Ohio, 
to Brandenburg, Ky., to which place his brother, Oliver, had pre- 
ceded him the year before. The families were left at that place, 
and the two brothers came across to Louisville, and thence to Vin- 
cennes, on horseback, and then followed up the east side of the Wa- 
bash, to Fort Harrison, prospecting for homes. Of course they 
were entirely satisfied when they examined Vigo county and the 
surroundings of the fort. Spending a short time here they returned, 
and the early part of 1816 came with their families. Oliver Jones 
had three sons-in-law: James Chesnut, John Chesnut and James 
Wilson, and one brother-in-law, Elisha Bentley. These five fanoi- 
lies settled on Honey Creek prairie. Ezra Jones located on Fort 
Harrison prairie, near the south limits of the present city. These 
were prominent people, especially Ezra Jones, who soon became 
known as one of the leading men of the county, and took an active 
part in the county's formation. He was a good mechanic, mill- 
wright and architect and builder for that day, as well as an efficient 
farmer, and he was in all ably assisted by his four sons, who were 
then young men. He kept in his employ a number of men, and his 
home was therefore of itself quite a colony. Such families count 
up rapidly as voters and " hands " to work the roads, as well as rap- 
idly build up and improve the country generally. Mr. Jones built 


the otter creek mill for Maj. Markle, and was the first to engage 
in building flatboats and shipping to New Orleans, at that time the 
only accessible market for the Wabash valley products. 

He put up a fine frame barn, the first one erected on the 
prairie. His residence, outbuildings and extensive young orchard 
made his improvements the most conspicuous in the county. He 
was commissioned associate judge of the circuit court by Lieut. - 
Gov. EadclifP Boon, acting governor at Corydon, and was one of 
the first commissioners of the county. He had a good education 
for that time, and was fond of reading the current literature of the 
day; temperate, frugal, industrious and widely respected by all. 
His second wife's maiden name was Lucy Allen. Her father was 
one of seven brothers, among whom were Ethan and Ira, both con- 
spicuous in the Revolutionary war. Her brother, Heman, was presi- 
dent of the United States branch bank at Burlington, and minister 
to Chili during John Quincy Adams' administration. His eldest 
son, Ezra M. Jones, was sheriff of Yigo county in 1835-36. He, in 
1838, removed to Iowa, and from there to Santa Fe, N. M. Ezra 
Jones, while engaged in his New Orleans trade, was on a trip in 
1825, and on his way home was taken sick and died in Natchez at 
the age of forty-eight years. 

I was shown a private letter, dated 1820, in which occurs as the 
then common political battle cry, "Down with the Canadians!" 
The letter ran on in the usual tone and hoping for a brilliant out- 
come of the campaign. The .whole had but little meaning to a 
stranger at this remote time. Further investigation brought the 
meaning of the expression. March 5, 1816, congress granted land 
bounties as extra pay to certain Canadian volunteers in the war of 
1812-15. These land warrants were brought here by some of the 
Canadian immigrants and laid on land on the Wabash in Vigo 
county. A conspicuous instance was that of Maj. William Markle, 
who was one of those men who is always a leader. He was active 
and aggressive in the politics of that time, and this cry of "down with 
the Canadians" was chiefly a dart hurled at Markle and his fol- 
lowers by the followers of Col. Hamilton, a strong leader opposed 
to Maj. Markle. 

In the county records may be seen a deed from Maj. Markle to 
Joseph Walker, dated September 20, 1817, which, after describing 
the tract conveyed, recites that the land was conferred to Markle by 
a patent from the general land office, "pursuant to an act of con- 
gress, entitled, an act granting bounties in land and extra pay to 
certain Canadian volunteers, passed March 5, 1816." 

Maj. Abraham Markle was born in Ulster county, N. T., in 
1769, of one of the most prominent families in the county. When 
a very young man he emigrated to Upper Canada, where he soon 


acquired fame and fortune. He bore a conspicuous part in opposi- 
tion to the rule of England in the dominion and the oppression of 
the people by English rulers. He became a member of the provin- 
cial parliament, and on all occasions gave unmistakable evidence of 
the spirit of freedom and independence that had culminated in the 
independence of the colonies. Immediately on the declaration of 
war between England and the United States, in 1812, he returned 
to his old home in New York and entered the army with the rank 
of major. In his command were his two sons, William and Abra- 
ham. When the war was over he came at once to Fort Harrison 
with his family of seven sons and two daughters. 

For his action in the war the English authorities confiscated all 
his property in Canada, and then it was that the congress of the 
United States granted him a large quantity of scrip and extra pay 
to partially compensate him for his sacrifices for his country. These 
land warrants he proceeded to locate on Wabash lands as soon as he 
arrived. He thus became the owner of several sections in and about 
Fort Harrison; among these tracts were the lands on and about 
where is now the Union depot, and he became the owner of the land 
on which stood Fort Harrison. 

Maj. Abraham Markle died March 26, 1826, aged fifty-seven 
years. He was a large man physically and mentally, and would 
have risen to prominence anywhere or any time, as his command- 
ing military figure would arrest attention in any gathering of men. 
His energy of character was great, and he bore down all ordinary 
opposition by a slight effort. His temperament was fiery and chival- 
ric, impulsive, but as warm and generous of heart as any man that 
lived. He would go to great trouble to meet a foe that he thought 
was hunting for him, and twice as far to meet a friend who wanted 
his assistance. His nature was social and jovial, and a beautiful 
woman only could divide his affections for a fine horse. Courtly in 
manner, he drew his friends around him, and his hospitality was 
generous and graceful. His love of fine horses always assured his 
presence at a noted horse race or "an agricultural horse-trot." 
Liberal in all his ideas, with a high sense of honor, he was born to 
command men and not to follow. 

His eldest daughter married Nathaniel Huntington, noted as the 
first lawyer who opened an office in Terre Haute. A man of fine 
abilities who soon ranked among the ablest in the profession, and 
who was only cheated of great eminence by his early death. Col. 
Huntington loved military affairs. He was in command of a militia 
regiment, and often had drilled his men in the open ground where 
is now the Terre Haute House. 

Capt. James Wasson, a native of Connecticut, came in 1816, 
and lived in Terre Haute, where he died at the age of sixty-four 


years, universally respected. He was an "old sea dog," and on 
land kept a hotel. Wasson's Hotel in Terre Haute was a landmark. 

There was quite a brisk little colony settled in what is now 
Prairieton township in 1816, under the general superintendence and 
direction of Moses Hoggatt. This was the Quaker settlement — 
every one in it was noted for honesty and industry. Of these were 
Enoch Harlan, David M. Jones, James Wilson, Ezra Jones, David 
M. Jones and Harvey E. Bentley. The last named was a typical, 
rough pioneer, but of shrewd, quick sense, and soon became an in- 
fluential man in the county. He was sent to the legislature, and it 
is remembered that he filled the place with fair ability. 

Enoch Harlan settled on Section 1, in the southeast part of the 
township. He was a native of Davis County, N. C, born December 
19, 1800. His wife was Catharine Pope, of the same place, and 
came with her people to Vigo county in 1820, and was married two 
years after. This couple reared a family of six children. Mr. 
Harlan spent his life on the 200-acre farm which he had entered 
from the government. He prided on telling how he brought the 
first clock (a very tall old wooden clock) to the township. He was 
present at the treaty with the Indians in Parke county, and would 
graphically describe the feasting and drinking and general Indian 
drunk that followed the final acts of the treaty. He was a soldier 
in the Black Hawk war. He remembered all about the Indians 
stealing the child of John Campbell, who lived on the prairie east 
of Prairieton; how Campbell spent much time, and about all his 
means searching far and wide for his child, but never found it. 

• Hamilton Reed, Elijah Staggs, and Thomas and Hugh Reed, 
settled in Prairie Creek township in the fall of 1816. 

The same year and a little before the above named settlement, 
came what was known as the Ly kin's settlement. They were David 
Lykins, Josiah Wilson, William Armstrong, and probably two or 
three single men. They settled on the old military road, near the 
Ly kin's cemetery. 

The Baldings, Isaac and Henry, and Jacob and David Lyon, 
from Ohio, settled in Otter Creek township in 1816, and Mr. Briggs 
had then settled in the southern part of the township. They all 
settled along the old Terre Haute and Lafayette wagon and pack- 
horse road that ran nearly due north from Terre Haute into Parke 
county. This was one of the oldest roads regularly laid out and 
traveled in western Indiana, being the northern extension of the 
Vincennes road. It was following up this road to Otter Creek that 
decided Maj. Markle to build his mill at that point in 1817. 

William Adams was the lone settler in what is now Nevin's 
township in 1816. He came with his family from Kentucky and 
built his house in Raccoon bottom in the heavy timber. 


All the world, that is just here, knows much about Thomas 
Pucket, "the man what fit the Inguns and druv the bear," but they 
don't all exactly just now remember what year it was that he be- 
came a good and loyal Vigoan — it was 1816. Ask any old citizen 
or the descendant of any of the early settlers about Tom Pucket, 
and he will at once tell you there is no mistake about it — "he did 
actually drive the bear into town ;" it is not a fish nor a bear story, 
but a cold fact. As the bear never disputed it, why should we in- 
cline to carp at it? 

The current story is that Pucket was hunting bear one day 
about twenty miles south of Terre Haute. He had been hunting 
cows the day before and started up a bear, but having no gun he 
left it to wait until he could go home and get his rifle and return 
and kill it. If he had made any positive arrangement with the ani- 
mal it forfeited all claim to integrity by running away before he 
got back to the trysting place. This provoked the man to go out 
the next day in the general hunt for bear. He finally came across 
one lying on the sunny side of a hill sleeping. He got close enough 
to examine it and was amazed at its size and corpulency. He re- 
flected that if he killed it where it lay that he could not get it 
home, and it was doubtful if he could even carry the hide. Being 
a man of quick conclusions and having the courage of his convic- 
tions, he approached the sleeping monster and woke him up with 
some general observations about the weather. The bear raised its 
head, gaped widely, winked at him with its off eye, licked out its 
tongue in a friendly way, and laid down its head for another snooze. 

Pucket now spoke in a deep stern bass voice and ordered bruin 
to rise and start for town, and backed this language with a punch 
with the muzzle of his gun. The bear was soon on its feet, but 
was either perverse or didn't know the way to Terre Haute, and 
started off in a graceful fat-bear waddle toward Vincennes. Pucket 
headed him off and made him reverse ends, but there was much zig- 
zagging on the way, yet the general trend was about right. But 
these by-plays of the animal made him travel nearer forty miles 
than the twenty he could have made it in if he had gone as the crow 
flies. The result was that when within seven or eight miles of town 
the bear laid down for the last time, and neither moral nor any 
other suasion could make him budge an inch. He was then ruth- 
lessly slain and skinned, and the immense hide was seen by nearly 
every one of the then settlers in Vigo county, as a confirmation of 
the story. There are no other fossil remains now left of this " bar 
story," except the country over which he drove it, and most of this 
is fenced up. The reader must draw his own morals from this 
"bear story," because Tom Pucket was a harmless, inoffensive man, 
who was a rough carpenter that could build round-log houses with 


dirt floor that were a credit to the guild of contractors and builders. 
He had his little odd ways, and sometimes they might be termed 
eccentricities, yet they were a necessary part of the man — without 
them it would not have been Tom Pucket, aud the verity of history 
would not have been compelled as now to place this little laurel 
bud upon his obscure grave. He has long since gone where they 
neither drive bears nor are driven by them. He died intestate — 
much in the same way he had lived out his days. 

" Old Tom Pucket," so every one called him, died at the resi- 
dence of his son-in-law, Dr. Thomas Parsons, Douglas county, 111., in 
1867. As early as 1839 it got to be too thickly settled on the Wabash 
for Tom, and so he emigrated to Texas and became a jolly cowboy. 
Texas was then a Republic, and the old Vigo bear driver was out of 
the United States for a short period of his life. He " fit " the 
greasers, aud when Texas became a State he engaged in driving 
Texas cattle to the north. Finally, when very old he drove up and 
the hardships were too great for him, and he was stricken with 
his first and last sickness. 

This and the preceding chapters account for over 100 families 
as being located in Vigo county by the close of the year 1816. 
From the numbers of young men who must have come as employes, 
and from the size of the families, so far as we can learn on this 
point, it is safe to estimate that there were about 500 inhabitants 
in the county, and at least four-fifths of these came in the year 

Indiana had now become a State in the Union, and her great 
future was in many ways beginning to manifest itself to the close 

At the old settlers' meeting here in 1877 all those who had been 
here fifty years and over were thought to be about old enough to 
be enrolled in the society. There were not so many of these all 
told as there were people here in 1816, the first year really of the set- 
tlement in the county. We can imagine it did not take so long 
then to pre-empt the claim to "old settler" as it did in 1877. As 
an evidence of how the claims to first settlers were often con- 
tended for, there was a case near Prairieton, where a man had put 
up a cabin and returned to the older settlement in Kentucky for 
his family, and soon after he went away a family of movers came 
and found the empty cabin and moved in aud put it on record that 
they were the first settlers in that township — at all events they 
were the first family that had staid over night in a cabin. The 
family not only warmed the new house for the man, but staid in it 
until they built their own near by, and were in it before the owner 
returned with his family. This was something of the kind of intro- 
ductions of family to family that were not uncommon in those days. 


We can but faintly understand the ties that drew these pioneer 
families together, when chance caused them to meet in the new wild 
country; as the young and giddy now are apt to sneer at the warmth 
of feeling always exhibited when these few remaining old pioneers 
chance to meet, and shake hands, and at once commence again to live 
over their lives of fifty or sixty years ago, because they know nothing 
about it, and they do not reflect that it is their own ignorance of 
history that disqualifies them of all' proper understanding of the 



A Partial List of Many Who Came That Year. 

IN the preceding chapter reference was made to Mrs. Jane String- 
ham Wedding as one of those who came here in 1816 with her 
father. She became the second wife of Judge Eandolph H. Wed- 
ding, by whom there were no children. Judge Wedding died 
in Terre Haute, December 10, 1866, in the sixty-ninth year of his 
age. He was born in Charles county, Md., April 15, 1798, the son 
of Thomas Wedding, one of the Revolutionary fathers, being the 
eighth child and was the last survivor of his father's immediate 
family. At the age of nineteen he left his place of nativity and 
located in Ohio. On August 28, 1817, he married Mary De Puy. 
The issue of this marriage being seven children — four daughters 
and three sons — three daughters and one son survived their father; 
Mrs. Henrietta Allen, wife of Judge James M. Allen, of Terre Haute ; 
Mrs. Emily Roach, wife of Judge Anderson L. Roach, of Indianapo- 
lis, and Mrs. Catlin and Oliver. The last two named are dead, 
leaving at this time Mrs. Allen and Mrs. Roach. 

Immediately after his marriage Judge Wedding, 1817, came to 
Vigo county. His first wife died in 1833 and the next year he 
married Jane Stringham, daughter of Capt. Daniel Stringham. 

George Jordan was born in Pennsylvania, April 5, 1798. In 
1817 he, in company with a young man, came on foot from their 
homes to Vigo county, and the young men stopped and built 
their cabin on Honey creek. The young man had but small op- 
portunities in the school-rooms of his day and therefore his train- 
ing in that line was limited, but his development of mind in the 


practical affairs of life in many respects admirably qualified him 
for the trials and triumphs of the hard pioneer life that he chose. 
At the end of two years the young housekeepers and farmers 
were as well fixed as their neighbors. They had been industrious 
and their economy had been as a matter of course in a country where 
there were no opportunities for waste or extravagance. In 1819 
the two young men felt that they had earned a vacation, and on 
foot made a visit to some friends in Ohio. Proceeding leisurely on 
their way they often stopped at the Indian villages or camps and ate 
and slept with them. When night came they bivouacked wherever 
dark overtook them, and in rain or shine they pursued their way 
as happy as the days were long. In 1822 Mr. Jordan made his 
first trip on a flatboat to New Orleans. In 1824 he married Judith 
H. Bennett, and of this union there were born eight children. 

Lucius H. Scott, "the lovely lad," with his bundle on his back, 
came on foot alone, from Vincennes, and who was destined so soon 
to become one of the leading men in the county, has told of his com- 
ing in fitting words. In a letter to a friend he said: 

"June 6, 1817, in company with John W. Osborn, I arrived in 
Vincennes, after a journey of nearly two months, from St. Lawrence 
county, N. Y. Osborn being a printer, readily obtained work in 
Elijah Stout's printing ofl&ce, in Vincennes, but after spending three 
weeks vainly looking for something to do, I determined to seek my 
fortune higher up the Wabash valley, and set out on foot for the 
newly laid out town of Terre Haute. In Vincennes I had met and 
formed the acquaintance of John Britton, who had been to Terre 
Haute, and was then making his temporary home at the house of 
Daniel Barnes, a small log cabin, situated on Section 16, at the 
edge of the prairie, not far from the present cemetery. Having 
walked the whole distance from Vincennes, and carrying my bundle, 
I made slow progress, and was nearly three days upon the journey. 
I found my new friend Britton as I expected, and was kindly re- 
ceived by him and his family, but as the cabin was small, and I 
found the family were not in condition to receive an additional 
boarder, I determined to make my stay as brief as possible. I had 
introductory letters from Vincennes to Maj. Chunn and his officers 
at Fort Harrison, and to Maj. Markle at Otter creek, which I de- 
termined to lose no time in delivering. Accordingly, the second 
day after my arrival I visited the fort, and found the officers at their 
quarters. Nothing could excel the kindness and hospitality with 
which they received me, the Major insisting upon my making my 
home at the fort until I found some kind of employment. Situated 
as I was, I most gratefully accepted the hospitality, and moved my 
scanty baggage to the fort. In a day or two I set out in the early 
summer morning to cross the prairie to deliver my letters to Maj. 


Markle. I missed the track, and went to Otter creek bridge. I was 
conscious of my error, but the beauty of the morning led me on un- 
til I found myself standing on an eminence in the midst of Otter 
creek prairie. On casting my eye over the broad expanse, not a 
tree or fence or other indication of home or civilization presented 
itself to view, but all was one boundless, magnificent bed of beauti- 
fully variegated flowers. 

"I stood and gazed until my reason failed me, and when about 
to retrace my steps, my eye caught the glimpse of a thin column of 
smoke, curling up among the trees in a distant corner of the prairie. 
I made my way to it, and found a family in a small log cabin, which 
they had as yet occupied too short a time to have made any im- 
provements around them. I obtained directions which enabled me 
without further difficulty to find my destination. The Major was 
at home, busily engaged erecting his mill, and received me with 
that frank and graceful hospitality for which he was so widely cele- 
brated. * * * I thought him the most magnificent specimen 
of manhood I had ever seen." 

While stopping at the fort Mr. Scott made the acquaintance of 
Isaac Lambert and John Dickson, and proceeds to say: " This led me 
soon after, for the want of something better to do, to take a small 
school on Honey creek. The citizens built me a log cabin, and I 
opened my school in the latter part of July, but was soon afterward 
taken sick, and with such violence that nothing, under the provi- 
dence of God, but the kindness of the family (Mr. Dickson's) and 
the skill of my physician (Dr. McCuliough) saved my life. I 
linger-ed with various relapses until late in October, when I went to 
Vincennes to recruit my shattered health, in which I succeeded 
far beyond my most sanguine expectations. Soon as my health was 
restored I began to feel with painful anxiety the necessity of 
employment. I had now been six months in the country without 
earning a dollar, had brought little or nothing with me, and my 
sickness and other expenses had caused me to create a debt of fear- 
ful magnitude. Whilst ruminating on these matters one day at my 
room at Lasalle's, in no very pleasant mood, I was called on by Mr. 
George A. Wasson, of the firm of Wasson & Sayre, who explained 
the object of his visit as follows: 

"The firm had a small assortment of goods at Yincennes, and 
another at Carlisle and another at Merom. That at Vincennes they 
wished to move to Terre Haute, and, if not otherwise engaged, 
would like to employ me to take charge of them. The store at 
Carlisle was under charge of young Whittlesey, a mere lad; the 
court was to meet there in a day or two, and he wished me to go up 
and take charge of the store during court and then pass on to Terre 
Haute, rent and fit up a room for the reception of goods which he 


would forward by water. I did all as directed, rented a room of 
Dr. Modesitt, employed an old man by the name of Bell to fit it up 
with counter and shelves, and had all ready for the goods before the 
first day of December, but the hard winter of that year had set in, 
the goods were frozen up in the river and did not arrive until the 
last day of the month. I had them opened and commenced sale on 
the first day of January, 1818. These were the first goods ever 
opened for sale in Terre Haute. John Earl did not arrive until the 
autumn of that year. 

" I claim, then, to have established a permanent residence in 
Terre Haute in November, 1817, considered it my home, though for 
business purposes I spent nearly four years at Eoseville, and with 
the exception of the Misses Modesitt and their sister, Mrs. Chaun- 
cey Warren, who were small children at that time, I know of no 
person now living who was as early a resident as myself. The store 
in which I was employed, unfortunately for the owners, was with- 
drawn in May, 1818. 

"About the same time I received the appointment of county 
agent from the board of commissioners and of deputy sheriff from 
Sheriff Blackman. In August following I was elected sheriff of 
the county, and was the first sheriff elected by the people of Vigo. 
I served, with a re-election in 1820, four years in that office, at the 
close of which, in 1822, was elected a representative of Vigo and 
Parke in the legislature which met at Corydon. 

In the fall of 1822 made arrangement with Josephus Collett and 
opened a small stock of goods at Roseville, Parke county, where I 
remained until the spring of 1826, when I returned to Terre Haute. 
In 1827 I erected my house on the corner of Ohio and Market 
streets, which was the first brick dwelling ever erected in Terre 

The writer then proceeds to give important facts in connection 
with the city, which will be more fully referred to iu the chapter on 
Terre Haute following. 

This is a graphic account of the coming to the new country of 
a very respectable young man, as well as the generous hospitality 
that the few who were here stood ready to offer to all new comers. 
No matter how small the floorless cabin, nor how many families or 
people were already quartered in it, the latch string always hung 
out to the stranger and traveler without a question either as to his 
credentials or their ability to entertain any more. Such as they 
had was at the disposal of their guest, without price, and extended 
in such real cordiality that it made sweet the food and rest of the 
weary and worn. Young Scott was already familiar with this 
hearty cordiality of the pioneers before he came trudging on foot 
to Vigo county. Yet in after years, when writing of that occur- 


rence, he can not refrain from expressing the gratitude that never 
died in his heart for the marked kindness and hospitality he 
received on his arrival here. The ravishing beauties of the coun- 
try, the great sea and banks of rich and fragrant flowers of the 
prairie, is it any wonder that he wrote in long after years: "I stood 
and gazed until my reason failed." And of the people he evidently 
was nearly as deeply impressed, when in the same letter he says, 
on meeting Maj. Markle: "I thought him the most magnificent 
specimen of manhood I had ever seen." 

Lucius H. Sgott soon found employment, and soon became one 
of the most prominent men in the county. Id the latter years of 
his life he removed to Philadelphia, where he died April 22, 1875. 

When here, during all the prime of his life, he was a leader and 
pillar in the Congregational church. Concerning his death at his 
home in Philadelphia, one of his friends wrote to a citizen of Terre 

" Tour people will hear with deep sorrow of the death of Lucius 
H. Scott. Although his health had failed considerably, his death 
was unexpected ; his physician saying that he was better and that 
he would rally with warm weather. A sudden bilious attack pros- 
trated him a day or two only before he died, and a few hours only 
before that was it evident he could not live. He did not suffer 
much, and died most peacefully and calmly * * Retaining 
his vigor of mind and body, as erect as in youth, and with only the 
gradual approach of age, his death seemed sudden, but he is at 
rest at last." 

From the foregoing we also learn that John Britton came the 
same year and some weeks or months before Lucius H. Scott. He 
spent the most of his life in Terre Haute, and was one of the well- 
to-do, public-spirited citizens of the town. 

Malcom McFadden was here in 1817. His daughter, Mary A., 
was bom in Terre Haute in 1818, said to have been the first white 
female child born in the place. She married Napoleon B. Markle, 
the youngest son of Maj. Abraham Markle, and died in this city 
December 18, 1880, and was buried from the residence of Mrs. 
Lester Tillotson, corner of Second and Swan streets. 

The Durkee and Barbour families were the prominent settlers 
in Fayette township. They came together in 1817 and settled near 
New Goshen. The heads of these two families when they came 
were Daniel Barbour and Dr. John Durkee. They came from 
Olean, N. Y., and arrived at where is Terre Haute in the early part 
of November. 

Corey Barbour, son of Daniel, was ten years old when they 
came. He was born at Champion, Jefferson Co., N. Y., in 1807, 
and died on the old homestead made by his father February 19, 


1879, at the age of seventy-two. He left surviving three brothers 
and three sisters, 

Daniel Barbour died at his residence in Fayette township in 
1876, at the advanced age of ninety-six years. 

Truman Blackman, Jeremiah Moat, Judge Hopkins and the 
Durhams settled on Honey creek in 1817. George Jordan came 
the same year, also Isaac Pointer and John Blocksom and his sons 
Jerry and William, these settled near the Hull graveyard. Also 
Davis Pugh, who built a horse treadmill. George Jordan the same 
year put in a crop on Isaac Lambert's farm. 

Pointer's daughter Gertrude married a Blocksom. Mr. Pointer 
died about 1867. 

Elisha Parsons, Col. Baldwin, Mrs. Holmes and Joshua Martin, 
all from New York, came this year and located in what is now Fay- 
ette township — then called Independence. These were all of that 
class who came and bought land and determined to here make per 
manent homes. They and their descendants became prominent 
and respectable citizens of the county. 

As stated in a previous chapter, where is now Prairieton town- 
ship is one of the earliest .permanent settlements in the county. In 
1817-18 the additions to this settlement were Thomas Ferguson 
with a large family, who located on Section 2; Otis Jones, on 
Greenfield bayou; Elisha Bentley, on Section 34; George Southard, 
John Thompson, Sandford Haworth, the Montgomerys, Joseph Be- 
night, Joseph Thayer, John Cox — a very valuable man because he 
was a blacksmith, James Lee, the Paddocks, the venerable Moses 
Reynolds and his brothers, David and Robert, Amos P. Balch, Gen. 
Henry French, Henry T. Irish and Ralph White. 

A son of Sandford Haworth was Samuel. He married Mary 
Myers December 25, 1849. He lived his life near where he was 
born, January 22, 1824, and died September 17, 1873, leaving a 
widow and five children surviving. He had been a regular minis- 
ter in the United Brethren Church. 

Mahlon Stephenson was a native of Maryland, thence to Virginia, 
then to Tennessee, from which place he came to Vigo county in the 
early part of 1817. He improved a farm in Otter Creek township, 
on which his son, Mahlon was born in 1820. Mahlon, Sr.'s wife 
was Ruth Durham, a native of Virginia, who died in 1833. Mah- 
lon, Jr., married Mary Dean, a native of Ohio, born in 1821. By 
this marriage were four daughters: Anna T., Jennie, Melle and 



Something of Those Who Came This Year. 

JOHN, Sylvester and James A. Sibley, three brothers, came 
from their native place, Bennington, Vt., in the year 1818 to 
Vigo county. Their father emigrated from Vermont to New York, 
and was killed in 1812 at the battle of Queenstown, leaving a widow 
with a large family of children and but little means of support. 

The young men came all the way to- the Wabash country on 
foot, with their scant earthly possessions on their backs. Sylves- 
ter purchased a tract of land just north of the old canal, and dividing 
this with his brother, they laid off Sibley's addition, and for 
some years this was called Sibleytown. For more than forty-five 
years the brothers were in active business in this and Parke coun- 
ties. They retired in old age and had put their house in order 
when the great Master called. Mrs. Ann, wife of Sylvester Sibley, 
died in Terre Haute November 7, 1877, aged fifty-six years. 

Demas Deming came this year. He was born in Berlin, Conn., 
in 1790, and died in Terra Haute March 3, 1865. At the time of 
his death he was one of the oldest and most esteemed citizens of 
the county. In the late years of his life his venerable figure was 
seen often on the streets moving about slowly and more feebly as 
the years sped by, and, although in feeble health for some time, 
yet his death came like a shock to the whole people at last. 

The war of 1812 found Mr. Deming a young man full of life, 
hope and love of country, and following the impulse of duty he en- 
tered the regular army as a lieutenant. Like most of the young 
men of that day, he was enthusiastic in resisting the insolence of 
the ancient mother country in the impressment of our seamen and 
the preposterous claim to the right to search vessels on the high 
seas. He served actively his country during this three years' war. 
At the time of the treaty of Ghent he was one of the garrison of 
Fort Griswold, New London, in his native State. Peace declared 
he promptly resigned his commission in the army and sought new 
fields of occupation and enterprise. In 1816 he went for a short 
time to Baltimore, and there he formed the acquaintance of some 
of the leading merchants of that city, among others the eminent 


George Peabody, who afterward became the great London banker, 
whose fame has spread throughout the civilized world. 

In the latter part of the fifties Mr. Peabody, being on a visit to 
Baltimore, happened to meet a gentleman from Terre Haute, and 
he inquired with much interest after Mr. Deming, if still living, 
and if not had he left any descendants. It had then been forty 
years since Mr. Deming had left Baltimore. The banker spoke of 
him as the " young man." When informed that the "young man " 
was not only still living, but was blessed with wife and family and 
abundant fortune and gave promise of many years to come, Mr. 
Peabody replied: " AVhen you see Mr. Deming make to him my 
kindest remembrances; say to him that he has not been forgotten 
and that I have often thought of him and Mr. Cruft and of Solo- 
mon Sturgus, all of whom were about my own age; and should I 
go west during my stay in this country, I will stop at Terre Haute 
to take him by the hand once more." A few months after Mr. 
Peabody came to Terre Haute and right heartily these men re- 
newed their friendship of forty years before. 

Terre Haute had been laid out and Vigo county was just formed 
and this town had been made the county seat when Mr. Deming 
came to aid in building up the young city and developing the 
country. His strong judgment and prudent foresight anticipated 
the future, and upon his first arrival he began purchasing real 
estate in and adjacent to the city. His name for some years occurs 
more frequently upon the deed records than that of any other indi- 
vidual. He became the possessor of much of the choice property 
within the city, and his broad acres at one time included the most 
of the land adjoining and east of Terre Haute to the hills. To 
improve this large holding was to enrich himself and the com- 
munity. In all his vast acquisitions no taint ever shadowed any of 
his transactions. He gave and exacted even-handed justice from 
all. One who had known Judge Deming long and well thus wrote 
of him: "Mr. Deming was small of stature, always pleasant, ex- 
ceedingly active, wise and circumspect, and never ostentatious or 
supercilious. He was vastly rich, but no one would ever have 
supposed that to be so by any outward personal demeanor. His 
superb land, extending almost from the eastern confines of the city 
to the hills, was his idol. Almost any day during his life-time he 
could have been found on the way to or from or upon these lands. 
He seemed to have no anxiety about anything. He was emphatic- 
ally the best poised man of all his contemporaries. 

Capt. Early, who was an orphan boy in Terre Haute, jn his old 
age and from the opposite side of the globe pays thSi heartfelt 
tribute to him: 

" Demas Deming was the best friend I had in all the young 


part of my life, and I always think of him with a sense of the 
deepest gratitude. He was willing to do almost anything for me, 
and time and again he offered me assistance in whatever I might 
wish to undertake. He did many acts of kindness for me, and 
would have done more had I permitted ; but my heart yearned to 
see the world, and my desires have in part been gratified without 
being a burden to my friends. I have traveled far and wide, and 
have made many warm and true friends in different parts of the 
globe, but none whom I value so highly as Judge Deming." 

This voluntary tribute under the circumstances to the memory of 
Judge Demiug is worth more than the most gorgeous mausoleum 
that the wealth and cunning of man's hands everbuilded to the dead. 

Col. Ebenezer Paddock and his brothers, John and William, 
•ame in 1818 from Ohio. A large family of descendants came of 
these three brothers. The Colonel was one of the prominent men of 
the county, and all were noted as men of public spirit and enter- 
prise in developing the resources of the new country. Samuel Pad- 
dock, a son of Ebenezer, in 1848 purchased the old Truman 
Blackman farm one mile east of Terre Haute, on the National road, 
where he died. 

At an old settlers' meeting in 1877 James Lee spoke as follows: 

" I emigrated to Vigo in 1718" (a voice, 1818), disregarding 
the interruption he went on: " We went through many privations — 
we were here as a handful of people among the savages and beasts 
of the wilderness. I helped clear the public square, cutting timber 
that measured three feet at the butt. I was the first person 
who received marriage license in this county. The red men stole 
our stock, and we had many a scrimmage with them round about 
Terre Haute. 

" Yincennes was the nearest point where we could obtain gro- 
ceries, and we ground our wheat and corn in mortars. I helped 
make the first road from here to Conuersville, running through In- 
dianapolis, which was then a howling wilderness." Mr. Lee was at 
that time seventy-five years of age. He was born in 1802, and was 
only in his seventeenth year when he came to the county. 

David Smith fixed at that time — 1877 — of his having been on 
the Wabash about sixty years, and in and around Terre Haute 
" about sixty-two years." It is, therefore, safe to say that he was a 
permanent resident of the county in 1817 or 1818. 

From the Official Record, a little old book, one of the records 
kept by Curtis Gilbert, and that is so yellowed with age as to gaur- 
antee its being a genuine pioneer, has the names of very many of 
the heads of families, and especially the farmers who were here 
among the first. It is the records of " marks and brands " for stock. 
The book was opened as soon as the county was formed, and every- 



one who had stock that they might lose by straying could go to the 
clerk and record their " marks," and this made the recovery of stock 
lost easy enough if once found. The following is the complete rec- 
ord, commencing with 1818 and ending with 1823: 


Isaac Lambert, 1816. 
John Dickuns. 
Truman Blackman. 
George Jones. 
Kobert Bratton. 
Eobert McCarty. 
Samuel M. Young. 
Elisha W. Brown. 
Nancy McCarty. 
Seymour Trealt. 
Robert Sturgis. 
Daniel Stringham, 1816. 
Alexander Chamberlin. 
William Winter, 1816. 
Freegift Northrup. 
Ariel Harmon. 
Abraham Markle, 1816. 
James Hall. 
Louis Northrup. 

Henry Bedford, 1816. 

James Chesnut. 

James Wilmir. 

Elisha Bently. 

Otis Jones. 

Holden Tissend. 

Joseph Shelby, 

Caleb Crawford, 1816. 

Peter Allen. 

Salmon Lark. 

Orange O. Smith. 

Hiram Smith. 

Hector Smith. 

Ezra M. Jones. 

Benj. Budd. 

Joseph Walker. 

John Campbell, 1812. 

Jeremiah Baymond. 

Joseph Bennett. 

John T. Chunn. 
John Cook. 
John Beard. 
.Duncan Darrock. 
Thomas Bucket, 1816. 
Robt. Bamford. 
Isaac Stephens. 
George Rector, 1816. 
Benj. Hayes. 
Geo. Clem, 1816. 
John Vanner. 
Daniel M. Brown. 
Alfred M. Rector, 1816. 
Salem Pocock, 1817. 
John Rector. 
Geo. Kirkwood. 
John Winter, 1816. 
Anthony B. Connors. 
Samuel Slaven. 
John Robertson. 
Elijah Robertson. 
William Odell. 
David Wilson. 
John r. Thompson. 
James Barns. 
Truman Ford. 
William Souls. 
Henry Souls. 
Robert Phillips. 
William Phillips. 
James Jones. 
Harry Campbell. 
Joseph Dickson. 
Joseph Lester. 
Caleb Trueblood. 
John Durkee. 
Alexander Barns, 
Joseph Evans. 




Louis Hodge. 
John Bailey. 
Kichard Jaques, 1816. 
John Harris. 
Sylvester Barker. 

Hartford Cargill. 
Owen Koach. 
Joseph Eversole. 
Nathan Kirks. 
Jacob Balding, 1816. 
Thomas C. McCoskey. 
Samuel Blair. 
Henry T. Irish. 
Daniel Barbour. 
Archibald Davidson. 
Robert Hopkins. 
Casper Weaver. 
Isaac Hatfield. 
Caleb Arnold. 
James Perkins. 
Isaac Pennell. 
Bevijainin Hicks. 
Eichard Hicks. 
Thomas Lakey. 
Abner Scott. 
Thomas Jefferson. 
Stephen Campbell. 
David C. Crerey. 
Henry Kuykendall, 
Thomas Rodgers. 
Nicholas Stephenson. 
David Barns. 
William Nelson. 
John M. Colman, 1816. 
William Arnett. 
Bradford Hancock. 
James Bedford, 1816. 
John Puckett, 1816. 
William Bay. 
Isaac B. Jackson. 
Mark Williams. 
Ira Allen. 
G. A. Adams. 

Alamon Church. 
Charles B. Modesitt, 1816. 
Robert Graham. 
Wm. MildhoUand. 
Collins C. W. Morgan. 


Michael Blair. 

Andrew Brooks. 

Robert Hoggatt, 1816. 

Joshua Skidmore. 

Jesse Higgins. 

Martin Patrick. 

John Price. 

Russell Boyd. 

Joseph Noblit. 

Chauncey Rose. 

John Ray. 

Daniel Jencks. 

Luther Franklin, 

Squire Gregory. 

Richard Cox. 

Mahlon Stephenson. 

Thomas H. Clark, 1816. 

David French. 

John McCaw. 

Jacob Kuyger. 

Henry Allen. 

Robert Taylor. 

Thomas Durham. 

Thomas Ramage. 

William Durham, 1818. 

John Kuykendall, 1818. 

Felix Addison Cunningham. 

William Hogue. 

Robert Davidson. 

William H. Durham, 

Oohn L. Walker. 

Macom McFadden. 

John Chenoweth. 

Melchi Gray. 

Joseph French. 

Eleazer Aspinwall. 

Abraham A. Markle, 1816. 

Andrew Himrod. 



William Thomas. 
William Thomas. 
Sylvester Sibley, 1817. 
John Sibley, 1817. 
Eben B. Stone. 
John D. Christy. 
Elijah Bacon. 
Joseph Malcom. 
Joseph W. Kichardson. 
William Comb. 
Gardner Hale. 

John Patten. 
Alexander Eagleton. 
James Beards. 
Demas Deming. 
William Foster. 
Charles Kellogg. 
John Kichardson. 
James B. Winter. 
James Button. 
Horatio G. Collins. 
John Manwaring. 
Berry man Porter. 
Henry Balding, 1816. 
David Lyon. 
Louis Eodgers. 
Joseph De Hague. 
John Cottrin. 
Samuel W. Edwards. 
John H. Watson. 
Henry Markle, 1816. 

John r. King. 
Samuel Cherum. 
Amos Rice. 
Geo. W. Dewees. 
Jeremy Boyanton. 

Goodwin Hallo way. 
Elias Depew. 
George Hicks. 
Jonathan E. Green. 
George Wright. 
Loving Boots. 
Elisha Parrons. 
Valentine Swall. 
James Sheilds. 
James Bennett. 


John Slaven. 
John C. Packard. 
Ashley Harris. 
James Currey. 
William Coltrin. 
Isaac Balding, 1816. 
William W. Downing. 
Benjamin Whaley. 
Parden Smith. 
Curtis Gilbert, 1815. 
William H. Holmes. 
Cheesbrough Taylor. 
Daniel McCulloch. 
William Armstrong. 
Thomas M. Curry. 
Hugh Conners. 
George Damon. 
Otis McCulloch. 
James Brooks. 
Samuel McQuilkins. 


James C. Turner. 
Henry Brasher. 
Fredrick Keys. 
Geo. W. Dewees. 


David Swall. 
Elijah Turner. 
Hugh Conners. 

Moses Burgett. 
Isaac Keys. 
John Woods. 


William Souls. William Thompson. 

Price Cheesman. Israel Harris. 

Isaac Anderson. John Blocksam. 

Charles W. Souls. Geo. W. Dewees. 

Nelon W. Souls. Alvah Hotchkiss. 

Stephen Hawley, Louis Vansickle. 

William Walker. Jacob Hoffman. 

Chandler Tillman. John Jackson. 

Aloah Payne. William Depew, 

John Briggs. William Harris. 
Zebina and Zelotas Hervey, 


Newman D. Palmer. Simon Johnson. 

William Thompson. Samuel C. Thomjjson. 

Hiram Smith. William Christey. 

Levi Johnson. William Stevens. 

Mrs. Susan Brasher, relict of Henry Brasher, died in Peoria, 111., 
at the residence of her daughter, Mrs. E. B. Pooler, December 9, 
1877, aged sixty -nine years. She was a native of Ohio, near Cincin- 
nati, born August 30, 1808, and came to Vigo in 1818. She has 
been the mother of twelve children. Her husband, Henry Brasher, 
died in 1852. 

In 1818 there was a strong colony came to what is now Sugar 
Creek township. Of these were James Bennett, John Sheets, John 
Kay, Henry Kuykendall, John Eeese, Reuben Newton, James Hick- 
lin, Joseph Malcom, Micajah Goodman, Henry Hearn, Henry Mid- 
deton and John Cruse. 

A son of Micajah was John B. Goodman, long one of the promi- 
nent farmers in that township, and another son who grew to manhood 
was William Goodman. 

William Harris and William and Samuel John Ray, in company 
with Caleb Trublood, came in 1818, and settled in what is now Riley 
township. These people were so much troubled by the Indians yet 
numerous in that part of the county, that they were compelled to go 
away and wait for more favorable times before returning. They lit- 
erally slept on their arms, and ready dressed at all times, to flee or 
fight as circumstances required. The Ray family made a kind of 
stockade of their place. One night William Ray came very near 
shooting his father, mistaking him for an intruding Indian. He had 
his gun pointed and his finger on the trigger, in the act of giving it 
the fatal pressure, when he discovered it to be his father. One of the 
Ray boys was John, who became a leading farmer. 

In 1818 John and Samuel Adams came and settled just west of 


where is Fountain Station, in Nevins township. John M'as a black- 
smith, the man of first importance to do everything in iron work so nec- 
essary to the pioneers. The same year Starling Lambert came and 
made his improvement in Raccoon bottom, and also John HofPman, 
who located on Section 29, Range 7. He was from Pennsylvania, 
and when seven years old he had sat on the lap of Washington. He 
had emigrated to Ohio in 1812, was a soldier in the war of that year, 
under Gen. Hull, and was an eye-witness of the surrender of his 
army. John Hoffman was the eldest of twenty-two children — nine- 
teen boys and three girls. 



HARRISON'S PURCHASE was opened for sale in September, 
1816. This was the signal for the wild mad rush for land — 
lands that extended their fame for richness and beauty throughout 
all the older settlements from northern Maine to Florida. As a 
specimen of the reports the soldiers carried back to their friends 
we give the report of one of the surveyors who surveyed out the 
lines. M. D. Buck was so impressed with the country that he wrote 
and published an account in Brown's Gazetteer in 1817, and to 
this surveyor's accounts were added interesting notes by Samuel R. 
Brown, who had visited the Wabash country. From the two is 
condensed the following in reference to this particular portion of 
the country: 

"The bottoms bordering the Wabash are rich; wells have been 
sunk in them that showed a vegetable soil twenty -two feet deep, 
though the ordinary depth is from two to five feet. All the streams 
have spacious and fertile bottoms. The prairies in the vicinity of 
Fort Harrison exceed for beauty and richness anything I ever be- 
held. The land sells very high near Fort Harrison, for it is the 
most delightful situation for a town on the Wabash. The Indians 
camp in the woods convenient to water, where they build wigwams. 
While surveying in the wilderness they appeared very friendly, and 
offered us honey and venison. The woods abound with bear, deer, 
and wild turkeys. About three-eighths of the land we surveyed is 
excellent for most kinds of produce; the remainder is good for 
grazing, but either too hilly or flat and wet for grain. [How ex- 


perience has reversed this early decision about the low wet lands. 
Everywhere the lowest are now the best, and the soil as it does not 
wash is the most durable. Great crops are now every year grow- 
ing where once water stood all the season and was often deep 
enough to swim a horse. — Ed.] Wheat grows rank, but the grain 
is not as plump as in New York. The difficulty is the land is too 
rich until improved. Apple trees bear every year. Wheat is 75 
cents a bushel; flour, $3 a hundred — $4 if delivered at Fort Harri- 
son; pork, $4; beef, the same; butter and cheese, from 12| cents 
to 25 cents; honey, 50 cents a gallon; maple sugar, 25 cents. 
European goods exorbitantly high. Ginseng grows in the bottoms 
to a size and perfection I never before witnessed. 

"The lands in Harrison's purchase when first opened for sale at 
Jefferson sold very high, and numerous tracts brought from $4 to 
$30 per acre. A section on the Wabash below Fort Harrison 
[Terre Haute] sold at |32.18 per acre. The best proof of the ex- 
cellence of these lands is the fact of their' being the scene of a 
numerous Indian population. * * Serpents are not very nu- 
merous. Deer are mortal enemies of the rattlesnake, and often kill 
them by jumping on them. It is also reported ["reported" was 
well put in — Ed.] that the turkey buzzard has the power of killing 
the rattlesnake by its intolerable stench, which it most powerfully 
emits by a violent fluttering in the air a little above the snake's 

In this case how would it have been if the buzzard attacked a 
prairie polecat? 

This gives us a faint idea of the impression of the spot where 
is now Terre Haute made upon those who first beheld it. Is it any 
wonder men started on a race from North Carolina and from our 
northeast shore to the newly opened land office with their land war- 
rants or Canadian rights to carry off the pick of such a favored 
locality? Those who had the means rode like "John Gilpin" for 
the land office — sometimes killing their horses. It was the high 
timber lands and the inviting points along the streams as well as 
the natural mill-sites that were the points these men were racing to 

These rushing, panting land buyers were a source of astonish- 
ment to the natives as well as many of the nomadic whites without 
fixed habitations, and who had mixed with Indians or angled in the 
streams in lazy content, and lodged in their wigwams with no con- 
cern more than to catch the fish and game and eat and be merry, 
ready to follow the game when civilization would first begin to 
drive it from its haunts. 

The very exuberance of the natural richness of this beautiful 
land was one of the impeding difficulties to the pioneer that was 


now coming. On the most fertile spots on the bottoms the peavine 
grew in tangled masses, cropped by the half wild cattle that grew 
fat on this nutritious food. The spicewood choked the glades and 
the thick paw-paw groves filled in the heavy timber bottoms until 
the tangled woods were often difficult of passage. Frequently a 
caravan would be all day cutting its way through five miles of these 
obstructions. The little " clearin'" about the new cabin often was 
involved in no slight labor. But when that labor was performed 
and the virgin soil that had been the slow accumulation of the ages 
was turned to the sun and the winds, then came therefrom the in- 
visible waves that literally savored of death. The molderin'g vege- 
tation and earth damp were the open Pandora's box to the busy 
pioneers. The stream when deprived of these leafy shades and 
the hot sun drank their sluggish waters became open sewers run- 
ning with malaria. 

Whole families were prostrated with the fever until there was 
not one to wait upon another. This " sickly " climax was reached 
in the next four or five years after the real beginning of clearing 
the land and making farms. During these years in the fall season, 
travelers tell of riding ten or fifteen miles along in the settlements 
near a stream where all were prostrated. In a few years there was 
an improvement in this respect, but the fever and ague were more 
or less in the new country for a generation. When it first came to 
those poor people, a besom of destruction surely, how could they 
live on and hope? How could they believe this would ever change? 
They knew little concerning it, why should it not grow worse in- 
stead of better, as long as there was human life left for this mon- 
ster to feed upon? It was not enough for these poor pioneer, women 
to be thus banished to the lonely solitudes from their dear old 
homes and friends, but they must live and dread and suffer, and 
see their blessed prattlers panting and burning in the hot fever 
that was so ruthlessly undermining their lives. 

If there ever was true courage in this world it was all surely 
required by these people that moved on, and without complaint, with- 
out despair, fought out this unequaled fight. 

So far we have been dealing with the memories and authentic 
traditions of these brave and hardy men and women who were 
among the first to come to this particular part of the Wabash 
country. The lands in what is Vigo county were in the market to 
purchasers September, 1816, and time has invested these old and 
yellow records with the greatest interest. The hour of the open- 
ing of the land offices is that of the division line between the 
" squatter " and the land buyer. To-day all are squatters, when a 
new comer could get no other title to his land than that of posses- 
sion and his little improvement made thereon, and then depend up- 


on keeping watch and guard over it until it would come into market 
and be the first to buy it of the government, and to-morrow the bars 
are thrown down and the land buyer is rushing to the land offices. 

The government would notify the people that on a certain day 
.it would open its land office doors and certain lands would be for 
sale, and "first come, first served." In the swarms of home buyers 
were to be found the keen -eyed land speculator. Some of these 
were ever ready to "enter out" the settler, basing his judgment 
upon that of the man who had pick and choice of all of it, and at 
times there were in this way grievous wrongs perpetrated. 

The settlers, however, soon allowed these cases of wrong to 
formulate among them a strong unwritten law that the smart specu- 
lator should not ruthlessly rob honest men of their toil, and when 
a case of this kind would occur they would say to him: "Pay the 
man for his improvement or else take your money back and give 
him the land," and this was enforced impartially and there were 
few cases that in the end satisfactory justice was not reached. 
Thus, without any written organization, these pioneers became knit 
together in the strongest bands of self-interest and brotherhood, 
and in their social lives they were all as one. And when another 
family arrived every cabin door was open to them and no one waited 
for the new arrivals to call for assistance, but the people would go 
and help them in every way, pointing out to them the choicest spots 
where was good land and springs, or living water, and after they 
had looked about and made their selections every man for miles 
would meet and generally in a day put up the log cabin, and not 
only help the family move in, but bring them of their food, and 
their women folk and, if possible, the one-eyed fiddler, and a jolly 
house-warming would take place in the evening. The new arrivals, 
although now in their own house, were the neighbors' guests, and 
the genuine hearty welcome was, beyond doubt, often a blessed 
balm to many a poor, heavy-hearted woman who could hardly realize 
that all was not a dream. 

This hearty, unaffected friendship and substantial good will, this 
frank and cordial aid and well wishing, gave tone and color to the 
lives of the pioneers that has marked the generations as a type of 
people expressed in the phrase "western," and impressed some- 
thing of itself on the descendants of those noble people that may be 
distinctly noticed to this time. Hearty and rugged, generous and 
sympathetic, and to hide this as much as possible beneath a rough 
exterior is nearly a universal western trait. These hearty men 
generally carry great contempt for what the Indians so expressively 
called "squaw men," and yet for the weak and helpless, if they 
could do so by stealth, they were as tender hearted and as kind as 
the gentlest woman. These people were without guile. They had 


but precious little of this modern mad fever for great wealth. They 
wanted, like Scotia's bard, "just enough and not too much." And 
therefore they made small material for the mad house or the peniten- 
tiary. In the showy side of life they would now be esteemed at 
fault, but, after all, in these sterling qualities that are the real " man 
for a' that and a' that," their lives may be studied with infinite 
profit by the most favored pets of fortune in these enervating times. 
They had no conceptions of how " to smile and smile and still a 
villain," but rather chose to hide their gentlest nature beneath the 
roughest exterior. Whatever of this world's goods the average pio- 
neer had he had earned it, and whether that was much or little, if 
his pioneer neighbor in his distress needed it, it was his without 
the asking. They had no lunatic asylums, penal institutions or 
poor houses — they did not need them. One of our modern "tramps" 
would then have been nearly as extraordinary as an elephant. 

But these people were not angels with budding wings, they were 
not the perfect, polished men and women, and it is not the intention 
at all to so represent them here. But in those cardinal qualities of 
manhood, and all that is strong and real, in all those broad and 
generous things that are the inner life of which the exterior is but 
the husk that covers the kernel, wherein is there ought of which 
their descendants need blush when they compare them in the mental 
balance with even the best of modern everyday life? 

With some of them their amusements and pastimes were so 
coarse that they bordered on the brutal. Some of these strong men 
would drink deeply of their strong drink, and cock fight, gamble, 
race horses, and in their cups would fight much like infuriated 
animals. And the rule of the present is to refer to the rough pio- 
neers and judge them all by these exceptions, and hence the average 
young of to-day are warped and all wrong in their information about 
those people. Suppose in a century from now the young of that 
time should form their estimate of all of us by reading of our 
"prize fighters," sluggers, bullies, bruisers, sand baggers, train 
robbers, bank defaulters, sneak thieves, and the whole lot that are 
crowded to overflowing in our many and vast penal institutions, our 
asylums and our poorhouses, and even our overburdened feeble- 
minded institutions. Would not such judgments be a little bit 
absurd, if not stupid? You must think of a people always in their 
averages and not the exceptions. This is the only intelligent cri- 
terion by which you can be guided. Some understanding of the 
law of averages is the very essence of true history — the exceptions 
are perpetuated simply as interesting phenomena. 

But to return to the subject of the first land buyers — the first 
recorded official action of the people in the year 1816. These do 
not give all the transactions in that line, only the most of them. 


"The Canadian land rights" may or may not be reported, and so of 
entries, they may not be on record until the patent is issued, years 
after the entry. Tiie date given is generally that of filing as found 
on the voluminous records in which they are scattered over many 
pages. There are other facts recorded, such as bonds, power of 
attorney, assignment of title, bonds for deeds, etc. The description 
of the real estate is given in order in most of the cases to denote 
where the different ones settled or made their homes. These have 
been carefully culled from the county records, transcribed from the 
Vincennes records when this was Knox county, and then, as they 
were brought in for record, to our county clerk. Suffice it to state 
that for each year the records had to be gone carefully over each 
separate time. 

It will be noticed the first entry on the record is by a man 
named Abraham Tourttlot to Eliakim Crosby. I nunted in 
vain for any one who had ever heard of this first name, could find 
no trace of him. A closer examination showed that the land was 
not now in Vigo county, but it was put down in the list because it 
was made to Crosby, who was a citizen of what is now Vigo. These 
lists run through the years from 1S16 to 1830, and in the matter of 
original land titles will be of easy reference to all interested in land 
titles : 

1816. — Abraham Tourttlot to Eliakim Crosby, December 2, 
Section 12, Township 14, Range 9; Carey Marcellus to Thomas H. 
Clarke (no numbers), December 5; C. and T. Bullitt, Jonathan Lind- 
ley, Abraham Markle and Hyacinth Lasalle to John Owens (no 
numbers), September 19; same to Phineas M. Cooper, October 30; 
Proprietors Terre Haute to John M. Coleman, Lot 95, October 31; 
United States to Caleb Crawford, southwest quarter of Section 27, 
Township 12, Range 9, November 2; same to Robert Graham north- 
east quarter of Section 35, Township 13, Range 9, October 28; 
same to James Cunningham, southeast quarter of Section 5, Town- 
ship 14, Range 8, December 5; James Cunningham to William S. 
McCarter, southeast quarter of Section 5, Township 14, Range 8, 
December 11; Joseph Kitchell, agent to John M. Coleman, Lot 
95, October 21; land office to William White, northwest quarter of 
Section 34, Township 15, Range 9, October 30; same to same, north- 
east quarter of Section 33, Township 15, Range 19, October 30; 
United States patent to Jacob Lane, northeast and northwest quarters 
of Section 25, Township 12, Range 9, October 26; United States to 
Alexander Chamberliu, northwest quarter of Section 11, Township 
11, Range 9, October 26; same to Cary Marcellus, southwest 
quarter of Section 23, Township 12, Range 9, October 26; Cary 
Marcellus to.Thomas H. Clarke, southwest quarter of Section 23, 
Township 12, Range 9, December 5. 


1817. — John Richardson to Samuel Pierce, northeast quarter of 
Section 21, Township 14, Range 7, Septerober 27; James Taylor 
and John Barr to Thomas Barr, northeast quarter of Section 6, 
Township 12, Range 9, June 13; Vanranselear Crosby to Moses 
Hoggatt south half of Section 4, Township 14, Range 9, October 
17; Eliakim Crosby and wife to Moses Hoggatt north half of Sec- 
tion 24, Township 11, Range 10, October 17; John G. Camp to 
George Clem, north half of Section 18, Township 11, Range 9, Oc- 
tober 17; Eliakim Crosby to John M. Coleman, forty acres in south- 
east quarter of Section 15, Township 12, Range 9; William Markle 
to Joseph Walker, northeast quarter of Section 36, Township 14, 
Range 9, September 20; Eliakim Crosby to Joseph Walker, south- 
west quarter of Section 35, Township 14; Range 9, April 4; same 
to Thomas H. Clarke, southeast quarter of Section 13, Township 12, 
Range 9, October 11; Caleb Crawford to Enoch Honeywell, south- 
west quarter of Section 29, Township 12, Range 9, July 20; Jonas 
Seeley and wife to Robert Hopkins, northeast quarter of Section 13 
and 40 acres of southeast quarter of Section 13, Township 14, Range 
9, June 7 ; John Halloway to Ebenezer Wilson and Salem Pocock 
(assignment), April 16; United States to John Johnson, northwest 
quarter of Section 14, and southwest quarter of Section 11, Town- 
ship 14, Range 10, February 17; same to John Price, southeast 
quarter of Section 7, Township 11, Range 8, October 11; Bailey 
Johnson, sheriff, Sullivan county to Samuel Colman, 39 acres south- 
east quarter of Section 4, Township 10, Range 10, October 29; 
same and same date to James Wasson, 39 acres northwest quarter 
of Section 19, Township 11, Range 9; same to James Sayer and 
George A. Wasson, 19 acres, northwest quarter of Section 19, Town- 
ship 11, Range 9; same to Wasson and Sayer, 39 acres of the south- 
west quarter of Section 30, Township 11, Range 9; John Long to 
Ebenezer Wilson, one-twentieth of Terre Haute purchase. May 23; 
Eleazar Daggett and wife to William Walker, northeast quarter of 
Section 8, Township 11, Range 9, June 28; Eliakim Crosby to Ezra 
Jones, northwest quarter of Section 10, Township 10, Range 10, 
April 4; Eliakim Crosby to William Harlow, assignment one six- 
teenth interest of Sections 28, 29, 12, 9, and other lands in thirteen 
tracts, October 31. 

1818. — C. and T. Bullitt, Jonathan Lindley, Abraham Markle 
and Hyacinth Lasalle, Terre Haute Company, agreement with Mars- 
ton G. Clark, E. Stone and John Allen, commissioners, to fix county 
seat, March 21; Truman Blackman, sheriff's bond, March 21; Alex- 
ander Barns, commissioner's bond, March 21; Eliakim Crosby, 
power of attorney to Daniel W. Douglas, March 13 ; Eliakim Cros- 
by and wife to Isaac Barns, deed, April 18 ; Truman Blackman to 
John Dickson, southwest quarter of Section 17, Township 11. 


Range 9, assignment, April 28; Orris Crosby to Daniel W. Doug- 
las, power of attorney, March 13; same to John C. Packard, deed, 
south half of Section 2, Township 11, Range 9, April 18; Eliakim 
Crosby and wife to AVilliam Newson, northwest quarter and south- 
east quarter of Section 12, Township, 14, Range 9, May 5; John 
Hamilton and Isaac Lambert, note to John Owens, March 20 ; Will- 
iam AVilson and wife to Samuel Miles, southeast quarter of Section 
36, Township 11, Range 4, May 23; Peter Garber and wife to 
Ichabod G. Scranton, southeast quarter of Section 14, Township 
12, Range 9, June 3; L. H. Scott, agent, to John Hamilton, Isaac 
Lambert and Ezra Jones, county commissioners, receipt, June 1; 
John O'Neal to Pierre Laplante, northwest quarter of Section 2, 
Township 5, Range 7, June 2; Truman Blackman, sherifp, to L. H. 
Scott, power of attorney, April 3 ; Joel Dickson to Isaac Lambert 
and John Dickson, northAvest quarter of Section 36, Township 14, 
Range 9, March 13; Aaron Reemon to. Robert W. Stoddard, 
northeast quarter of Section 15, Township 10, Range 10, April 
30; Thomas H. Clark to George W. Harris, southeast quarter 
of Section 35, Township 8, Range 2, May 30; George W. Harris 
to Robert McFarline, southeast quarter of Section 36, Township 
14, Range 9, June 17; same and Thomas H. Clarke to Ezekiel 
Kilgore, northeast quarter of Section 25, Township 14, Range 
9, June 17; William Ryons to Soussariet Dubois, southwest quar- 
ter of Section 36, Township 11, Range 4, June 19; John Beard 
to John Durkee, west fraction of Section 21, Township 13, Range 
9, March 16; Fredrick Lupt to John Durkee, northwest quarter of 
Section 20, Township 13, Range 9, May 7 ; Thomas Barr to Joseph 
Curtis, northeast quarter of Section 6, Township 12, Range 9, June 
29; John T. Chunn to Isaac Lambert and John Dickson, power of 
attorney, May 23; Isaac Coleman to Ezra Jones, northeast quarter 
of Section 35, Township 12, Range 9, May 27 ; Ezra H. Moore to 
Eliakim Crosby, south half of Section 1, Township 13, Range 9, 
June 24; Curtis Gilbert and Andrew Brooks, agreement, Septem- 
ber 9; Eleazer Aspiuwall to Abraham Markle, southeast quarter of 
Section 2, Township 12, Range 9, October 3; John M. Colman to 
Samuel Jacobs, Lot 9, Terre Haute, August 11; Lucius H. Scott, 
sheriff's bond, September 23 ; Caleb Crawford, commissioner's bond, 
October 14; Eleazer Daggett to William MoUyneuix, northwest 
quarter of Section 8, Township 11, Range 9, June 5; Daniel W. 
Douglas and Henry W. Haller to Thomas Bound, south half of 
Section 1, Township 13, Range 9, November 11; county commis- 
sioners to L. H. Scott, assignment of certain lots in Terre Haute, 
May 21 ; Bailey Johnson, sheriff of Sullivan county, to Daniel W. 
Douglas, land in Section 7 and 13, Township 13, Range 8, November 
14; John Goff to Eliakim Crosby, 120 acres northeast quarter of Sec- 


tion 12, Township 12, Kange 9, November 19 ; Silas Hopkins to Will- 
iam Merritt, mortgage, February 7; Caleb Arnold and William Win- 
ter, town plat at mouth of Honey Creek (Smyrna), October 24; Elia- 
kim Crosby to Chauncy Rose and Moses Robins, 120 acres north- 
east quarter of Section 12, Township 12, Range 9, November 23; 
James Pettingill to Abraham Markle, south half of Section 35, 
Township 12, Range 9,- November 21; Robert Taylor to Solomon 
Lusk, northeast quarter of Section 13, Township 12, Range 1 (in 
Illinois), December 19; Robert Hopkins and wife to James Hagar, 
northeast quarter arid 40 acres in southeast quarter of Section 13, 
Township 14, Range 9, December 29 ; John Cook to John Durkee, 
southwest quarter of Section 17, Township 13, Range 9, November 
28 ; Silvia Winter, Mary Winter, James Hall, Mahala Hall, John 
Winter, Ariel Harman to Elisha U. Brown, fractions of Sections 35 
and 20, Township 11, Range 10, October 29 ; Daniel Darrock to Dun- 
can Darrock, southeast quarter of Section 19, Township 11, Range 
9, November 2; United States to Paul Cool, west half of Section 
3, Township 15, Range 10, January 5; William Harlow to Jesse 
Embree, west half of northeast quarter of Section 22, Township 

12, Range 9, August 25 ; Peter Allen and wife to Abraham Mar- 
kle, northwest quarter of Section 22, Township V\ Range 9, Feb- 
ruary 16; Oliver Grace to Christopher C. Hiddle and Mahlon 
Laneson, and John W. Mesler, southeast quarter of Section 15 and 
northeast quarter of Section 10, Township 15, Range 10, June 9; 
Mary Stephenson to Bates Cook, northeast quarter of Section 33, 
Township 13, Range 8, September 13 ; John Owens to C. and T. 
Bullitt, one-half share in Terre Haute, October 15; Henry Speed 
to C. and T. Bullitt, one-third share in Terre Haute, July 3; Fred- 
rick Lupt to John Durkee, northwest quarter of Section 20, Town- 
ship 13, Range 9, May 7 ; John Cook to John Durkee, southwest 
quarter of Section 17, Township 13, Range 9, November 22; John 
Durkee to Daniel Barbour, southeast quarter of Section 7, Town- 
ship 13, Range 9, July 3; John Beard to John Durkee, west frac- 
tion of Section 21, Township 13, Range 9, March 14; Daniel Bar- 
bour to John Durkee, southwest quarter of Section 1, Township 

13, Range 10, July 3; United States to Isaac Pointer, north half of 
the southwest quarter of Section 30, Township, 11, Range 8, June 
11; Abraham Markle and wife to Peter Allen, 120 acres of the 
southwest quarter of Section 15, Township 12, Range 9, February 
16; Daniel W. Douglas to Jonathan Lindley, northeast quarter of 
Section 13, Township 13, Range 9, December 12; Willis Newson 
and wife to Jonathan Lindley, northwest quarter and southwest 
quarter and southeast quarter of Section 12, Township 14, Range 
9, December 22; Robert W. Stoddard to Daniel Rodney, south- 
west quarter of Section 21, Township 15, Range 9, October 


1; John Dunn to Charles Smith, two-twentieths of a quarter 
of Terre Haute interest, July 14; John Carro to Charles, one- 
twentieth of same, July 13; Joel Dickson to John M. Laverty, 
northwest quarter of Section 31, Township 15, Ran^e 8, June 10; 
William Winter to Caleb Arnold, 50 acres in Section 22, Township 

11, Range 10, May 2; Jonathan Lindley to Truman Blackman, south- 
west quarter of Section 2, Township 12, Range 9, June 30; Cuth- 
bert and Thomas Bullitt to Robert McFarline, southwest quarter of 
Section 36, Township 14, Range 9, July 1; Ann Reemer to John 
Teeple, southeast quarter of Section 27, Township, 14, Range 8, 
April 18; Truman Blackman, sherifp, to John Hamilton, northeast 
quarter of Section 12, and northwest quarter of Section 26, and 
southeast quarter of Section 26, Township 13, Range 10, November 
31; John M. Colman to Samuel Jacobs, Lot 95, August 11 ; Samuel 
Jacobs to Jacobs & Levy, Lot 95, December 7 ; William White to 
Obediah Swayne, northwest quarter of Section 34, Township 15, 
Range 9, December 4; William White to Obediah Swayne, north- 
east quarter of Section 33, Township 15, Range 9, December 4; 
Lucius H. Scott to Truman Ford, Lot 86, May 21; Truman Black- 
man to James Cunningham, certificate, southeast quarter of Sec- 
tion 3, Township 13, Range 10, November 30; same to Eleazer 
Aspinwall, southeast quarter of Section 20, and southeast quarter 
of Section 8, southwest quarter of Section 23, southeast quarter of 
Section 23, southwest quarter of Section 34 and southwest quarter 
of Section 7, November 28 ; Jonathan Lindley to Joseph Evans, 
northeast quarter of Section 18, Township 13, Range 8, July 27; 
Simon Stone and Dorothy Hopkins, executors of Caleb Hopkins, to 
William Winter, and undivided one-half of the southeast quarter 
and southwest quarter of Section 35, Township 12, Range 9, De- 
cember 13; United States to Jacob Stout, south half of Section 11, 
Township 11, Range 9, January 23. 

1819. — Silas H. Seeley to Robert Hopkins, southeast quarter 
of Section 18, Township 11, Range 9, January 3; A. Markle to 
William Markle, northwest quarter of Section 35, southv/est quar- 
ter of Section 34, Township 13, Range 9, January 12; Eleazer As- 
pinwall to Ezra Jones, northeast quarter of Section 35, Township 

12, Range 9, January 12; Otis Jones, Henry French, Amos P. 
Balch and Jeremiah Raymond, town plat Greenfield, March 4; L. 
H. Scott, sheriff, to Jeremiah Donovan and Florence D. Newell, Lot 
63, April 1; William Markle to Samuel L. Richardson, southeast 
quarter of Section 34, Township 13, Range 9, April 7 ; Samuel L. 
Richardson to William Markle, southeast quarter of Section 34, 
Township 13, Range 9, April 7 ; John M. Coleman to James Athee, 
northeast quarter of Section 9, and southwest quarter of the south- 
east quarter of Section 4, Range 12, Township 5, April 12; John 


Dickinson to James Cunningham, Lot 189, May 1; L. H. Scott, 
sheriff to Lambert and Dickson, Lot 87, May 6; same to Andrew 
Brooks, Lot 189, May 6; John Gough to Abram Markle, ten acres, 
northwest quarter of Section 11, Township 12, Range 9; same to 
Peter Allen, ten acres northeast quarter of Section 11, Township 
12, Range 9, May 12; Jonathan Lindley and wife to Thomas Lind- 
ley, ten quarter sections in 9, 11, and 13, 8, and 13, 9 and 10, 3 and 

11, 3 and 11, 2, March 20; John Gough to Peter Allen, 40 acres in 
Section 12, Township 12, Range 9, May 22; same to same, 140 
acres in Section 11, Township 12, Range 9; Peter Allen to John 
Gough, 40 acres in Section 12, and 140 acres in Section 11, Township 

12, Range 9, May 22; William Harlaw to Jesse Embree, west half 
of the northeast quarter of Section 22, and 120 acres in the southeast 
quarter of Section 15, Tow^nship 12, Range 9, August 25; L. H. 
Scott, sheriff, to John Ewing, one half of the northeast quarter of Sec- 
tion 28, Township 10, Range 10, May 24; same to John M. Cole- 
man, Lot 99, May 14; John Durkie to Daniel Barbour, southeast 
quarter of Section 7, Township 13, Range 9, April 14; Daniel Gas- 
till to Samuel Miller, southeast quarter of Section 19, Township 14, 
Range 6 (Illinois), June 10; Daniel Barbour to John Durkee, south- 
west quarter of Section 1 and southeast quarter of Section 2, Township 

13, Range 10, June 10; Eli Linderman to Curtis Gilbert, southwest 
quarter of Section 11, Township 54, Range 18; John C. Packard to 
Samuel Packard, south half of Section 2, Township 11, Range 9, 
August 2; Moses Hoggatt to Samuel L. Richardson, south half 
of Section 4, Township 14, Range 9, April 15; William Harlaw 
to Eleazer Aspinwall, power of attorney, June 29; United States 
to John Jenckes, northeast quarter of Section 19, Township 12, 
Range 8, and northwest quarter of Section 10, and southeast quar- 
ter of Section 9, Township 11, and Range 9, and southwest quarter 
of Section 17, Township 13, Range 8, March 1 ; James Scott to 
Thomas Isaacs, Lot 126, September 7; Isaac Pointer to James 
Shields, southwest quarter of Section 30, Township 11, Range 8, 
September 7; John B. Richardson to John H. Watson, northwest 
quarter of Section 33, Township 12, Range 9, September 6 ; Joseph 
Curtis to Thomas Patton, northeast quarter of Section 6, Township 
12, Range 9, September 13; Gideon Frisbee to Thomas Emmerson, 
southeast quarter of Section 8, Township 11, Range 9, January 12; 
Isaac Hunter to John and Samuel Laverly, southwest quarter of 
Section 25, Township 15, Range 9, March 20; Samuel Chambers to 
Benjamin Blackiston, northwest quarter of Section 23, Township 12, 
Range 9, September 1; John Thompson, administrator of William 
S. McCarter to George Wright, southeast quarters of Sections 
Sand 11, Township 14, Range 8, October 15; George Wright to 
Lucius H. Scott, same November 27; John Price to Curtis Gilbert, 


southeast quarter of Section 7, Township 11, Range 8, August 25, 
assignment, Curtis Gilbert to Lucius H. Scott, southeast quarter of 
Section 7, Township 11, Range 8, August 26; Joseph Kitchell to 
Jonathan Lindley, two-thirds of a share in Terre Haute, June 28; 
William Harlow to Jesse Embree, 120 acres off south of the southeast 
quarter of Section 23, Township 12, Range 10, January 26, 1820; 
Abner Scott to William Pope, Jr., and Robert Sturgis, 53 acres, 
southeast quarter of Section 22, Township 12, Range 10, July 21; 
James Scott, administrator, John Murdock to Henry Vandine, 
northeast quarter of Section 18, Township 14, Range 9, October 15; 
William Doty to John Martin, 10 acres, southwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 1, Township 15, Range 10, March 13; John Taylor to William 
Garter, power of attorney, October 28; John Winter to Sylvia 
Winter, interest to town of Smyrna, May 21; Robert M. Stoddard 
to Cyrenius Chapin, northeast and northwest quarters of Section 8, 
Township 13, Range 9, and other lands,' February 22; Cyrenius 
Chapin and wife to William Coltrin, same, March 9 ; United States 
to John Prince, northwest quarter of Section 34, Township 14, 
Range 8, September 15 ; Cyrenius Chapin to Benjamin Whaley, north- 
west quarter of Section 34, Township 14, Range 8, and northeast quar- 
ter of Section 19, Township 13, 8, April 5; Jonathan Lindley to Ed- 
ward Mittis, northwest quarter of Section 20, Township 13, Range 
8, and northwest quarter of Section 6, Township 13, Range 8, July 
21; Abraham Markle to John Groenendyke, mortgage, October 20; 
Joseph W. Moulton to Howard Moulton, northeast and southeast 
quarters of Sections 24, Township 11, Range 9, October 8; United 
States to Daniel Bradberry, southeast quarter of Section 27, Town- 
ship 10, Range 8, and southwest quarter of Section 26, March 1; 
Abraham Markle to John Groenendyke, southeast quarter of Section 
2, Township 12, Range 9, and southwest quarter of Section 36, Town- 
ship 13, Range 9, October 20; Thomas Bullitt to Cuthbert Bullitt, in 
terest in Terre Haute Company, December 22; William Harlow to 
John Sheets, Terre Haute interest, January 30; William Markle to 
Abraham Markle, southwest quarter of Section 36, Township 13, 
Range 9, January 12; Otis Jones to Howard Putnam, north half of 
the northwest quarter of Section 3, Township 10, Range 10, Au- 
gust 4; John Britton, collector to Mathew Morrison, Lot 117, July 
19; Lucius H. Scott, collector to John M. Coleman, northeast 
quarter of Section 22, Township 12, Range 9, November 22; same 
to Demas Deming, Lot 41, November 22; same to Curtis Gilbert, 
northwest quarter of Section 36, Township 11, Range 10, Novem- 
ber 23; Eleakim Crosby to George W. Harris, southwest quarter 
of Section 24, Township 11, Range 10, and southwest quarter of 
Section 1, Township 15, Range 10, October 26; L. H. Scott to Cur- 
tis Gilbert, southwest quarter of Section 18, Township 12, Range 


8, November 23; same to same, northwest quarter of Section 35, 
Township 12, Range 9, November 23; Curtis Gilbert to Demas 
Deming, same, April 3, 1820; Henry Halleu to Thomas Bound, 
southwest quarter of Section 1, Township 13, Range 9, July 1; 
John Britton, collector, to Curtis Gilbert, Lots 146, 61, 177, 89, 
236, July 19 ; L. H. Scott, collector to Curtis Gilbert, Lots 278, 274, 
298, November 22; Eleazer Daggett to Jonas Seeley, east side of 
the northwest quarter of Section 8, Township 11, Range 9, June 
17; Moses Hoggatt to David Reynolds, northwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 24, Township 11, Range 10, July 2. 

1820. — -J. G. Scranton to William Burtch, assignment, Febru- 
ary 15; Curtis Gilbert to Henry Allen, power of attorney, March 
26 ; Gersham Tuttle, Chester Tuttle, Pezer Porter and Gaylord Por- 
ter to William Pocock, mortgage, January 20; Gideon Frisbee to 
Willard Smith, mortgage, February 16; Andrew Brooks to Curtis 
Gilbert, receipt. May 8; James Sherwin to Richard Jones, south 
half of the southwest quarter of Section 32, Township 15, Range 9, 
February 11; Peter Allen to Anthony Conner, southeast quarter of 
Section 9, Township 12, Range 8, June 6; Conner to Allen, mort- 
gage, same; William Coltrin to John Coltrin, northwest quarter of 
Section 18, Township 12, Range 8, June 13; Asa Baton to Joshua 
Mitchell, north half of Section 13, Township 11, Range 9, April 3; 
Lucius H. Scott, sheriff, to Alexis Duchane, Lot 79, July 8 ; same 
to Isaac Lambert, Lot 43; same to Demas Deming, Lot 223; same 
to Ambrose Whitlock, Lot 221; Joseph Richardson to John B. 
Richardson, northeast quarter of Section 27, Township 13, Range 9, 
September 5; Jonathan Lindley, et al., to Moses Hoggatt, power of 
attorney, October 6; Eleazer Aspinwall to John Greonendyke, south- 
west quarter of Section 13, Township 12, Range 9, October 11; 
William Harlow to Gorum A. Worth, a oue-sixteenth to 12 quarter 
sections, June 6; David Bradberry to Abner M. Bradberry, south- 
west quarter of Section 26, Township 10, Range 8, January 4; 
James Jacobs and Alexis Leroy to Josias Pennington, Lot 95, April 
1 ; Samuel Thing to John Kerr, Lot 207, December 23 ; John Goff 
to Abraham Markle, 10 acres of the northeast quarter of Section 
11, Township 12, Range 9, April 24; William Coltrin to Rebecca 
Holmes, 100 acres of the northwest quarter of Section 8, Township 
13, Range 9, September 29 ; L. H. Scott, sheriff, to William M. 
Coltrin, 114 acres of the northwest quarter of Section 19, Town- 
ship 11, Range 9, August 1; W. M. Coltrin to Lucy Edmunds, 
100 acres off east side of Section 18, Township 12, Range 8, Sep- 
tember 29; Joseph Dickson to Benjamin Blackistou, 60 acres of 
Section 19, Township 12, Range 8, September 20; Benjamin Black- 
istou to Joseph Dickson, 50 acres, August 23; United States to 
Joseph Jenckes, seven quarter sections in 11, 9, July 11; Nathan 


Cargill to Hartford Cargill, 100 acres of the southwest quarter of 
Section 5, Township 13, Kange 9, November 27; Nathan Cargill to 
Lemuel C. Curtis, 100 acres of the southwest quarter of Section 5, 
Township 13, Range 9, November 27; James Bennett and John 
Richardson, agreement, February 22; Curtis Gilbeit to Demas 
Deming, assignment, April 3; Curtis Gilbert to Demas Demiug, 
transfer, southwest quarter of Section 18, Township 12, Range 8, 
April 3 ; John F. Cruf t to Curtis Gilbert, Lot 229, June 20 ; Curtis 
Gilbert to Demas Deming, Lot 43, April 3; Curtis Gilbert to De- 
mas Deming, Lot 278, April 3 ; same to same. Lots 274 and 298, 
L. H. Scott, sheriff, to Thomas H. Clarke, northwest quarter of Sec- 
tions 28 and 27 and northeast quarter of Section 28, Township 12, 
Range 8, April 10; Jesse Embi-ee to Elijah Pearson, west half of 
the northeast quarter of Section 22, Township 12, Range 9, Sep- 
tember 25 ; Lucius H. Scott, sheriff, to Isaac Lambert, southeast 
quarter of Section 21, Township 11, Range 9, November 18; Will- 
iam Souls to Elenor Garber, 20 acres of the southeast quarter of 
Section 14, Township 12, Range 9, April 10; L. H. Scott, sheriff, 
to Ambrose AVhitlock and John Wilson, southwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 7, Township 13, Range 8, November 18, and northeast quarter 
of Section 25, same; same to John H. King, Lot 98, November 18; 
William Souls to William Souls, Jr., southeast quarter of Section 
14, Township 12, Range 9, April 6; L. H. Scott to Thomas H. 
Clarke, appointment, November 1 ; Thomas H. Clarke to William 
Hogues, mortgage, September 14. 

1821.- — L. H. Scott, sheriff, to John Hamilton and Caleb Craw- 
ford, southwestquarter of Section 19, Township 14, Range 9, January 
15; Peter Allen to John Gough, 40 acres, northeast quarter of Sec- 
tion 12, Township 12, Range 9, January 30; Anthony B. Conner 
to Robert Phillips, bill of sale, July 8 ; Jonathan Lindley to Thom- 
as Durham, northwest quarter of Section 12, Township 11, Range 
9, January 5 ; William Ringo to John F. Keys and Russell Boyd, 2 
acres of southeast quarter of Section 12, Township 12, Range 9, April 
1 ; L. H. Scott, sheriff, Caleb Crawford, coroner, Thomas H. Clarke, 
collector, bonds, March 3; James Cunningham to John F. King, 
southeast quarter of Section 3, Township 13, Range 10, January 
20; William Haynes to George W. Harris, 105 acres, northeast 
quarter of Section 28, Township 12, Range 8, March 22; Thomas 
H. Clarke to William Haynes, same; William Harlow to John Sheets, 
interest to Terre Haute, January 30; Thomas Durham to George 
W. Dewees, northwest quarter of Section 12, Township 11, Range 
9, February 12; Joseph Richardson to Abraham Markle, southeast 
quarter of Section 29, Township 12, Range 9, May 4 ; L. H. Scott to 
Lambert & Dickson, northwest quarter of Section 3G, Township 11, 
Range 10, May 17 ; L. H. Scott to Robert S. McCabe, Lot 149, June 


4; Isaac Lambert and John Dickson to David Wilson, Section 22, 
Township 11, Kange 9, August 2; Curtis Gilbert to John F, Cruft, 
power of attorney, August 3 ; L. H. Scott to Samuel M. Caldwell, Lot 
122, July 28; John F. King to David Blue, Lots 237 and 239, Octo- 
ber 22; William Souls to Henry Souls, 20 acres, southeast quarter 
of Section 14, Township 12, Eange 9, April 0; L. H. Scott to Otis 
Jones, southeast quarter of Section 34, Township 11, Range 10, No- 
vember 7 ; Samuel M. Caldwell to Daniel Durham, Section 7, Town- 
ship 11, Range 9, except 150 acres in the southwest corner, June 7 ; 
Aaron Renner to Callville Pierce, 60 acres, northwest quarter of 
Section 15, Township 10, Range 10, January 4; Silvia Winter to 
Maria E. Akin, northwest quarter of Section 5, Township 10, Range 
9, January 4; John and Margaret Miller to George -Cook, Section 
12, Township 13, Range 10, April 4; William Chenoweth to James 
Barns, 32 acres. Section 12, Township 13, Range 9, August 25; 
Stephen S. Collett to James Kelsey and Francis Dickson (in Put- 
nam), September 29; Eliza Aspinwall to William C. Linton, power 
of attorney, August 31 ; James and George A. Wasson to Jonathan 
Lindley, 19 acres, northeast quarter of Section 19, Township 11, 
Range 9, October 11; Jonathan and Letitia Lindley to James Barns, 
south half of Section 12, Township 13, Range 9, September 3; 
George W. Harris to Trumbull Carey and William Davis, 105 acres, 
northeast quarter of Section 28, Township 12, Eange 8, May 1; 
George W. Harris to Trumbull Carey and William Davis, southwest 
quarter of Section 24, part of southeast quarter of Section 28 and the 
northeast quarter of Section 33, Township 9, Range 2 ; George and 
Roxana Campbell and Louis Aspinwall to William C. Linton, power 
of attorney, Demas Deming to John H. Watson, northwest quarter 
of Section 35, Township 12, Range 9, April 10; the Bullitts to Jon- 
athan Lindley and Moses Hoggatt, southwest quarter of Section 33, 
Township 12, Range 9, September 9; Abraham Markle to Fredrick 
Rapp, mortgage, October 22; Thomas H. Clarke to Samuel Chees- 
man, east half of the northwest quarter of Section 28, Township 12, 
Range 8 ; same to Isam Pucket, west half of the northwest quarter 
of Section 28, Township 12, Range 8, February 19; Isam Pucket to 
Price Cheesman, west half of the northwest quarter of Section 28, 
Township 12, Range 8, July 17 ; George Cook to Jacob Blose, north- 
west and southwest quarters of Section 12, Township 13, Range 10, 
November 29 ; Elijah Pearson to Levi James, northeast and south- 
east quarters of Section 15, Township 12, Range 9, April 12; Nathan 
Cargill to Lydia Allen, 60 acres, southwest quarter of Section 5, 
Township 13, Range 9, September 8; L. H. Scott, sheriff, to John 
H. Watson, north half of Lot 146; same to John F. King, Lot 61, 
November 24; United States to Durkee Barbour, southeast quarter 
of Section 8, Township 13, Range 9, August 20; Samuel Miles, col- 


lector, to John Campbell, Lot 169, July 31 ; United States to David 
Lyons and Lewis Hodges, southwest quarter of Section 14, Town- 
ship 13, Range 9, same southeast quarter of Section 14, Township 

13, Range 9. 

1822. — Isaac Lambert to John Dickson, James and David Hall 
north half of the northwest quarter of Section 22, Township 11, 
Range 9, January 12; Samuel S. Rankin to James Kelsey and Fran- 
cis Dickson, bond, January 29; John M. Coleman to John Camp- 
bell, northeast quarter of Section 22, Township 12, Range 9, Jan- 
uary 4; Demas Deming to John and Daniel Jenckes, southwest 
quarter of Section 18, Township 12, Range 8, March 12; Eliza, 
Chester and Lewis Aspinwall and George and Roxana Campbell to 
Moses Hoggatt and Robert Sturgis, thirteen fractional quarter sec- 
tions, April 16 ; Benjamin Blackiston to Ebenezer Blackiston, north- 
west quarter of Section 23, Township 12, Range 9, June 4; Terre 
Haute Company to George W. Dewees, Lots 166 and 167; same to 
Robert Harrison, Lots 197 and 228, April 9; same to W. C. Linton, 
Lot 93; to David Harbess' heirs. Lot 65; to James Farrington, Lot 

I, August 8 and September 20; Robert Harrison to Israel Harris, 
Lot 197, October 12; Vigo county to William O. Wheeler, Lot 1, 
October 22; William and Mary Mole, administrators of J. Mole, to 
Aaron Mole, southwest quarter of Section 12, Township 11, Range 
9, October 28 ; Isaac Lambert to John Blocksom, northeast quar- 
ter of Section 29, Township 11, Range 9, August 7; William 
Walker to Thomas Pucket, 60 acres, northwest quarter of Section 

14, Township 11, Range 9, August 15; Hallam Huntington to 
Ariel Harman, 150 acres, northeast quarter of Section 34, Town- 
ship 11, Range 10, October 31; Lydia Allen to Henry Frink, 60 
acres, southwest quarter of Section 5, Township 13, Range 9, 
March 20; Terre Haute to Charles Thompson, Lots 125, 153 and 

II, November 23; Peter Allen to Moody Chamberlin and MatheAv 
Riddle, southwest quarter and southeast quarter of Section 9, 
Township 12, Range 8, December 23; Terre Haute Company to 
John Wilkins, Lot 7, September 3 ; same to Robert Caldwell, Lot 
37, and to Elizabeth Caldwell, Lot 199, June 10; same to Jonathan 
Mazes, Lot 140, November 27 ; Benjamin Blackiston to Peter Ever- 
sol, 55 acres, northwest quarter of Section 23, Township 12, Range 
9, and 30 acres, southeast quarter of Section 19, Township 12, 
Range 8, September 5; Terre Haute Company to Alpheus Allison 
and Charles Jabine, Lot 44, August 7 ; same to Robert S. McCabe, 
Lot 223, October 19; James Kelsey to Francis Dickson, assign- 
ment, August 2; Terre Haute Company to Charles Dewey and G. 
R. C. Sullivan, Lot 189, June 14; Peter Allen to Henry Allen, 130 
acres, south half of Section 12, Township 12, Range 9, May 18; 
oame to Ira Allen, 100 acres, south half of Section 12, Township 


12, tjaiige 9, December 10; John Kelley to Peter Allen, power of 
attorney, April 4; James Farrington, agent, to John Hausbrough, 
Lots 300 and 293, October 22; Mary Mote, William Mote, admin- 
istratot, Jeremiah Mote, to George Clem, 24 acres, northeast quar- 
ter of the southwest quarter of Section 18, Township 11, Eange 9, 
Aaron Mote to George Clem, 24 acres, northwest quarter of the 
southwest quarter of Section 18, Township 11, Eange 9, October 
28; Samuel L. Calwell to Stephen S. Collett, Lot 122, December 
2; Terre Haute Company, to Enoch Dole, Lot 84, November 20; 
Price Cheesman to David Newman, west half of the northwest 
quarter of Section 28, Township 12, Eange 8, July 18; John H, 
Watson to Curtis Gilbert, west half of Lot 146, April 6; John 
F. King to Curtis Gilbert, Lot 61, March 7 ; Alexander Chamber 
lin to James C. Turner, 6.6 acres, northwest quarter of Section- 
11, Township 11, Eange 9, April 18; Terre Haute Company to 
Joseph Pancoast, Lot 154, August 5 ; S. Whitlock to Jesse Chesley, 
certificate, July 9; Gershan and Edwin Tuttle to Alvah Hotchkiss 
and Sylvester Steele, bond, January 25; David Bradberry to 
Josiah Bradberry, northeast quarter of Section 26, Township 10, 
Eange 8, March 12; same to John W. Bradberry, west " half 
of the northwest quarter of Section 26, Township 10, Eange 8, 
March 12; David Newman to Samuel Cherom, east half of the 
northwest quarter of Section 28, Township 12, Eange 8, July 31; 
Terre Haute Company to Demas Deming, Lots 225, 226 and 203, 
June 11; same to Curtis Gilbert, Lot 254, September 23; same to 
Hyacinth Lasalle, Lots 52, 89, 90, 123, 182, 175, 193, 234, 240. 
250, 266, 295, and Out-lots 17, 21, 22, 23, 25, 27, 28 and 29, De- 
cember 26; same to John Campbell, Lots 161 and 162, July 19; 
Mark Williams, superintendent, to John F. King, southwest quar- 
ter of Section 16, Township 13, Eange 8, December 29; David 
Newman to Price Cherom, west half of the northwest quarter of 
Section 28, Township 12, Eange 8, July 31; Thomas H. Clarke to 
Curtis Gilbert, south half of Lot 146; same Demas Deming, south 
half of Lots 8, 31 and 91, December 21 ; Thomas H. Clarke, col- 
lector, to Demas Deming, northwest quarter of Section 27, Town- 
ship 12, Eange 9, and Out-lot 6 and 47, December 21 ; same to John 
Britton, certificate, December 21; same to Demas Deming, Lots 
23 and 24, December 21; same to Mark Williams, Lots 85, 135, 
136 and 210, December 21; same to Mark Williams, Lot 25, De- 
cember 21 ; Terre Haute Company to J. F. and W. F. Cruft, Lot 
121; same to Lucius H. Scott, Lot 22 and Out-lot 52, December 
16; T. H. Clarke to John Britton, Lot 205, December 21; same. 
Lot 217, December 21; same. Lots 214 and 216; same to James 
Farrington, northwest quarter of Section 7, Township 13, Eange 
8, and Out-lots 7, 8 and 12, in Lot 38, December 21; same to John 


Britton, north half of the northeast quarter of Section 10, Town- 
ship 11, Eange 9, Out-lot 39, and Lots 165, 72, 34, 147, 94, 82, 
156, 291, 133, 281, 15, 50 and 22, December 21; same to Demas 
Deming, Out-lot 5, December 21; Jacob Townsend and William 
Molyneaux to E. Daggett, northwest quarter of Section 8, Town- 
ship 8, Range 11, and northwest quarter of Section 27, Township 
9, liange 1, July 27; Thomas H. Clarke to John Campbell, Lot 
168, certificate, December 21 ; Ariel Harman to Hallam Hunting- 
ton, 150 acres, northeast quarter of Section 34, Township 11, 
Range 10, October 31 ; Thomas H. Clarke, collector, to James Far- 
rington. Lot 32, December 21. 

1823. — Vigo county to Daniel Shaw, Lots 36 and 80, February 
27; same to Lambert & Dickson, Lots 171, 251 and 252, February 
28 ; Thomas H. Clarke, sherifiP, to William Caldwell, east half of Sec- 
tion 36, Township 12, Range 10, March 7 ; William Barr, official 
bond, March 15; Abraham Markle to George Rector, five acres, 
northeast quarter of Section 2, Township IJ, Range 9, April 3; 
Terre Haute county to William Mars, Lot 20, March 18; Prairie 
Creek Baptist society, certificate of election, April 28; Peter Ever- 
sole to James Dickson, fifty-five acres northwest quarter of Section 23, 
Township 12, Range 9, January 7; Jonathan Lindley to Jonathan 
and Deborah Jones, northwest quarter of Section 29, Township 2, 
Range 1, April 27 ; Jonathan Lindley to Thomas Lindley, in Sections 
13, 7 and 8, Township 13, Range 8, January 27; James Dickson to 
Peter Eversole, fifty-five acres of the northwest quarter of Section 
23, Township 12, Range 9, and thirty acres of the southeast quar- 
ter of Section 19, Township 12, Range 8, January 8; Joseph Rich- 
ardson to United States, southeast quarter of Section 6, and north- 
west quarter of Section 8, and southwest quarter of Section 8, and 
northeast quarter of Section 7, Township 12, Range 8, March 7; 
Vigo county to William C. Linton and Stephen S. Collett, Lot 54; 
Terre Haute Company to same, east fractional quarter of Sections 31 
and 32, Township 12, Range 9, May 26; John Goodwin to Isaac 
Vanhouten, Lot 27, October 19; T. H. Clarke, sheriff, to James 
Boyd, Lot 232, June 5 ; Abraham A. Markle to Ezra Jones and Syl- 
vester and Ira Barker, bond, July 25; A. A. Markle, to Sylvester 
and Ira Barker, 100 acres in the northwest quarter of Section 2, 
Township 11, Range 9, May 18; Terre Haute Company to Jonah 
Sheets, Out-lots 8, 12, 18, 31, 39, 45, 5, 6 and 7, and Lots 23, 38, 51, 
55, 58, 72, 94, 136, 147, 156, 170, 172, 260 and 281, July 30; Joel 
Dickson to Robert Elliott, Lot 68, May 2; Elisha U. Brown, to 
John McGriff, twenty-five acres of the north half of Section 11, 
Township 11, Range 9, August 30; Terre Haute Company to Thomas 
Emison, Lot 142, September 2; Lambert & Dickson, to Isaac C. 
Elston, Lot 171, August 9; William Pratt to Jonas and William 


Pratt, Jr., power of attorney, April 4; Thomas H. Clarke, sheriff, to 
William C. Linton and Stephen S. Collett, east fraction of Sections 
31 and 32, Township 12, Kange 9, July 4; Cuthbert, Ann, Thomas 
and Diana M. Bullitt to William and Joseph Montgomery, north- 
west and northeast quarters of Section 13, Township 12, Range 9, 
southwest and southeast quarters of Section 24, Township 12, 
Eange 9, June 28; Thomas Bullitt to Cuthbert Bullitt to 14 
quarter sections in Township 12, Range 9, July 2; Jonah S. Sheets 
to Stephen S. Collett, Lot 172, October 11; Terre Haute Company 
to Caleb Crawford, Lots 211, 212, 116 and 141, May 24; James Far- 
rington, agent, to Caleb Crawford, Lots 143, 296, 213 and 272, May 
22; Martin Lawrence to Lucius H. Scott, Lot 224, November 29; 
Jacob B. Augenbright to Charles Hederick, 123 acres in southwest 
quarter of Section 6, Township 13, Range 9, August 29; Archibald 
Woods to James Smith, northwest quarter of Section 5, southwest 
quarter of Section 5 and southwest quarter of Section 31, Township 
12, Range 8, April 22; Lambert & Dickson to John W. Coffey, south- 
west quarter of Section 22, Township 11, Range 9 ; Terre Haute Com- 
pany to Isaac C. Elston, Lots 194 and 273, November 24; Vigo 
county to William Pope, Lot 274, May 26; Thomas H. Clarke, sher- 
iff, to Reuben Newton, northwest quarter of Section 24, Township 
12, Range 10, April 1; Vigo county to Elisha U. Brown, Lot 155, 
December 24; Terre Haute Company to Daniel Durham, 391 acres 
in Section 5, Township 11, Range 9, June 3; same to James Rose- 
man, Lot 99, December 1 ; same to Nathaniel Huntington, Lot 169, 
March 15; United States to Joseph Mark, Lot 173, April 10; Gid- 
eon Frisbee to Williard Smith, southwest quarter of Section 8, Town- 
ship 11, Range 9, October 28; Isaac and Julia Lambert and John 
and Elizabeth Dickson to Alfred M. Rector, northeast quarter of Sec- 
tion 12, Township 11, Range 9, October 12; same to Alfred M. Rec- 
tor, northeast quarter of Section 12, Township 11, Range 9,October 12 ; 
Phillip and Phebe Frakes to William Frakes, southwest quarter of 
Section 35, Township 10, Range 10, March 17 ; Thomas H. Clarke, 
sheriff, to William C. Linton and Stephen S. Collett, southeast quar- 
ter of Section 23, Township 12, Range 10, June 3; Alexander and 
Mary Chamberlin to William C. Linton, 154 acres of the northwest 
quarter of Section 11, Township 11, Range 9, August 13; Terre 
Haute Company to W. C. Linton, Out-lots 4, 32 and 2, September 16; 
Elisha U. Brown to William C. Linton, 55 acres of the north half of 
the northeast quarter of Section 11, Township 11, Range 9, and 
80 acres of the north half of the northeast quarter of Section 10, 
Township 11, Range 9, August 30; Gersham Tuttle to Daniel Po- 
cock, west half of the southwest quarter of Section 20, Township 13, 
Range 8, mortgage, August 15; Terre Haute Company to Robert B. 
Covert, Lot 235, November 24; Joseph Mark to Charles B. Mode- 


sitt and Robert S. McCabe, Lot 173, July 8; Terre Haiite ('ompany 
to Demas Deming, Lot 203, June 11 ; United States to Curtis Gilbert, 
west half of the northwest quarter of Section 32, Township 12, Range 
8, July 8; Terre Haute Company to Laplant, Lots 175, 238, 221 
and 79, September 12; William Pratt to Josej)h Richardson, north- 
west quarter of Section 14, Township 10, Range 10, September 15; 
Jonathan Lindley to John Chenowith's heirs, north half of Section 
12, Township 13, Range 9, November 27; Caleb Crawford to Bon- 
ner, Reynolds & Early, Lot 143, October 18; Joseph Evans to Ben- 
jamin Bailey, south half of the northeast quarter of Section 18, 
Township 13, Range 8, September 4; Stephen S. Collett to Jonah 
S. Sheets, southeast quarter of Section 12, Township 11, Range 9, 
October 16; Vigo county to Robert S. McCabe, Lot 111, April 25; 
John Roberts to John Britton, assignment. Lot 4, January 21; John 
Markle to John L., William A., Edward F. and Samuel F. Richard- 
sou, south half of the southwest quarter of Section 2, Township 11, 
Range 9, February ] 7 ; Terre Haute Company to Elijah Cason, Lot 
109, November 4; Hyacyth Lasalle to Frances Lasalle, mortgage, 
town lots, March 31; Terre Haute Company to Samuel McQuilkin, 
Lot 33, May 26 ; Vigo county to Samuel McQuilkin, Lot 92, March 
3 ; United States to John Jenckes, southeast quarter of Section 18, 
Township 12, Range 8, and southeast quarter of Section 11, Town- 
ship 13, Range 9, July 15; John Dickson to Thomas Pucket, north 
half of the southwest quarter of Section 15, Township 11, Range 9, 
April 24; Thomas H. Clarke, sheriff, to Henry Allen, power of at- 
torney, July 14; Daniel Hall to James Hall, north half of the north- 
west quarter of Section 22, Township 11, Range 9, October 10; 
T. H. Clarke, collector, to John Britton, northwest and southwest 
quarters of Section 23, Township 11, Range 9, November 19; S. S. 
and Sarah Collett to J. Farrington, Lot 122, August 9; T. H. Clarke, 
collector, to Alvah Hotchkiss, northeast quarter of Section 30 and 
southwest quarter of Section 30, Township 13, Range 8, November 
19; same to Charles B. Modesitt, Lot 259, November 19; Michel 
Brouillett lot of Terre Haute Company, Lot 231. 

1824. — Terre Haute Company to Elisha Miles, Lot 224, January 
5; same to Israel Harris, Lot 20, January 5; Anthony B. and 
Alley Connor to Samuel Slaven, east half of the southwest quarter 
of Section 17, Township 12, Range 8, March 5; Terre Haute 
Company to Joseph Montgomery, Lots 164, 66, 97, 119 and 115, Out- 
lots 13, 44, 43, 40, 51, 30, 61 and 62, April 16; same to Cuthbert 
Bullitt, Lots 96, 229, 40, Out-lots 65, 68, 71, 70, 64, 69, 48, 50, 
April 16; Thomas H. Clarke, sheriff, to William C. Linton and 
Stephen S. Collett, fifty-three acres of the southeast quarter of 
Section 23, Township 12, Range 10, and the southwest quarter of 
Section 24, Township 12, Range 10, April 26 ; United States to James 


Groenendyke, power of attorDey, Mav 25; Terre Haute Company 
to A. Markle, Lot 85, May 27, Lot 259, May 27; Abraham Markle 
to John B. Yates, Section 31, Township 13, Range 8, and the south 
half of Section 36, Township 13, Range 9, and the southeast quar- 
ter of Section 2, Township 12, Range 9, May 29 ; James Farrington, 
agent of the county, to Abraham Markle, Lots 186, 230, May 29; 
same to Jacob D. G. McDonald, George, Henrietta, Alexander, 
James, Mary and Amos McDonald, heirs of George McDonald, Lot 
168, June 1; Isaac C. Elston to Robert Wilson, Lot 171, February 
2; Terre Haute Company to Caleb Crawford, Out-lot 38, April 30; 
Ariel Harman to Eli Bettis, south half of the northwest quarter of 
Section 27, Township 11, Range 10, January 20; Eli Bettis to Jere- 
miah Wilson, forty acres of the northwest quarter of Section 27, 
Township 11, Range 10, July 11; Hyacinth Lasalle to James Her- 
ringtou. Lot 123, July 19; Jonah S. Sheets to John Campbell, Lot 
170, January 9; Lambert & Dickson to Ezekiel Buxton, Lot 251, 
May 20; Mark Williams, superintendent, to John White, northeast 
quarter of Section 16, Township 13, Range 8, July 10; John Whit- 
comb to Asa Whitcomb, power of attorney, April 25 ; Francis Cun- 
ningham to John and Asa Whitcomb, 100 acres of the northwest 
quarter of Section 9, Township 11, Range 9, and other lands, Sep- 
tember 25 ; Vigo county to L. H. Scott, Lot 224, October 16 ; Alfred 
M. "Sector to Stephen Hawley, the northeast quarter of Section 12, 
Township 11, Range 9, April 12; Samuel M. Caldwell to Stephen 
S. Collett, fraction of Section 12, Township 11, Range 10; same to 
William C. Linton, fractions of Sections 31 and 32, Township 12, 
Range 9, September 20; Isaac Vanhouten to Elias Isaac, Lot 27, 
July 24; Thomas H. Clark, sheriff, to Elisha Pearson and John 
Durkee, administrators, William Coltrin, the northwest quarter of 
Section 24, Township 12, Range 10, September 20; same to Will- 
iam Caldwell, east half of Section 36, Township 12, Range 10; 
same to William Foster, the southeast quarter of Section 15, Town- 
ship 10, Range 10; same to John Durkee, Lots 116, 141, 211, 212, 
213, 272, Out-lot 38, September 20; Terre Haute Company to Ben- 
jamin Bailey, Lot 160, March 8; same to Sylvia Winter, Lot 35, 
May 10; Robert Sturgis, bond, September 24; John Campbell to 
Stephen S. Collett, the south half of Lot 170, October 5; Jonathan 
Reilly to John Campbell, the west half of the northeast quarter of 
Section 2, Township 11, Range 10, October 18; Robert S. McCabe 
to Salmon Wright, December 21 ; Terre Haute Company to Elisha 
M. Brown, Lot 241, May 10 ; John Britton to Joseph Bacon, Lot 4, 
November 30; Demas Deming to Curtis Gilbert, the northwest 
quarter of Section 27, Township 12, Range 9, and Out-lots 6, 47, 
Lots 8, 31, 91, December 29; Ebenezer Blackiston to Benjamin 
Blackiston, the northwest quarter of Section 23 and the southeast 


quarter of Section 19, Township 12, Kange 8, April 20; Isaac 
Lambert and John Dickson to Demas Deming, east half of Section 
20, Township 11, Kacge 9, November 9; Lambert & Dickson to 
Demas Deming, bond, November 9 ; Terre Haute Company to Demas 
Deming, Lot 148, Out-lots 53,54, 56, December 3; Joseph Taylor 
to Eobert King, the northeast quarter of Section 34, Township 12, 
Range 9, and southwest quarter of Section 30, Township 12, Range 

8, August 14; Jonah S. Sheets to Jacob Maderia, Lots 23, 38, 51, 
55, 58, 72, 136, 147, 156, Out-lots 5, 6, 7, 8, 12 and 45, March 23; 
Stephen S. Collett to Samuel M. Caldwell, east fractional quarter 
of Sections 31 and 32, Township 12, Range 9, September 11; John 
W. Caffey to Robert W. Spears, south half of the southwest quarter 
of Section 22, Township 11, Range 9, November 16; Eleazer Dag- 
gett to Daniel Durham, west half of the northwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 8, Township 11, Range 9, February 27; John Groeuendyke to 
Stephen S. Collett, southwest quarter of Section 13, Township 12, 
Range 9, October 15; Jonathan Lindley to. Henry Kauaday, north- 
east quarter of Section 19, Township 11, Range 9, October 19; 
Stephen S. Collett to William C. Linton and Lucius H. Scott, Lot 
122, September 18 ; United States to Demas Deming, southwest 
quarter of Section 18, Township 12, Range 8, September 1; Jesse 
Kester to William Lane, west half of the northwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 34, Township 10, Range 10, June 3; John Britton to Thomas 
Houghton, Lot 205, December 18; Terre Haute Company to Curtis 
Gilbert, Out-lot 49, December 29; John Britton to John Mont- 
gomery, Lot 214, assignment, December 20; John Hendray to Jesse 
Keyser, southeast quarter of Section 2, Township 13, Range 8, July 
1 ; Jonas Seeley to Melly Seeley, 100 acres of the northwest quarter 
of Section 8, Township 11, Range 9, September 27; George Rector 
to John McGriif, northeast quarter of Section 3, Township 11, 
Range 9, April 13; John Hamilton to Isaac Dawson, Lot 80, March 
27 ; Joseph Eversol to Hannah Austil, Lot 100, February 5 ; George 
Waite to Joel Tucker, west half of the northwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 22, Township 12, Range 10, March 13 ; H. La Salle to Samuel 
W. Osborn, south half of Lot 175, October 2; Thomas H. Clarke to 
Alfred M. Rector, except 3 acres of Section 1, Township 11, Range 

9, December 29 ; John W. Bradberry to Willis Pierson, west half 
of the northwest quarter of Section 26, Township 10, Range 8, June 
19; Jeremiah Raymond to Otis Jones, 62 acres of Section 33, 
Township 11, Range 10, June 19; Terre Haute Company to Will- 
iam C. Linton, Out-lot 63, December 27 ; Josiah and May Brad- 
berry to Willis Pearson, northeast and east laalf of the northwest 
quarter of Section 26, Township 10, Range 8, May 14; Terre 
Haute Company to Robert Wood, Lot 233, April 27 ; Asa Coltrin 
to David Lyons, southwest and southeast and northwest quarters of 


Section 26, Township 13, Eange 9, July 31; Edmund Listen to 
Athel Liston, southeast quarter of Section 25, Township 10, Range 
10, September 2; James Groenendyke to Isam Pucket, west half of 
the southeast quarter of Section 30, Township 11, Range 9, Octo- 
ber 20; Alfred M. Rector to Peter Price, 40 acres of the west half 
of the northeast quarter of Section 12, Township 11, Range 9; 
Terre Haute Company to Eleazer B. Carter, Lot 115, November 5; 
Vigo county to James Robinson, Lot 210, September 7 ; Isaac Lam- 
bert and John Dickson to Ephraim P. K ester, northeast quarter of 
Section 25, Township 10, Range 10, May 21. 

1825. — Levi Tillotston to Stephen S. Collett, northeast quarter 
of Section 2, Township 11, Range 9, assignment, January 7; Moses 
Robins and Chauncy Rose to John Jackson, northeast, quarter of 
Section 12, Township 12, Range 9, January 10; David Newman to 
Price Cherum, west half of the northwest quarter of Section 28, 
Township 12, Range 8, February 17 ; Mark Williams to William P. 
Dexter and Cyrus Edgerton, Lot 25, March 17 ; Terre Haute Com- 
pany to Samuel McQuilkin, Lots 92, 32, 34, March 3; same to 
Zeno Worth, Lots 26, 28, 106, 107, 50, 88, March 1 ; George Hus- 
sey to Abner A. Fuller, Out-lot 46, March 19; Terre Haute Company 
to William P. Dexter, Lot 16, March 23; Ira and Sylvester Barker 
to Sarah Brown, northwest quarter of Section 2, Township 11, 
Range 9, March 24; Terre Haute Company to George Gwathmy, 
Lots 196, 227, 237, April 9 ; Joseph Markle to David Mark, Lot 
173, April 16; Lewis Rodgers to David Lyons, north half of 
the southeast quarter of Section 14, Township 13, Range 9, April 
25; David Lyons to Lewis Rodgers, same; same, John Campbell to 
John W. Osborn, Lot 107, April 29; Demas Deming to John 
Jenckes, southwest quarter of Section 18, Township 12, Range 8, 
May 16; Thomas Puckett to John Jenckes, southwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 15, Township 11, Range 9, May 17; Terre Haute Company to 
J. F. & W. F. Cruft, Lot 121, May 9; same to Lucius H. Scott, 
Lot 22, Out-lot 52, May 16; John Campbell to John W. Osborn, 
Lot 207, May 13; Mary Mole to George Clem, southAvest quarter 
of Section 18, Township 11, Range 9, May 23; Isiah Mole to 
George Clem, southwest quarter of Section 18, Township 11, Range 
9, May 23; Frances Cunningham to Thomas Pucket, northwest 
quarter of Section 9, Township 11, Range 9, January 6; Terre 
Haute Company to Demas Deming, Lots 176, 249j May 25 ; Robert 
AV. Spears to Jeremiah Try on, southwest quarter of Section 22, 
Township 11, Range 9, May 30; Terre Haute Company to Ann, 
Alexander C, Washington D., Elvira T., Owen G., Nancy C. and 
Diana M. Bullitt, heirs of Thomas Bullitt, Lots 200, 70, 53, 201, 
188, December 20; Nathaniel Huntington to Stephen S. Collett, 
Lot 169, April 21 ; Henry Markle to Abraham Markle, south half 



of Section 4, Township 12, Kange 9, and part of Section 34, Town- 
ship 13, Range 9, May 28; Terre Haute Company to John Good- 
win, Lot 263, June 2; Thomas G. Brock to Thomas Houghton, 
Lot 206, August 3; Robert W. Spears to George Clem, northeast 
quarter of Section 19, Township 11, Range 9, June 25; Terre Haute 
Company to Thomas G. Brock, Lot 206, February 14; Thomas H. 
Clarke to Isreal Price, northwest quarter of Section 1, Township 

11, Range 9, December 29; Isaac and George Jorden to Lambert 
& Dickson, mortgage, January 25; Samuel Ray to James Hall, 
south half of the southwest quarter of Section 15, Township 11, 
Range 9, August 2; C. Gibert to Nathaniel Huntington, Lot 254, 
August 29; Isreal Harris to S. S. Collett, Lot 197, April 2; Alfred 
M. Rector to Stephen Hawley, north half of the northwest quarter 
of Section 1, Township 11, Range 9, August 24; Vigo county to 
Lewis Hodge, Lot 304, September 20; Parraela Tuttle to Nathan- 
iel Huntington, west half of the southwest quarter of Section 20, 
Township 13, Range 8, August 18; Daniel Shaw to Michael Collins, 
Lot 8, May 27; Terre Haute Company to. Nathaniel Huntington, 
Lot 225, August 18; Isaac Chenoweth to James Barns, Nathaniel 
Huntington to C. Gilbert, Lot 250, October 4; Terre Haute Com- 
pany to William and Sally Earle, Lot 265, August 17; John Dick- 
son to William Ramage, note, October 31 ; John Britton to Elisha W. 
Brown, northwest quarter of Section 23, Township 11, Range 9, 
southwest quarter of Section 23, Township 11, Range 9, November 
8; Robert Sturgis, sheriff, to the heirs, Charles Smith, northeast 
quarter of Section 25, Township 12, Range 10, November 8; same 
to James Farrington, Lots 90, 193, 250, 52, 266, 221, 238, 79, 17, 
22, 23, 25, 27, 28, 29, February 26; David Lyons to James Far- 
rington, east half of the northeast quarter of Section 22, Township 

12, Range 9, September 12; James Farrington to C. Gilbert, Out- 
lot 25; F. Cunningham, administrator of T. Blackman, to Samuel 
W. Edmonds, north half of the southwest quarter of Section 2, 
Township 12, Range 9, November 9; George Rector to John Rec- 
tor, southwest quarter of Section 1, Township 11, Range 9, August 
8; Samuel W. Edmunds to Ira Coltrin, north half of the southwest 
quarter of Section 2, Township 12, Range 9, November 15; James 
Hagar to Caleb Hopkins, northeast quarter and 40 acres in south- 
east quarter of Section 13, Township 14, Range 9, October 5; Vigo 
county to James Farrington, Lot 174, November 26; Nathaniel 
Huntington to C. Gilbert, Lot 255, August 29; J. Cunningham to 
J. W. Baker, south half of the southwest quarter of Section 2, 
Township 12, Range 9, November 9; C. Gilbert to James Murrin, 
Lot 8, November 12; same to A. T. Higgins, appointment deputy, 
December 8; Abraham Markle to Fredrick Rapp, fractional Sec- 
tion 4, Township 12, Range 9, July 22; W. C. Linton to E. W. 


Brown, 100 acres, Section 11, Township 11, Kange 9, December 14; 
E. U. Brown to W. C. Linton, northeast quarter of Section 11, 
Township 11, Kange 9, December 14; T. H. Clarke, collector, to 
John Britton, north half of the northeast quarter of Section 10, 
Township 11, Range 9, and Lots 165, 72, 34^ 147, 9482, December 
21; same to John Britton, Lots 156, 291, 133, 281, 55, 58, 22, 5, 
December 21; Trumbull Carey and William Davis to Jouathan 
Loy, northeast quarter of Section 28, Township 12, Range 8, March 
21 ; G. R. C. Sullivan to James B. McCall and Arthur Patterson, 
Lots 245, 9, 8, also undivided half Lots 62, 280, 282, 284, 292, and 
southeast quarter of Section 13, Township IB, Range 9, also 43 
acres north side of the southwest quarter of Section 7, Township 
13, Range 8, December 1 ; Thomas Puckett to J. Cunningham, 100 
acres, north side of Section 9, Township 11, Range 9, January 7; 
George Clem to John Norris, 45 acres, southwest quarter of Section 
18, and 60 acres of the northeast quarter of Section 19, Township 
11, Range 9, November 5; C. Gilbert to heirs of Thomas Bullitt, 
Out-lot 47, July 5; A. Whitlock and J. Wilson to Jacob lies, south- 
west quarter of Section 7, Township 13, Range 8, December 6; 
Athel Ferguson to Thomas Ferguson, 300 acres, northwest quarter 
and southwest quarter of Section 2, and northwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 11, Township 10, Range 10, September 21; John B. Richard- 
son to W. C. Linton, northwest quarter and southwest quarter of 
Section 3, Township 11, Range 9, December 16; Jemima Souls, 
Charles W., Nelson, Mary, Elizabeth, William and Moses Souls, 
and Oliver A. Story and Henry Souls to John and Daniel Jenckes, 
southeast quarter of Section 14, Township 12, Range 9, September 
30; William Thomas to Elijah Thomas, southeast quarter of Sec- 
tion 27, Township 10, Range 10, September 1 ; Michael Collins to 
John Campbell, Lot 80, mortgage, September 13; Terre Haute 
Company to Margaret Hodge, Lot 307, May 16; Robert Sturgis, 
sherifip, to Samuel E. Markes, Lot 182, March 9 ; same to Samuel 
McQuilkins, Lot 89, March 9; James Chesnut to Demas Deming, 
northeast quarter of Section 35, Township 12, Range 9, January 
22; Caleb Hopkins to Robert Hopkins,, power of attorney, April 3; 
Charles and Fanny Brown to James C. Turner, west half of Section 
23, Township 11, Range 9, December 2; Terre Haute Company to 
Thomas Parsons, Lot 297, December 20; John Britton to Thomas 
Parsons, Lot 298, December 20; Benjamin Whaley to James Sear- 
ing, 50 acres, northeast quarter of Section 19, Township 13, Range 
8, May 16; John Pillow to Nathaniel Spear, power of attorney, Sep- 
tember 19; John Pike to Eben R. Stone, 25 acres, southeast quar- 
ter of Section 17, Township 10, Range 10, January 25; Eben B. 
Stone to Daniel Townsend and Benjamin Hicks, northeast quarter 
of Section 17, Township 10, Range 10, June 25; Stephen Halley to 


Hiram Smith, northwest quarter of Section 1, Township 11, Kange 
9, November 29; Alfred M. Eector to George Kector, northwest 
quarter of Section 1, Township 11, Eange 9, August 30; Thomas 
Ferguson to Eli Bettjs, 50 acres, northeast quarter of Section 11, 
Township 10, Kange 10, August 11; David Newman to Salem Po- 
cock, east half of the northwest quarter of Section 28, Township 12, 
Eange 8, February 21; Terre Haute Company to Willis Gosn^il, 
Lot 3, July 8 ; John Britton to Lucius H. Scott, Lot 22, July 6 ; E. 
Sturgis, sheriff, to John Britton, Lots 234, 240, and Out-lot 21, Jan- 
uary 26; same to B. Eeynolds and Early Lorin, Lot 143, Septem- 
ber 17; A. Markle to James Farrington, 40 acres, southwest quar- 
ter of Section 15, Township 12, Eange 9, August 8; Henry Whaley 
to James Brooks, 50 acres, northeast quarter of Section 19, Town- 
ship 13, Eange 8 ; Moses Hoggatt to Eobert Hoggatt, northeast 
quarter and southeast quarter of Section 25, and northeast quarter 
of Section 24, Township 11, Eange 10, November 2; Samuel W. 
Osborn to James Farrington, south half of Lot 175, November 24; 
Eobert Sturgis, sheriff, to Wilson & Johnson, Lots 286, 18, 144, 
Out-lots 42, .15, 26, September 13; same to Cuthbert Bullitt, Lots 
253, 258, 222, November 27; William Eay to Isaac Peirce, north- 
east quarter of Section 19, Township 11, Eange 8, November 17; 
Henry Canaday to Eobert W. Spears, north half of the northeast 
quarter of Section 19, Township 11, Eange 9, April 11; Samuel 
Eay to same, 45 acres, southwest quarter of Section 14, Township 

11, Eange 9; Euhama Kester to Moses Can-, east half of the north- 
east quarter of Section 7, Township 10, Eange 9, November 23; 
W. S. to Daniel Pocock, southwest quarter of Section 21, Township 

12, Eange 9, September 15; Isaac W. Denmau to Moses Watts, 
southeast quarter of Section 20, Township 10, Eange 10, Septem- 
ber 17 ; Sarah Browning to Elias and William Curry, 100 acres, 
northwest quarter of Section 2, Township 11, Eange 9, September 
12; Stephen Hawley to Elias Curry, northeast quarter of Section 
12, Township 11, Eange 9, September 12; George Wail to Isiah 
Lewis, southwest quarter of Section 15, Township 12, Eange 10, 
November 11; John Braddock, Francis Braddock and Anna, his 
wife, Joshua Braddock and Susanna, his wife, William Braddock 
and Nancy, his wife, George Baskins and Eachel, his wife, David 
Gray and Elizabeth, his wife, John McGuire and Jane, his wife, 
Moses Dinsmore and Mariah, his wife, and Bersheba Braddock to 
Stephen S. Collett, northwest quarter of Section 13, Township 11, 
Eange 10, May 24; William Hooker to Charles B. Modesitt, Lot 
260, July 25; Eobert Sturgis, sheriff, to Abner A. Fuller, Lots 134, 
152, 246, 264, 279, September 13; Francis Cunningham, adminis- 
trator, Truman Blackman to Samuel Jackson, 120 acres, south- 
east quarter of Section 1, Township 12, Eange 9, October 8; Dan- 


iel Barbour to Cheeebro Taylor, southwest quarter of Section 7, 
Township 13, Range 9, December 12; James Farrington to Samuel 
McQuilkiu, Lot 32, September 20. 

1826.— Sarah Pettiugill to Abram Marlde, south half of Sec- 
tion 32, Township 12, Range 9, February 6 ; E. Bettys to Charles 
G. Taylor, northwest quarter of Section 27, Township 11, Range 10, 
March 1 ; Jeremiah Raymond to Otis Jones, 62 acres. Section 38, 
Township 11, Range 10, April 11; Arial Harman to Charles G. 
Taylor, 105 acres, northeast quarter of Section 27, Township 11, 
Range 10, April 15; S. S. Collett to W. C. and David Linton, Lot 
172, April 26; Samuel Slavin to Elias Reeves, east half of the 
southwest quarter of Section 17, Township 12, Range 8, April 29; 
Eli Bettys to Robert Wilson and Daniel H. Johnston, 50 off 100 
acres of the northeast quarter of Section 11, Township 10, Range 
10, March 14; Robert Johnston to Isaac Beatty, 40 acres, northeast 
quarter of Section 25, Township 10, Range 8, May 15; Isaac Els- 
ton to James Farriugton, Lots 194, 273, May 19; John Britton to 
W. C. Liuton, Lot 94, June 21; A. Markle to Henry Markle, Sec- 
tion 31, Township 13, Range 8, March 24; Colville Pearce to Will- 
iam Hunt, 60 acres, northwest quarter of Section 15, Township 10, 
Range 10, June 21; Robert W. Spears to Charles Bowen, southwest 
quarter of Section 14, Township 11, Range 9, July 31; William 
Hunt to William Foster, 60 acres, northwest quarter of Section 15, 
Township 10, Range 10, July 14; William Chenoweth to James 
Barnes, 28 acres, north half of Section 12, Township 13, Range 9, 
August 7; George Rector to W. C. and D. Linton, 120 acres Sec- 
tion 1, and 109 acres, Section 3, Township 11, Range 9, July 21; 
J. S. Sheets to Joseph Johnston, Out-lot 31, southeast quarter 
Section 12, Township 11, Range 9, Out-lots 18, 39, June 26; Samuel 
Dickson to Jeremiah Rapale, 55 acres, northwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 23, Township 12, Range 9, August 14; Samuel Caldwell to 
heirs of Martin Braddock, west half of Section 7, Township 11, 
Range 9, Elijah Tillotston, bond coroner, September 14; Henry 
Allen, bond sheriff, September 14; John Sheets to John McCulloch, 
east half of the southeast quarter of Section 7, Township 12, Range 
9, April 29; David Wilson to Jacob Burnap, south half of the north- 
west quarter of Section 22, Township 11, Range 10, September 16; 
Elisha U. Brown to S. S. Collett, 100 acres, northeast quarter of 
Section 11, and south half of the northeast quarter of Section 11, and 
south half of the northeast quarter of Section 10, Township 11, Range 
9, September 8; Samuel McQuilkin to Macon McQuilkin, Lots 9, 38, 
March 1; Nancy McCoskey to Daniel Soesby, west half of the south- 
west quarter of Section 27, Township 11, Range 9, June 26; Samuel 
C. Marker to Joseph East, Lot 182, October 27; Jonah S. Sheets to 
Lucius H. Scott, Lot 94, June 24; L. H. Scott to W. C. Linton, 


Lot 94, June 25; Terre Haute Company to John Britton, Lots 202, 
277, 275, November 1; James Farrington to John Britton, Lot 273, 
July 21; Thomas H. Blake to Lucius H. Scott, Lot 120; T. H. 
Clarke, collector, to Charles B. Modesitt, Lot 259, certificate, No- 
vember 19; Henry Allen to Curtis Gilbert, Lots 31, 61, 146, 177, 
181, 290, 302, Out-lot 25, November 23; Henry Allen, collector, to 
James Farrington, Out-lots 27, 22, 28, 23, 29, northwest quarter of 
Section 13, Township 13, Range 9, southeast, and northeast quarter 
of Section 32, Township 13, Range 8, November 27 ; same to De- 
mas Deming, Lots 288, 126, northwest quarter of Section 13, 
Township 1], Range 9, northeast quarter of Section 23, Township 

10, Range 10, northeast quarter of Section 13, Township 11, Range 
9, west half of the northwest quarter of Section 35, Township 10, 
Range 8, northwest quarter of Section 33, Township 11, Range 9, 
southeast quarter of Section 14, Township 12, Range 10, southeast 
quarter of Section 19, Township 12, Range 9, southeast quarter of 
Section 23, Township 11, Range 9, northeast quarter of Section 19, 
Township 12, Range 9, November 27 ; Samuel M. Caldwell to Will- 
iam C. Linton, southwest quarter of Section 24, Township 12, 
Range 10, November 15; Williard Smith to William Walker, 
southwest quarter of Section 8, Township 11, Range 9, November 
17 ; Terre Haute Company to Thomas H. Clarke, Lots 286, 258, 
253, 222, Out-lots 15, 42, 26, October 23; same to Joseph D. 
Clarke, Lot 36, Williard Smith to Curtis Gilbert, power attorney, 
August 7 ; Casper Weaver to Lloyd B. Harris, northwest quarter of 
Section 7, Township 11, Range 8, December 6; Nancy McCoskey 
to Robert McCoskey, east half of the southwest quarter of Section 
27, Township 11, Range 9; same to Joseph McCoskey, north half 
of the northeast quarter of Section 27, Township 11, R^nge 9; 
same to Thomas C. McCoskey, south half of the northeast quarter 
of Section 27, Township 11, Range 9, June 27; John S. Wood- 
worth to Joseph Burnell, fractional Section 1, Township 10, Range 

11, November 4; Robert S. McCabe to William M. Haynes, Lot 2, 
September 9; Henry Allen, collector to Samuel Miles, Lot 157, 
December 4; same to John Button, Lots 19, 85, 133, 135, 165, 283, 
December 29; Phillip Frakes to Daniel Frakel, 50 acres, southwest 
quarter of Section 35, Township 10, Range 10, April 11; Isam 
Pucket to James Shields, southeast quarter of Section 30, Town- 
ship 11, Range 9, September 23; Terre Haute Company to John 
M, Coleman, Lot 137, April 14; Joseph Hogue to William Hogue, 
Jr., west half of the southwest quarter of Section 35, Township 12, 
Range 10, November 6; Terre Haute Company to Samuel Eversol, 
Lot 101, April 19; Richard Brock to Hiram Brock, northeast 
quarter of Section 25, Township 11, Range 8, September 11; 
Isaac Lambert to Samuel Linch, 10 acres, northwest quarter of 


Section 28, Township 11, Kange 9, September 23; Hartford Cargil 
to Levi Tillotson, northeast quarter of Section 5, Township 13, 
Kange 9, October 7 ; John Britton to Russell Henry and James 
Eoss, Out-lot 21; Stephen S. Collett re Tgreal Harris, Lot 197, 
April 11; Terre Haute Company to James McKinuey, Lot 14, 
October 27; Edward Bement to Chauncey Rose, power attorney, 
November 3; Thomas H. Clarke to Charles B. Modesitt, Lots 222, 
253, 258,. 28G, Out-lots 26, 15, 42, October 24; George Hassey to 
Macom McFadden, Lot 112, December 28 ; William Frake to David 
Purden, southwest quarter of Section 12, Township 10, Range 10, 
October 14; John Durkee to David Barbour, ^ acre, Section 21, 
Township 13, Range 9, May 26; Henry Atkinson to Samuel Gwath- 
mey, power of attorney, June 3; Terre Haute Company to John 
Strutton and Jonathan Mays, Lot 139, May 9; Leonard Crawford 
to Caleb Crawford, power of attorney, October 21; Terre Haute 
Company to R. S. McCabe, Out-lot 10, May 22; Robert John- 
ston to Lewis Beaty, south half of the west half of the north- 
east quarter of Section 25, Township 10, Range 8, May 15; U. 
S. to James S. Baker, south half of the north half of Section 9, 
Township 12, Range 9, May 20; Robert Wood to Zeba H. Wol- 
cott. Lot 233, September 14; Benjamin Bailey to Joseph Evans, 
north half of the northwest quarter of Section 18, Township 13, 
Range 8, August 19; Nathan Poyner to John Hodges, east 
half of the northeast quarter of Section 18, Township 10, 
Range 8, August 3; John Britton to Samuel McQuilkin, Lot 34, 
June 20; Cheesbro Taylor to Abigail Warren, 6 acres, southwest 
quarter of Section 7, Township 13, Range 9, February 25; John 
Watson to William C. and David Linton, northwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 35, Township 12, Range 9; Samuel Bruner to James Farring- 
ton, north half of the southwest quarter, and 40 acres of the north 
side of the southeast quarter of Section 1, Township 12, Range 9, 
October 24; Stephen Hawley to William Curry, 22 acres, northeast 
quarter of Section 12, Township 11, Range 9, February 14; Will- 
iam Pierson to Jesse Whitaker, west half of the northwest quarter 
of Section 26, Township 10, Range 8, October 26; Amary Kinney 
to Samuel Eversol, Lot 101, June 15; Ebenezer M. Fogg to William 
Antrim, Lot 285, March 6; Robert Hoggatt to Aaron Hoggatt, 
northeast quarter of Section 25, and northeast quarter of Section 
24, Township 11, Range 10, October 27; same to Himelius Hog- 
gatt; same, October 28. 

1827. — Richard Brock to Solomon Brock, mortgage, northeast 
quarter of Section 25, Township 11, Range 8, January 11; Thomas 
H. Clarke to AVilliam Souls, southeast quarter of Section 13, Town- 
ship 12, Range 9, January 25 ; Demas Deming to James Mason, 
northwest quarter of Section 33, Township 11, Range 9, February 


12; Nathaniel Huntington to Daniel Pocock, west half of the south- 
west quarter of Section 20 and east half of the southeast quarter of 
Section 19, Township 13, Range 8, mortgage, February 26; Will- 
iam Haynes to Charles B. Modesitt, northwest quarter of Section 
27, Township 12, Range 8, March 10; Indiana to same. Lot 259, 
February 17; Robert Sturgis, sheriff, to Asa L. Chase, Lots 114, 
118, February 17; same to Reuben Christy, Lot 208; same to 
James Bradt, Lot 102, February 17 ; Demas Deming to Isaiah 
Lewis, east half of Section 19, Township 12, Range 9, April 3; Will- 
iam P. Dexter to S. S. Collett, Lot 16, April 11; Henry Allen, 
sheriff, to same, northeast quarter of Section 2, Township 11, Range 
9, April 14; Vigo county to Curtis Gilbert, Lot 62, April 23; Will- 
iam and Joseph Montgomery to L. H. Scott, Lot 119, February 28; 
Abagail Worth, Thomas Coffin and Miriam his wife, William 
Coffin and Eunice his wife, Isaac Worth to John R. Porter and 
Mary his wife, Lots 26, 28, 106, 107, 50, 88, March 3; Jacob 
Lane to Demas Deming, northeast quarter of Section 2'^, Township 
12, Range 9, May 8; John Britton to George Peterson, Lots 51, 55, 
58, 72, 147, 156, May 2; Curtis Gilbert to Jacob Maderia, trustee, 
Lot 6, May 1 ; Abraham Lemaster to Nathan Musgrove, northwest 
quarter, Section 30, Township 11, Range 9, mortgage. May 29; 
Stephen Campbell to same, southeast quarter of Section 25, Town- 
ship 11, Range 10, May 29 ; Indiana to Robert Haggatt, Lot 289, 
April 20; Samuel McQuilkin to John W. Davis, Lot 92, February 
3; letters of administration to Jesse Waterberry, estate John 
Waterberry, May 25; A. Whitlock and John Wilson to Demas 
Deming, northeast quarter of Section 25, Township 12, Range 9, 
June 5; Sarah Mole to John Durham, 26 acres of the south- 
west quarter of Section 4, Township 11, Range 9, June 11; 
Isaiah Lewis to James Hall, southeast quarter of Section 15, 
Township 11, Range 9, June 7; James Hall to Demas Deming, 
east half of the southwest quarter of Section 15 and north half of 
the northwest quarter of Section 22 and southeast quarter of Section 
15, Township 11, Range 9, mortgage, June 7; Indiana to Demas 
Deming and John M. Coleman, 20 acres south side of the southeast 
quarter of Section 15, Township 12, Range 9, June 5; John R. 
Porter to Gresham Jaques, Lots 26, 28, June 27 ; Ansel Harris to 
Bradford Hale, 30 acres of the southeast quarter of Section 27, 
Township 11, Range 10, April 21; Curtis Gilbert to Vigo county. 
Lots 290, 302, June 28; James C. Turner to Benjamin Johnson, 
southwest quarter of Section 23, Township 11, Range 9, February 
]3; Lucius H. Scott to Joseph Jenckes, Lot 224, July 20; Eli 
Chenoweth to James Barnes in Section 12, Township 13, Range 9, 
June 16; John Durkee to David Linton, Out-lot 38, August 8; 
Burrill W. Biggs to William Nevans, John McCune, George War- 


ner and John McBride, bond, west half of the northeast quarter of 
Section 11, Township 13, Range 8, July 12 ; Samuel Lynch to Benson 
Miller, 100 acres of the northwest quarter of Section 28, Township 
11, Range 9, September 19 ; Vigo county to Tv' illiam Durham, Lot 48 ; 
same to Thomas Durham, Lot 180, August 10; Eben B. Stone to 
Benjamin Hicks and Daniel Townsend, northeast quarter of Section 
17, Township 10, Range 10, June 6; John Roberts to John Durham, 
26 acres of the southwest quarter of Section 4, Township 11, Range 

9, June 11 ; Samuel Miles to Thomas Rodgers, Lot 157, August 25; 
John L. McCoskey to William C. and David Linton, east half of the 
southeast quarter of Section 28, Township 11, Range 9, September 
11; Terre Haute Company to James Barnes, Lot 110, September 
14; Jesse Keyser to Robert Wood, southeast quarter of Section 2, 
Township 13, Range 8, October 9; James Farrington to 'George 
Webster, south half of the northwest quarter of Section 13, Town- 
ship 13, Range 9, October 24; George W. Dewees to William P. 
Dexter, east half of the northeast quarter of Section 32, Township 
13, Range 9, and south half of the south half of Section 28, Township 
13, Range 9, November 7 ; Amos P. Balch to Freegift Northrup, 
150 acres of the northeast quarter of Section 4, Township 10, Range 

10, November 10; Jacob Bloss to Martin Strickler, northwest 
quarter and southwest quarter of Section 12, Township 13, Range 
10, June 13; Terre Haute Company to James Farrington, Lot 
267, November 15; Jacob Maderia to William Taylor, Lot 23, 
October 8; Indiana to Martin Strickler, southeast and northeast 
quarters of Section 12, Township 13, Range 10, November 17; 
Jacob Maderia to Joseph East, Lot 38, October 17; Vigo county to 
Elijah Tillotson, Jr., Lot 302, November 24; Levi Tillotson to 
Edward Bement and 0. Gilbert, Lot 62, November 23; William 
Nevans and John McCune to Burril W. Briggs, assignment, De- 
cember 6; Jacob Maderia to Louisa, Jessie and Mary McFadden, 
Lot 55, October 6 ; Indiana to John Lane, northwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 1, Township 13, Range 10, December 5 ; same to Samuel Tom- 
linson, west half of the southeast quarter of Section 28, west half 
of the southeast quarter of Section 31, Township 11, Range 9, De- 
cember 5 ; Henry Sidenbender to John Seaward, west half of the 
northwest quarter of Section 28, Township 12, Range 8, December 
18; Indiana to Curtis Gilbert, northeast quarter of Section 6, 
Township 11, Range 8, and east half of the southeast quarter of 
Section 30, Township 12, Range 8, northwest quarter of Section 25, 
Township 12, Range 10, and 10 rods of Out-lot 25, and 25 feet of 
Lot 4, and 15 feet north side of Lot 6, and 30 feet south side of 
Lot 31, and Lots 9, 61, 146, 177, 179, 181, 245, part of 216, and 
20 feet north side of Lot 62, December 5 ; Samuel McQuilkin to 
John Davey, Lot 34, March 6; Terre Haute Company to Charles 


B. Modesitt, Lots 131, 257, 82, Out-lots 9, 11, 35, 37, 24, May 22; 
Joshua Williams to Isaac Roll, southeast quarter of Section 2, 
Township, 10, Range 9, March 15; James McKinney to John Mc- 
Kinuey, Lot 14, January 10; James Farrington to Jonatha'n Lyon, 
northwest quarter of Section 2, Township 12, Range 9, November 
13; James Chesnut to Demas Deming, 100 acres of the northeast 
quarter of Section 35, and 10 acres of the northeast quarter of the 
northeast quarter of Section 35, Township 12, Range 9, August 7; 
Abraham Markle to Caleb Hopkins, one-half of southeast and south- 
west quarters of Section 35, and southeast, southwest and northwest 
quarters of Section 25, Township 12, Range 9, and southwest quarter 
of Section 34, Township 13, Range 9, April 14; Indiana to Thomas 
Houghton, Lot 191, April 20; Terre Haute to Curtis Gilbert, Lot 9, 
November 15; James Shields to Alexander Moore, 40 acres of the 
southeast quarter of Section 30, Township 11, Range 9, October 23; 
Moses Olds to William Durham, west half of the southwest quarter of 
Section 25, Township 11, Range 10, September 15; James Mason to 
Isaac Pointer, 80 acres of the northwest quarter of Section 33, Town- 
ship 11, Range 9, May 18 ; Hiram Brock to Solomon Brock, northeast 
quarter of Section 25, Township 11, Range 8, July 31; Joseph 
Benight to Charles N. Benight, west half of Section 1, Township 
10, Range 11, July 6; Isaac T. Benight to Mary Seeley, 100 acres 
of the northwest quarter of Section 9, Township 11, Range 9, June 
14; Jacob D. G. McDonald to John Campbell, Lot 168, April 11; 
William Cox to William Foster, north half of the northwest 
quarter of Section 13, Township 10, Range 10, October 1; Thomas 
Pucket to Jacob Archer, northeast quarter of the southwest quarter 
of Section 23, Township 11, Range 9, June 7; Joseph Eversol to 
James Bradt, part of Lot 100, March 22 ; Thomas Pucket to James 

C. Turner, 60 acres north side of the northwest quarter of Section 
]4, Township 11, Range 9, June 14; S. S. Collett to James Far- 
rington, power of attorney, October 24 ; Curtis Gilbert, commissioner, 
to John Badolet, John C. S. Harrison, Robert Buntin, trustees, 
southwest quarter of Section 7, Township 12, Range 8, December 
1; Thomas Puckett to John W. Osborn, 40 acres of the southwest 
quarter of Section 15, Township 11, Range 9, May 24; Henry 
Allen, sheriff, to Chauncey Rose, north half of Lot 170, November 
17 ; Joseph Richardson to Henry Markle, northwest quarter of 
Section 14, Township 10, Range 10, December 9; same to same, 
80 acres of north half of the southwest quarter of Section 14, 
Township 11, Range 9, August 8; Joseph East to William Meri- 
man, Lot 182, August 25; Elias Benton to Robert Caldwell, Lot 
199, September 24; State to John E. Hubbs, southeast quarter of 
the southwest quarter of Section 22, Township 11, Range 9, and 
east half of the northwest quarter of Section 35, Township 13, 


Range 10, and 5 acres of west half of the southeast quarter of Sec- 
tion 27, Township 11, Range 10, and 30 acres of east half of the 
southwest quarter of Section 29, Township 10, Range 10, December 
5; Stephen Hawley to Hiram Smith, '12. acres of the northwest 
quarter of Section 1, Township 11, Range 9, October 29; John 
Blue to Richard Davis, northwest quarter of Section 9, Township 
10, Range 9, November 24; Benjamin Knox, trustee, and Chauncey 
Daniels to Nathan Sharp and Frances Vores, west half of the 
southeast quarter of Section 28, Township 10, Range 10, January 
22; State to Samuel Judah, northwest quarter of Section 14, Town- 
ship 13, Range 10, December 5; Thomas Houghton to Amory 
Kinney, Lots 217, 218, June 23; Casper Weaver to James Cum- 
mins, 55 acres of the northwest quarter of Section 2, Township 11, 
Range 9, October 27; John Jenckes to Nicholas Brown, northwest 
quarter of Section 19, Township 12, ?,ange 8, July 31; Curtis Gil- 
bert to Samuel McQuilkin, Lot 89, January 24; State to Charles 
Dewey, southwest q:^".Tter of Saction 11, Township 10, Range 10, 
December 5. 

1828. — Casper Weaver to John Brown, northwest quarter of 
Section 7, Township 11, Range 8, January 1 ; State to Charles B. 
Modesitt, Lot 235, January 7 ; Vigo county to John Button, Lot 278, 
January 9; State to same, 234, January 9; Curtis Gilbert to Charles 
B. Modesitt, Lot 91, release, January 9 ; John Seaward to Oliver A. 
Story, west half of the northwest quarter of Section 28, Township 
12, Range 8, February 13; Daniel Durham to William Walker, 100 
acres, Section 5, Township 11, Range 9, February 22; William 
Walker to Daniel Durham, west half of the southwest quarter of 
Section 8, Township 11, Range 9, February 22; Levi Tillotson to 
Vigo county. Lots 294, 158, 138, 282, 262, 132, 280, 284, 269, 271, 
292, February 5 : county to Curtis Gilbert, Lot 218, January 8 ; De- 
mas Deming to Curtis Gilbert, 80 acres, northeast quarter of Sec- 
tion 25, Township 12, Range 9, January 1; Joseph Dixon to W. C. 
and D. Linton, part of the north side of the northwest quarter of 
Section 23, Township 12, Range 9, February 24; Curtis Gilbert to 
William Ray, Lot 6, March 4; Isam Pucket to Alexander Moore, 
40 acres, southeast quarter of Section 30, Township 11, Range 9, 
February 11; James Farrington to Daniel Justice, north half of the 
northwest quarter of Section 13, Township 13, Range 9, January 
12; Henry Allen, agent, to W. C. Linton, Lot 138, March 8; John 
McGriff to Peter Price, northeast quarter of Section 3, Township 
11, Range 9, March 11; State to John Griffith, Lot 14, January 25; 
Bullitt heirs to John F. Cruft, Out-lot 47, April 28 ; Terre Haute 
Company to Edward V. Ball, Lot 232, February 15; Bullitt estate 
to Luke Johnson, Lot 53, April 14; State to Demas Deming, south- 
east quarter of Section 14, Township 10, Range 10, May 5 ; Isaac 


Poiuter to John W. Osborn, 80 acres, west half of the southeast 
quarter of Section 28, Township 11, Range 9; Jonathan Lay to 
James Cochran, southwest quarter of Section 24, Township 11, 
Range 10, April 1(); John Durkee to Leonard Crawford, Lots 110, 
141, 211, 212, 213, 272, July 28; John Britton to A. A. Markle, Lot 
85, October 7; S. S. Collett to W. Musgrave, bond, July 12; Terre 
Haute Company to William P. Dole, Lot 129, February 16; Henry 
Allen, agent, to Samuel Eversol, Lot 202, March 4; James E. Julin 
to Joseph Cason, northeast quarter of Section 26, Township 10, 
Range 10, July 8; Bullitt's estate to John Button, Lot 33, April 14; 
James Siner to Fanny Simpler Ally Hodges, Clemsy Curry, James 
Siner, Nelson Siner, Hugh L. Siner, Polly Siner, Benjamin and 
John M. Siner, 26 acres, west half of the northeast quarter of Sec- 
tion 18, Township 10, Range 8, by will, September 1; Elijah Tillot- 
sou, Jr., to State, bond, August 23; Henry Allen, same, September 
13; Jacob Madirea, trustee, to Reddle & Chambers, Out-lot 45, Sep- 
tember 2 ; James Mason to Archibald Spence, west half of the north- 
west quarter of Section 33, Township 11, Range 9, September 20; 
David Cox to Benoni Trublood, west half of the southwest quarter 
of Section 13, Township 10, Range 10, June 9; John Durkee to 
Samuel Jackson, 40 acres, northeast quarter of Section 12 and 140 
acres, northeast quarter of Section 11, Township 12, Range 9, Sep- 
tember 15; the will of John Norris, October 4; R. S. McCabe to 
Jesse Kniffin, Lot 239, October 10; Benjamin Johnson to Byram 
Comps, southeast quarter of the southwest quarter of Section 23, 
Township 11, Range 9, February 21; David Smith to John and 
Daniel Jenckes, 20 acres, southeast quarter of Section 14, Township 
12, Range 9, September 15; John Robertson to Jarathmel B. 
Jenckes, 80 acres, northwest quarter of Section 26, Township 12, 
Range 9, October 24; John Campbell to George Miller one-eighth 
of Lot 168, October 27; Job M. Barker to Hiram Brock, southeast 
quarter of Section 28, Township 11, Range S, February 6; Lewis 
Beatty to Joseph Landers, southwest quarter of the northeast quar- 
ter of Section 25, Township 10, Range 8, September 30; United 
States to James Dickson, west half of the northwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 29, Township 12, Range 8, May 26; James Dickson to Peter 
Eversol, west half of the northwest quarter of Section 29, Township 
12, Range 8, October 30; Jacob Maderia to Oliver Rose, Out-lot 12, 
September 2 ; Demas Deming to John Whaley, northeast quarter of 
Section 23, Township 10, Range 10, November 5; John M. Rich- 
ardson to John W. Osborn, southeast and southwest quarters 
of Section 13, Township 13, Range 9, March 5; Demas Deming 
to Thomas Whaley, southeast quarter of Section 14, Township 10, 
Range 10, November 6; James Robinson to John Britton, Lot 210, 
November 15; State to J. L. Richardson, Lot 211, November 20; 


same to James FarringtoD, Lots 52 and 250, one rod of Out-lot 17, 
three rods of 29, same 23, and Lots 266 and 193, and southwest 
quarter of Section 7, Township 13, Kange 8, and 60 acres of the 
southeast quarter of Section 2, Township 10, Range 10, and 40 
acres of the southeast quarter of Section 1, Township 12, Range 9, 
20 feet of the south side of Lot 175, November 13; Peter Price to 
John McGriff, mortgage, northeast quarter of the northeast quarter 
of Section 3, and northwest quarter of the northeast quarter of Sec- 
tion 12, Township 11, Range 9, March 26; Elias Isaac to Gusham 
Jaques, Lot 27, November 22 ; John McGriff to Stephen Hawley, 25 
acres of the northeast quarter of Section 11, Township 11, Range 9, 
October 21 ; John R. Porter to Joseph S. Jenckes, Lots 106 and 107, 
July 12; John Britton to Charles F. Scranton, Lot 247, Novem- 
ber 26; same to Zeba H. Wolcott, south half of Lot 234; John T. 
Chunn to James Farrington, northeast quarter of Section 5, Town- 
ship 13, Range 9, November 19 ; James Hall to John W. Osborn 
west half of the northwest quarter of section 22, south half of the 
southwest quarter and east half of the southeast quarter, and 10 
acres of the southeast quarter of Section 15, Township 11, Range 9, 
February 8; Jeremiah Mole to Robert Hopkins, 24 acres of the 
southwest quarter of Section 18, Township 11, Range 9, January 
15; State to James Farrington Out-lots 17, 23 and 29, Lots 90, 221, 
and 269, December 5; Israel Harris to W. C. Linton, Lucius H. 
Scott and John F. Oruft, Lots 197 and 228, Out-lot 20, December 
10; Lucius H. Scott and John F. Cruft to Israel Harris, Lots 197 and 
228, Out-lot 20, December 10; Charles B. Modesitt to John Reeves, 
Lot 131, July 22; State to Elisha W. Brown, northwest and 
southwest quarters of Section 23, Township 11, Range 9, March 
20; same to Curtis Gilbert, Lots 4 and 245, December 9; same to 
John Britton, 70 feet of Lots 247 and 214, November 26; Samuel 
Jackson to John Goff, 40 acres of the northeast quarter of Section 
12, and 140 acres of the northeast quarter of Section 11, Township 
12, Range 9, October 11 ; Curtis Gilbert to W. N. Bullitt, Lot 229, 
November 20; Allan C. Davis to Richard Montgomery, Lot 75, 
March 3 ; William Harrington to Richard Montgomery, Lot 22, De- 
cember 6 ; George Clem to Peter Cartright, southwest quarter of 
Section 12, Township 10, Range 10, December 23; State to James 
Farrington, west half of the northwest quarter of Section 29, Town- 
ship 11, Range 8, and the north half of the southwest quarter 
of Section 14, Township 13, Range 9, and the southeast quarter of 
Section 19, Township 10, Range 9, and Lot 52, December 9 ; Terre 
Haute Company to Curtis Gilbert, Lot 4, November 26; same to 
Thomas Houghton, Lot 205, November 26; same to Ephraim P. 
Kester, Lot 41, December 22; Nathaniel Robbins to James Camp- 
bell, west half of the northwest quarter of Section 11, Township 10, 


Range 10, December 22; Jeremiah Raymond to James Campbell, 
29 acres of the south fraction of Section 33, Township 11, Range 
10, December 22 ; John M. Coleman to S. S. Collett, northeast quar- 
ter of Section 15, and 40 acres of the southeast quarter of Section 
15, and the east half of the southeast quarter of Section 9, and the 
east half of the southwest quarter of Section 9, Township 12, Range 

9, February 12; Jacob Maderia to Richard Montgomery, east half 
of Out-lot 7, September 2; same to James Ross, east half of Out- 
lot 6, September 2; same to Henry and James Ross, west half of 
Out-lot 7, February 2; Richard Montgomery to James and Henry 
Ross, east half of Out-lot 7, December 13; Jacob Maderia to 
Horace Blinn , Out-lot 8, February 22; State to Samuel Judah, 
northwest quarter of Section 14, Township 13, Range 10, De- 
cember 5; Mark Williams to James Wasson, Lot 210, September 
12; John R. Porter to James Wasson, Lots 50 and 88, July 12; 
Bullitt heirs to James Wasson, Out-lot 55, April 14; will and 
testament of Jeremiah Wilson, January 9; John and Daniel 
Jenckes to Joseph S. Jenckes, October 15; James Farrington to 
William Probst, south half of Lot 175, January 20; Curtis 
Gilberts, to William Probst, Lot 179, October 21 ; State to De- 
mas Deming, southwest quarter of Section 3H, Township 13, Range 

10, October 31; Nathan Musgrove to Robert Hoggatt, power of 
attorney, December 13; Thomas H. Clarke to La Barker, 10 acres of 
the northwest quarter of the northwest quarter of Section 30, Town- 
ship 12, Range 8, March 27 ; county to John H. Angier, Lots 269 
and 271, July 9; Jacob Maderia to Joseph Miller, Out-lot 5, and the 
west half of Section 6, September 2; William Herrington to Mathew 
Stewart, Lot 70, June 2; Zacharias Lindley, Thomas Baxton and 
Hannah his wife, Joseph Fortow and Ruth his Avife, Samuel and 
Lienor Chambers, William Lindley, Silas and Mary Dickson, Ed- ' 
ward and Catharine McVey, Alexander and Queen Esther Clarke 
and Jonathan Lindley to William and Sarah Hadley, east half of the 
northwest quarter of Section 19, Township 13, Range 8, and the 
east half of the northeast quarter of Section 24, Township 13, Range 
9, September 25 ; Eben B. Stone to Ralph White, 3 acres of the 
southeast quarter of Section 17, Township 10, Range 10, June 3; 
Richard Cox to Fergus Snoddy, south half of the northwest quarter 
of Section 13, Township 10 Range 10, March 21; Absolom Kester 
to Joseph Kester, west half of the northeast quarter of Section 25, 
Township 10, Range 10, August 21; Jacob Maderia to Silas Has- 
kins, Lot 156, September 2; Martha Lindley to William Hadley and 
Thomas Williams, north half of the northwest quarter of Section 19, 
Township 13, Range 8, and the north half of the northeast quarter 
of Section 24, Township 13, Range 9, September 25 ; James Farring- 

i/ton to Mark Williams and James Searing, 43 acres of the southwest 


quarter of Section 7, To^\*n8hip 13, Range 8, January 5; Jacob Ma- 
deria to Samuel McQuilkin, Lot 72, September 2; John McKinney 
to same, Lot 14, January 30; Hiram Brock to Mathew Gray, south 
half of the southeast quarter of Section 2S, Township 11, Range 8, 
September 27; John "W. Osborn to Nathaniel Robbins, east half of 
the southeast quarter of Section 34, Township 13, Range 9, Decem- 
ber 13; Henry Allen, sheriff, part of southeast quarter of the north- 
east quarter of Section 17, Township 11, Range 9, July 21; Jacob 
Maderia to William Haynes, Lot 58, September 2 ; William Cald- 
well to Alexander Edgerton, 40 acres of the northeast quarter of 
Section 35, Township 12, Range 10, September 1 ; William and 
Eamy Lindley and Silas Dixon to Benjamin Bailey, north half of 
the southwest quarter of Section 13, Township 13, Range 9, and 
north half of the southeast quarter of Section 7, Township 13, Range 
8, July 29 ; James Ferril to Joseph T. Joslin, westhalf of the northwest 
quarter of Section 29, Township 11, Range 8, August 4; Bullitt heirs 
to Benjamin J. Gilman, Lot 188, April 14; Stephen Campbell to Ben- 
jamin Bushnell, 47 acres of the southeast quarter of Section 25, 
Township 11, Range 10, September 22; State to John Durham, 
southwest quarter of Section 4, Township 11, Range 9, November 27 ; 
v' James Searing to Samuel Searing, northeast quarter of Section 19, 
Township 13, Range 8, September 1 ; Jacob Maderia, trustee, to Na- 
thaniel Cunningham, Lot 147, September 2; Paris Dyer to W. C. 
Linton, Lot 95, January 31 ; Thomas D. Young to Benjamin Cole, 
59 acres of the east half of the southeast quarter of Section 26, 
Township 11, Range 9, October 30; State to Hannah Coutinn, north- 
east quarter of Section 8, Township 13, Range 9, November 27; 
Terre Haute Company to W. C. Linton, Lot 95, April 15; J. Ma- 
deria to Samuel W. Edmunds, Lot 51, September 2; State to John 
E. Cruft, east half of the northwest quarter of Section 24, Township 
11, Range 10, December 11 ; Lucy, Olive, Nancy and Daniel Thomp- 
son to William Alcott, power of attorney, July 8 ; Thomas Emison 
to John D. Early, Lot 142, December 13;" William C. Linton to 
Thomas McMurran, Lot 32, February 20; William Taylor to Will- 
iam Merriman, Lot 23, December 29; Jacob Maderia, trustee, to 
Lewis Redford, Lot 136, September.2; William Lane toAsaFrakes, 
west half of the northwest quarter of Section 34, Township 10, 
Range 10, March 17; William Antrim to Aaron Antrim, Lot 285, 
September 4; William and Joseph Montgomery to David Montfort, 
Lot 57, June 26; William Odell to Edward Miles, east half of the 
southwest quarter of Section 7, Township 11, Range 8, September 
5; Peter Allen to Adaline Allen, 80 acres of the northwest quarter 
of Section 28, Township 13, Range 8, March 29; Henry Allen, 
sheriff, to Alvah Hotchkiss, 45 acres of the west half of the north- 
east quarter of Section 22, Township 12, Range 9, April 16; John 


M. Colman to Joseph V. Warner, Lot 187, March 5; James Ferril 
to Nathaniel Poiner, east hair of the southeast quarter of Section 23, 
Township 11, Range 8, November 4; Thomas Pound to Joseph 
Pound, northwest quarter of Section 30, Township 10, Range 9, 
November 1 ; John Britton to Theodore C. Cone, Lot 135, Novem- 
ber 29. 

1829. — Lucy, Olive, Nancy and Daniel Thompson, to Demas 
Deming, Lot 153, January 9; Thomas H. Clarke to same, half of 
southeast and southwest quarters of Section 23, Township 12, Range 
9, January 26; John Whaley to' Mitchell Simmons, 40 acres of the 
northeast quarter of Section 23, Township 10, Range 10, January 
25 ; William Walker and John Durham, overseers of the poor, 
Honey Creek township, to William Probst, indenture, February 2; 
Justus Denton to Robert Hopkins, 20 acres of the northeast quarter 
of Section 19, Township 11, Range 9, February 10; James Farring- 
ton to Thomas Pearson, Lot 221, February 5 ; Benjamin Bailey to 
James Barnes, west half of the southeast quarter of Section 13, 
Township 13, Range 9, and northwest quarter of the southwest quar- 
ter of Section 8, Township 13, Range 8, January 5; James Barnes to 
Salmon Wright, Lot 110, February 3; Benjamin McKean to George 
W. Messiuger, northwest quarter of Section '24, Township 12, 
Range 9, February 25 ; James Perkins to Ira Coltrin, 26^ acres of 
the west half of the northwest quarter of Section 3, Township 12, 
Range 9, March 1 ; Terre Haute Company to Thomas Pearson, Lot 
301, March 2 ; John Davey to Amos Rice, Lot 34, February 24 ; 
Curtis Gilbert to Allen T. Harris, 30 acres of the southeast quarter 
of Section 27, Township 11, Range 10, March 6; James Chambless 
to Jeremiah Raymond, west half of the northwest quarter of Section 
4, Township 10, Range 10, and 29 acres of the east part of Section 
33, Township 11, Range 10, March 2; Demas Deming to James 
and John Hamilton, south half of the northwest quarter of the 
east half of the southwest quarter of Section 14, Township 12, 
Range 9, March 13; same to Isaac M. Dawson, west half of the 
northwest quarter of Section 14, Township ] 2, Range 9 ; same to 
heirs of Isaac Dawson, north half of the northwest qiiarter of Section 
14, and south half of the northwest quarter of Section 11, Township 
12, Range 9, March 13; Sarah Harris to James Wasson, Lots 197 
and 228, March 16; plat of Charles B. Naylor's out-lots, March 16; 
Demas Deming to Curtis Gilbert, Lot 11, March 15; same to John 
R. Jackson, north half of the northwest quarter of Section 11, 
Township 12, Range 9, March 19; William Combs to Isaac and 
Henry Hatfield, north half of the southwest quarter of Section 5, 
Township 11, Range 8, March 24; Curtis Gilbert to Robert Brasher, 
2d Lot 4, March 24; Elisha M. Huntington, administrator of Israel 
Harris, to Russell Ross, Lot 20, April 2; same to James Wasson, 


Lots 197 and 228, April 2; Jonathan Lyon to James Farrington, 
Lot 195, March 30; John R Cruft to William A., Andrew A. and 
Eleazer D. Carter, Lot 115, April 13; Hannah Coltrin to Isaac 
Martin, 140 acres of the northeast quarter of Section 8, Township 
13, Range 9, March 13; Robert Bratton to Samuel Moore, north half 
of the southwest quarter of Section 30, Township 11, Range 9, 
March 29; State to John Bratton, 74 feet Lot 214, 35 feet Lot 291, 
40 feet Lot 281, 74 feet Lot 283 and 50 acres of the south half of 
the northwest quarter of Section 30, Township 10, Range 9, and east 
half of Section 9, Township 10, Range 10, January 4; John Britton 
to Demas Deming, Lots 148 and 294, February 20; Demas Deming 
to John Britton, Lot 24, February 20; Jonathan Lyon to Charles B. 
Naylor, part of Out-lot 1, Elisha M. Huntington, commissioner, to 
Samuel Coleman, trustee, heirs of William Winter, November 25; 
Mark Williams to Archibald Kirkwood, northeast quarter of Section 
20, Township 13, Range 8, May 20; State to John Law, east half 
of the northeast quarter of Section 7, Township 13, Range 8, Janu- 
ary 5; county to Thomas Pearsons, Lot 298, March 29; same to 
Thomas Rodgers, Lot 292, June 8; Anthony B. Camor to Amos 
Wood, east half of the southeast quarter of Section 1, Township 13, 
Range 8, May 22; George Hussey to Margaret Hodge, Lot 305, 
May 29; Richard Montgomery to William Frances, Lot 75, Jane 5; 
John Britton to Joseph Pound, 50 acres of the south half of the 
northwest quarter of Section 30, Township 10, Range 9, April 6; 
William Fincher to William McCombs, northeast quarter of Sec- 
tion 30, and northwest quarter of Section 31, Township 11, Range 
9, May 28 ; Demas Deming to Lorin and John Burget, west half of 
the southwest quarter of Section 19, Township 12, Range 8, June 2; 
Lewis C. Redford to William C. Linton, Lot 13fi,May 28; Richard 
Montgomery to W. C. and David Linton, Lot 22, June 23; Catharine 
Markle to Rachel Dean, north half of the south half of Section 35, 
Township 12, Range 9, May 20; Henry Markle and Catharine Mar- 
kle, administrators of Abraham Markle, deceased, to Demas Deming, 
half of the southeast and southwest quarters of Section 35, Town- 
ship 12, Range 9, May 30; Demas Deming to Rachel Dean, half of 
the southeast quarter of Section 35, Township 12, Range 9, June 
24; Curtis Gilbert to heirs of Rufus Brown, northwest quarter of 
Section 25, Township 12, Range 10, June 25; Henry Markle, exec- 
utor of William Markle, to David Lyons, northwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 35, Township 13, Range 9, May 20; Jonah S. Sheets to Thomas 
H. Blake, Out-lot 39, June 3 ; Catharine Markle to Benjamin J. Gil- 
man, Lot 186; Henry and Catharine Markle to Demas Deming, June 
1 (no numbers) ; Demas Deming to Benjamin J. Oilman, Lot 186, 
June 24; Catharine Markle to George W. Ruble, Lot 230, May 21; 
Henry and Catharine Markle to Demas Deming, Lot 230; Demas 


Demiiig to George W. Kuble, same; John Britton to Thomas H. 
Blake, Out-lot 39; James FarriugtoD to George Miller, south half 
of the northeast quarter of Section, 29, Township 12, Range 9, June 
1 ; Henry and Catharine Markle to James Farrington, northeast 
quarter of Section 29, Township 12, Range 9, May 30; Samuel Corby 
to Solomon Fuller, north half of the northwest quarter of Section 
IB, Township 11, Range 9, July 8 ; John Franklin to Thomas Staton, 
south half of the northwest quarter of Section 13, Township 11, 
Range 9, July 8; State to James Farrington, west half of the south- 
east quarter of Section 6, Township 13, Range 8, and southeast 
quarter of Section 19, Township 10, Range 9, January 5; William 
Merriman to James T. Moffatt, Lot 182, January 12; Alvah Hotch- 
kiss to James Farrington, 45 acres of the west half of the northeast 
quarter of Section 22, Township 12, Range 9, July 21 ; Henry and 
Catharine Markle to Curtis Gilbert, southeast quarter of Section 29, 
Township 12, Range 9, May 30; Curtis Gilbert to John Britton, 
north half of the southeast quarter of Section 29, Township 12, 
Range 9, May 30; Sylvia Winter to John Jackson, Sr., west half 
of the southwest quarter of Section 25, Township 12, Range 9, June 
20; Abagail, Eliza, Abby Packard, and William G. and Susanna C. 
Brown to William Latta, north half of the southeast quarter, and 
north half of the southwest quarter of Section 2, Township 11, 
Range 9, May 27 ; Terre Haute Company to Luke Johnson, Lots 45, 
46 and 78, July 30; James Mason and Archibald Spence to Mathias 
Overton, west half of the northwest quarter of Section 33, Town- 
ship 11, Range 9, July 26; Jeremiah Rappleye to Stephen Minchell, 
northwest quarter of Section 23, Township 12, Range 9, June 12; 
Henry W. Hopkins to Pleasant M. O' Haver, west half of the south- 
west quarter, and east half of the northwest quarter of Section 27, 
Township 11, Range 8, February 10; State to Archibald Kirkwood, 
8 acres of the southwest quarter of Section 29, Township 13, Range 
8, August 12; Joseph Sanders to William Ford, southwest quarter 
of the northeast quarter of Section 25, Town 10, Range 8, August 25; 
Edward V. Ball to Frances Cunningham, Lot 232, July 17 ; Robert 
Hopkins, administrator of William M. Collins, to William McComb, 
northwest quarter of Section 19, Township 11, Range 9, July 5; 
Sarah Boudinot, George, Richard and Mary McDonald, and John 
Piatt, Jr., and S. Henrietta Piatt, to Horatio N. Manning, power of 
attorney, February 17 ; same to James Farrington, Lot 168, August 
15 ; Richard McDonald and John Piatt, Jr., to Thomas Easttrum, Jr., 
power of attorney, June 8 ; Asa Mounts to Ellen Mounts, west half 
of the northwest quarter of Section 11, Township 13, Range 8, June 
21 ; James Farrington to Curtis Gilbert, southwest quarter of Section 
28, Township 12, Range 9, September 18 ; Charles G. Taylor, Henry 
Allen, William Hogue, Jr., Robert S. McCabe and Enoch Dole, to 


State, bond, August 16; Isiah G. Kite to Benjamin Bushnell, 47 
acres of the southeast quarter of Section 25, Township 11, Range 10, 
August 9; George W. Wessinger to Benjamin McKean, northwest 
quarter of Section 24, Township 12, Range 9, February 25; same 
to Alfred N. Bullitt, agreement, February 25 ; Abraham Lindley to 
William Lindley, south half of the southeast quarter of Section 24, 
Township 18, Range 9, and south half of the southwest quarter of 
Section 19, Township 1 3, Range 8, and east half of the southwest 
quarter of Section 6, Township 13, Range 8, August 21; State to 
James Cochran, Jr., scyath half of the northeast quarter of Section 
28, Township 12, Range 8, October 11; John B. Richardson to 
William Reed, northeast quarter of Section 27, Township 13, Range 
9, September 7; county to C. Gilbert, Lot 30, October 1"; James 
Farrington to Mahlon Stevenson, west half of the southeast quarter 
of Section 6, Township 13, Range 8, October 16; George W. Weis- 
singer to William Wines, northeast quarter of Section 24, Town- 
ship 12, Range 9, and northeast quarter of Section 23, Township 
12, Range 9, October 11; Amos Rice to William Wines, Lot 34, 
October 12; Samuel McQuilkin to William Wines, Lot 34, October 
12; Thomas Whaley to Absalom Heyworth, 110 acres of the 
southeast quarter of Section 14, Township 10, Range 10, August 6; 
John Dickson to Jeremiah Atkinson, northwest quarter of Section 
21, and southeast quarter of Section 17, Township 11, Range 9, 
July 13; John M. Colman to James Farrington, 35 acres of the 
northeast quarter of Section 22, and 60 acres of the southeast quarter 
of Section 15, Township 12, Range 9, August 9; James Farrington 
to John Britton, 16 acres of Section 28, Township 12, Range 9, 
October 25 ; Curtis Gilbert to John W. Wines, east half of the south- 
east quarter of Section 30, Township 12, Range 8, October 25; 
George Hussey to John H. Angier, Lot 270, October 25; James 
Farrington to George Miller, in Section 28, Township 12, Range 
9; Sylvia Winter to William Wines, Lot 35, October 27; John 
H. Watson to Jeremiah Price, 65 acres of the northeast quarter 
of Section 31, Township 12, Range 8, October 27; John Brown 
to Edward Miles, 2 acres of the northwest quarter of Section 7, 
Township 11, Range 8, January 20; Richard Montgomery to John 
AV. Wines, Lot 22, November 1 ; James Farrington to Ezekiel Bux- 
ton, Lot 193, January 26; John Whaley to John W. Bonshall, 40 
acres of the northeast quarter of Section 23, Township 10, Range 10, 
June 2; William Marrs, Robert S. McCabe and Henry Allen, to 
State, bond, October 16; Terre Haute Company to Samuel Dunn, 
Lots 21 and 81, September 11; Catharine Markle to Elisha U. 
Brown, south half of the southeast quarter, and south half of the 
southwest quarter of Section 35, Township 12, Range 9, October 10; 
William and Joseph Montgomery to John Britton, Out-lot 30, No- 


vember 4; Zadoc Keeve to Anthony B. Connor, east half of the 
southeast quarter of Section 17, Township 12, Range 8, November 24; 
Thomas AVilliams to John Balding, in north half of Section 12, 
Township 13, Eange 9, November 11 ; George Rector to David Rob- 
inson, 39 acres of the northeast quarter of Section 3, Township 11, 
Range 9, November 30; Abraham A. Markle to John H. AVatson, 
Lot 85, November 25; Amos Rice to Richard Montgomery, south- 
east quarter of Section 35, Township 13, Range 9, November 1; 
Jacob Stoul to Goodwin Stoul, power of attorney, August 20; Jacob 
Stoul to W. C. and D. Linton, south half of Section 11, Township 11, 
Range 9, December 7 ; James Farrington to Samuel McQuilkin, Lot 
90, January 22 ; State to James Farrington, northwest quarter of 
Section 15, Township 12, Range 9, and southeast quarter of Section 
19, Township 10, Range 9, December 15; Robert S. McCabe to 
George Miller, part of Lot 72, November 1; Charles B. Naylor to 
Charles G. Naylor, Out-lot 9, November 1 ; Isaac Elston to James 
Johnston, northwest quarter of Section 5, Township 10, Range 9, 
May 12; Thomas H. and Mary Clark to Sarah Browning, west half 
of the northwest quarter of Section 30, Township 12, Range 8, Feb- 
ruary 1 ; John Britton to heirs of John F. Thompson, east half of 
the northwest quarter of Section 9, Township 10, Range 10, April 
19; Jerathmel B. Jenckes to Isam Puckett, northeast and southwest 
quarters of Section 15, Township 11, Range 9, August 10; Enoch 
Dole to John and Sylvester Sibley, Lot 88, January 29 ; Samuel 
McQuilkin to Sylvester Sibley, Lots 3, 4, 5 and 6, in Naylor's addi- 
tion ; Henry Allen to Samuel Hull, northwest quarter of Section 28, 
southeast quarter of Section 20, northeast quarter of Section 20, 
and southwest quarter of Section 21, Township 11, Range 9, August 
25 ; Catharine Markle to George Miller, northeast quarter of Sec- 
tion 29, Township 12, Range 9, October 11; William Armstrong to 
Jacob Parker, east half of the northwest quarter of Section 28, 
Township 10, Range 10, February 27; Martin Patrick to John Cox, 
east half of the southwest quarter of Section 25, Township 11, 
Range 10, February 12; Hiram Brock to Abel Moon, 25 acres of 
the north half of the northeast quarter of Section 11, Township 11, 
Range 9, April, 20; same to Peter Brock, north half of the south- 
east quarter of Section 28, Township 11, Range 8, May 4; Zebina 
C. Hovey, administrator, to Elihu Hovey, southwest quarter of 
Section 28, Township 13, Range 8, September 23; Samuel Jackson 
to Jacob Jackson, southeast quarter of Section 1, southwest quarter 
of Section 1, northeast quarter of Section 11, and northeast 
quarter of Section 12, Township 12, Range 9, March 19; Henry 
and Catharine Markle, administrator, Abraham Markle, to Samuel 
Jackson, May 31; William and Joseph Montgomery, Lot 97, 
November 11; United States to John H. Watson, northeast quar- 


ter of Section 31, Township 12, Kange 8, November 15; John H. 
Watson to Noble Ladd, northeast quarter of Section 31, Township 
12, Range 8; Charles B. Naylor to Russell Ross, in Naylor's 
survey, iLot 8, March 30; same to Heniy and James Ross, Lot 7, 
March 30; same to same, Lot 2, December 18; William C. Linton 
to same. Lot 136, August 20; Nelon Souls to David Smith, Daniel 
Reeves and Nicholas Brown, 60 acres of the southeast quarter of 
Section 14, Township 12, Range 9, November 10; Nathan Poyner 
to Andrew Ferril, east half of the southeast quarter of Section 
23, Township 11, Range 8, October 4; Richard Davis to David 
Bogle, northwest quarter of Section 9, Township 10, Range 9, April 
3 ; Samuel Hull to Wade Posey, north half of the northwest quarter 
of Section 28, and north half of the southeast quarter of Section 20, 
Township 11, Range 9, November 20; William Durham, commis- 
sioner, to Caleb Arnold, east fraction of Section 22, Township 11, 
Range, 10, and Lot 1, November 1 ; Elisha U. Brown to Lewis C. 
Bedford, Lot 155, May 20; State to Salmon Wright, Lot 295, 
December 28 ; James Smith to Jordon Anderson, east half of the 
northwest quarter of Section 5, Township 12, Range 8, November 
24; William McComb to William Fincher, northeast quarter of 
Section 30, and northwest quarter of Section 31, Township 11, 
Range 9, May 28 ; Sylvia Winter to Curtis Gilbert and Demas 
Deming, northwest quarter of Section 25, Township 12, Range 9, 
June "iO; Amory Kinney to Samuel Easle}', Lot 308, May 21; 
Thomas Parsons to Henry Lanius, Lot 310, December 13; James 
Smith to Isaac Hays, M^est half of the northwest quarter of Section 
5, Township 12, Range 8, November 24; Daniel Frakes to James 
D. Pietz, southwest quarter of Section 35, Township 10, Range 10, 
October 4; William N. Bullitt to William Early, Lot 299, January 29; 
James K. O'Haver to Henry W. Hopkins, west half of the southwest 
quarter, and east half of the northeast quarter of Section 27, Town- 
ship 11, Range 8, February 10; Francis and Martha McMurran to 
William McMurran (no numbers), December 23; Benjamin Block- 
iston to Jeremiah Rappleye, 55 acres of the northwest quarter of 
Section 23, Township 12, Range 9, and 30 acres of the southeast 
quarter of Section 19, Township 12, Range 8, November 11; county 
to John Britton, Lots 280, 282 and 284, October 1; Hyacinth Lasalle 
to Alex H. Miller, north half of Lot 175, February 2; John 
Drager to George Pinker, southwest quarter of Section 6, Town- 
ship 13, Range 9, August 4; William Town to William Ray, in 
northeast quarter of Section 21, and northwest quarter of Section 
22, Township 11, Range 8, September 15; Byram Tychenor to 
Elijah Cason, east half of the southwest quarter of Section 25, 
Township 10, Range 10, March 5; State to Charles B. Modesitt, 
Lot 42, August 7; John H. Angier to same. Lot 271, April 2; 


Joseph and John Thompson to Jacob Stid, east half of the north- 
west quarter of Section 15, Township 13, Range 8, August 16; 
Jacob Stid to John Snaith, east half of the northwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 15, Township 13, Eange 8, September 3; James Wright to 
James Barnes and Joseph Evans, northwest quarter of Section 7, 
Township 13, Range 8, and northeast quarter of Section 13. Town- 
ship 13, Range 9, February 25; United States to Demas Deming, 
west half of the southwest quarter of Section 14, Township 12, 
Range 9, December 2; James Farrington to Samuel W. Edwards, 
Lot 52, October 10; Gersham R. Jaques to John Sibley, Lots 2G 
and 27, September 13; S. S. Collett to William Hemington, Lot 
169, August 23; John Whaley to Dennis Hayworth, south half of 
the northeast quarter of Section 23, Township 10, Range 10, Janu- 
ary 23; John Winter to Robert Manwaring, John Manwaring, 
Guerdon L. Waterman and Hannah L. his wife, James P. and Julia 
Jones, and Russell and Harriet Griffin, north half of the east half 
of the southeast quarter of Section 26, Township 11, Range 10, July 
2; Sylvia Winter to Hector Smith, southeast quarter of Section 25, 
Township 12, Range 9, June 26; Nathan Cole to John Hay, 6 acres 
of the southwest quarter of Section 7, Township 13, Range 9, Au- 
gust 30; Thomas Williams to Joseph Evans, 56 acres of the north- 
west quarter of Section 19, Township 13, Range 8, October 1; 
Joseph Thomas to William Smith, 60 acres of the southwest quarter 
of Section 28, Township 11, Range 9, August 27; Jacob Barker to 
William Smith, in west half of the northwest quarter of Section 20, 
Township 11, Range 9, November 5. 

1830. — James and Henry Ross to Russell Ross, Out-lot 21, 
January 2; Jonathan Mays to William C. and David Linton, Lots 
140 and 139, February 18; William and Sarah Hadley to Louis 
Rodgers, south half of the northwest quarter of Section 19 and 
the east half of the northeast quarter of Section 24, Township 13, 
Range 9, February 25; Francis Cunningham, administrator, Tru- 
man Blackman to James Farrington, north half of the south- 
west quarter, 40 acres, southeast quarter of Section 1, Township 12, 
Range 9, March 28; John Jenckes to Nicholas Brown, northwest 
quarter of Section 19, Township 12, Range 8, and the southwest 
quarter of Section 18, Township 14, Range 8, July 31; Demas 
Deming to John Deadman, southeast quarter of Section 14, Town- 
ship 12, Range 10, April 6; same to John Robertson, 110 acres 
in the northeast quarter of Section 35, Township 12, Range 9, April 
6; John and Daniel Jenckes to Jerathmel B. Jenckes, southeast 
quarter of Section 18, Township 12, Range 8, and the southeast 
quarter of Section 11, Township 13, Range 9, April 6; same to 
Joseph C. Jenckes, northwest quarter of Section 19, Township 12, 
Range 8, and the southwest quarter of Section 17, Township 13, Range 


8, and the northwest quarter of Section 10, Township 11, Range 9, 
and the southeast quarter of Section 9, Township 11, Range 9, and 
the northeast quarter of Section 19, Township 12, Range 8, and the 
northeast quarter of Section 4, Township 11, Range 9, and the 
northeast quarter of Section 9, Township 11, Range 9, and the south- 
east quarter of Section 4, Township 11, Range 9, and the northeast 
quarter of Section 15, Township 11, Range 9, and the southwest 
quarter of Section 18, Township 12, Range 8, and the southwest 
quarter of Section 13, Township 12, Range 9, April 6; John Jenckes 
to Jerathmel B. Jenckes, east half of the north half of the south- 
west quarter of Section 15, Township 11, Range 9, April 10; Elijah 
Cason to Samuel Wright, Lot 109, election, Prairie Creek qhurch, 
April 3; William S. Cruft to John F. Cruft, Lot 121, February 7; 
Robert Bratton to John F. Cruft, south half of the southwest quar- 
ter of Section 30, Township 11, Range 9, April 17; Terre Haute 
Company to Samuel McQuilkin, Lot 91, June 20; certificate ap- 
pointment trustees Society of Friends on Honey creek. May 15; 
Demas Deming to Samuel Corby, 80 acres in the northwest quar- 
ter of Section 13, Township 11, Range 9, May 16; same to John 
Franklin, 80 acres in the south half of the northwest quarter of 
Section 13, Township 11, Range 9, May 16; John Hamilton to 
Mathew Huston, northwest quarter of Section 14, Township 12, 
Range 9, February 26; county to Demas Deming, Lot 163, March 16; 
Henry Allen, collector to Demas Deming, Lot 24, March 16; county 
to Demas Dewing, Lot 198, June 10; Curtis Gilbert to Elizabeth 
S. and Vienna A. Hening, Lot 181, June 15; Elisha M. Hunting- 
ton, commissioner, heirs Isaac Lambert to John Dickson, northwest 
quarter of Section 17, southeast quarter of Section 17, northeast 
quarter of Section 17, southwest quarter of Section 15, northwest 
quarter of Section 21, southwest quarter of Section 25, Township 
11, Range 9, April 1; John Dickson to Sally, Peggy, Hamilton, 
Betsey Ann, Maria, Martin D. and Isaac N. Lambert, heirs of Isaac 
Lambert, southwest quarter of Section 21, southeast quarter of Sec- 
tion .20, northeast quarter of Section 20, northwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 22, northwest quarter of Section 36, northwest quarter of Section 
28, Township 11, Range 9, April 1; Martin Strickler to John Hay, 
northwest and southwest quarters of Section 12, Township 13, 
Range 10, April 2; John H. Watson to Anthony M. Ostrander, 
northwest quarter of Section 35, Township 12, Range 9, June 24; 
James Farrington to Joseph Joslin, west half of the northwest 
quarter of Section 29, Township 11, Range 8, April 4; Sylvia Win- 
ter, guardian of William Winter to James Johnson, northeast quarter 
of Section 35, Township 11, Range 10, May 15; John E. Metcalf to 
Japhet Bush, southwest quarter of Section 35, Township 11, Range 
10; Bradford Hale to same, southwest quarter of Section 35, Town- 


ship 11, Range 10, June 2G; William Smith to Anthony B. Ccuiner, 
east half of the southeast quarter of Section 1, Township 18, Range 
8, July 7; Terre Haute Company to Jonathan Lyon, Lot 1*,)5, Ml 
acres, Out-lot 1, June 15; same to Charles B. Modesitt, Lots 5, 15, 
17, 105, 102, 114, 130, 152, 208, 219, 220, 24(3, 204 and 27U, May 
29 ; John F. Cruft to Joseph Kite, east half of the southwest quar- 
ter of Section 30, Township 11, Range 9, July 20; John E. Met- 
calf to Bradford Hale, 55 acres in the northeast quarter of the 
southwest quarter of Section 35, Township 11, Range 10, June 17; 
Jonathan Edney to James Mason, 23 acres in the northeast quarter 
of Section 36, Township 11, Range 10, July 23; Joseph Saunders 
to William Ray, southwest quarter of the northeast quarter of Sec- 
tion 25, Township 10, Range 8, July 27 ; Joseph Bennight to 
Edwin P. Bennight, east half of Section 1, Township 10, Range 11, 
May 29 ; same to Guy R. Bennight, east half of the southwest quarter 
of Section 4, Township 10, Range 10, May 30; William Phillips to 
Zadok Reeves, southeast quarter of Section 17, Township 12, Range 
8, August 11; Daniel Dawson to AVilliam A. "Gans, estate of Isaac 
Dawson; Jonathan Rodgers and wife, same; John Bell and wife, 
same, June 25; John Stratton to William C. and D. Linton, half 
of Lot 139, April 13; William and Joseph Montgomery to W. C. 
Linton, Out-lot 40, August 22; William Ray to Joseph Saunders, 
southwest quarter of the northeast quarter of Section 25, Township 

10, Range 8, August 22 ; State to Samuel McQuilkin, Lot 89, and 
20 feet south side of Lot 34, June 18; Curtis Gilbert, commissioner 
to Reuben Christy, Lot 80, August 26; Israel Price to James Cum- 
mins, north half of the northwest quarter of Section 1, Township 

11, Range 9, September 1; Henry Allen, sheriff, to David S. Bon- 
ner, northeast quarter of Section 9, Township 11, Range 9, Sep- 
tember 2 ; Robert S. Reynolds to S. S. CoUett, southeast quarter of 
Section 9, northwest quarter of Section 10, southeast quarter of 
Section 4, northeast quarter of Section 4, Township 11, Range 9, and 
northeast quarter of Section 19, northwest quarter of Section 19, 
Township 12, Range 8, and northeast quarter of Section 15, Town- 
ship 11, Range 9, and southwest quarter of Section 17, Township 
13, Range 8, southwest quarter of Section 18, Township 12, Range 
8, southwest quarter of Section 13, Township 12, Range 9, south- 
east quarter of Section 14, Township 12, Range 9, and Lots 103, 
243, 124, September 2; Henry Allen, sheriff, to James Wasson, 
Lot 29, September 5 ; William N. Bullitt to Curtis Gilbert, Out-lot 50, 
August 31 ; same to James Farrington, George W. Wisenger, Alfred 
N. Bullitt, William N. and Neville Bullitt, power of attorney, Sep- 
tember 3; William N. Bullitt to Joseph Smith, east half of th^ 
northwest quarter of Section 1, Township 12, Range 9, September 
26; Daniel H. Johnson to James Mason, 50 acres in the northeast 


quarter of Section 11, Township 10, Eange 10, September 28; Cur- 
tis Gilbert to Reuben C. Smith, Lot G2, October 2; same to Will- 
iam C. Smith, Lot 61, September 2; C. Gilbert, commissioner, to 
Frederick Rapp, southwest quarter of Section 3, northwest quarter 
of Section 10, southwest quarter of Section 10, northwest quarter 
of Section 22, southwest quarter of Section 22, Township 12, Range 
9, and northeast quarter of Section 0, Township 12, Range 8, and 
southwest quarter of Section 32, Township 13, Range 8, south half 
of east fraction of Section 4, Township 12, Range 9, September 10; 
Ormsby Greene to John F. Cruft, southeast quarter of Section 28, 
Townsliip 13, Range 8, October 15; Amory Kinney, commissioner, 
to Redman Evans, south half of the northeast quarter of Section 
19, Township 11, Range 9, September 22; David Colby to Ebeuezer 
Richardson, west half of the northwest quarter of Section 17, Town- 
ship 12, Range 8, October 17; George Jones to Samuel Walker, 
northeast quarter of Section 2, Township 13, Range 9; Ormsby 
Greene to Anthony Creal, northeast corner of the southeast quarter 
of Section 28, Township 13, Range 8, October 15; Alex Moore to 
Samuel Moore, south half of the southwest quarter of Section 30, 
Township 11, Range 9, April 25; Jonathan Jones to Joseph Evans, 
south half of the southeast quarter of Section 7, south half of the 
southwest quarter of Section 8, south half of the southwest quarter 
of Section 13, south half of the southeast quarter of Section 13, 
Township 13, Range 9, March 28; Thomas Williams to Lewis 
Rodgers, 15 acres in the northwest quarter of Section 19, and 22 
acres in the northeast quarter of Section 24, Township 13, Range 
9, May 20; county to Brook Hill, Lots 192, 236, 57 and 104, No- 
vember 16; State to Joseph Jenung, IS acres in the northeast 
quarter of Section 18, Township 12, Range 8, November 17; same 
to Reuben C. Smith, Lot 62, November 16; same to Curtis Gilbert, 
northwest quarter of Section 25, Township 12, Range 10, east half 
of the southeast quarter of Section 30, Township 12, Range 8, south 
part of the northeast quarter of Section 25, Township 12, Range 9, 
Out-lot 25, and 30 feet north side of Lot 245, and 40 feet north side 
of Lot 216, November 17; James Smith to Archibald Woods, north- 
Avest quarter of Section 7, northwest quarter of Section 30, Town- 
ship 14, Range 8, southwest quarter of Section 31, Township 12, 
Range 8, September 15; Cynthia Ann Rush to John Rush, power 
of attorney, July 30; William Foster to John Cox, north half of the 
northwest quarter of Section 13, Township 10, Range 10, May 5; 
Amory Kinney to Basil Champer, northwest quarter of Section 14, 
Township 10, Range 10, May 27; State to Demas Deming, west 
half of the northwest quarter of Section 20, Township 13, Range 8, 
and 80 acres in the northeast quarter of Section 25, Township 12, 
Range 9, December 12; same to Curtis Gilbert, 100 acres in the 


southwest quarter of Section 5, and 100 acres in the northwest 
(quarter of Section 8, Township 13, Range 9, and 15 acres in tlie 
southwest quarter of Section 14, Township 11, Eange 9, northwest 
qiiarter of Section 1^, Township 13, Range 8, and 30 acres in the 
southeast quarter of Section 27, Township 11, Eange 10, and north- 
east quarter of Section 6, Township 13, Range 9, December 15; 
Thomas Pound to Hiram Sparks, northeast quarter of Section 4, 
Township 10, Range 10, January 17 ; Robert S. McCabe to George 
Miller, 40 acres, Out-lot 72, December 26; John Robertson to 
James Robertson, 50 acres in the southwest quarter of Section 6, 
and 10 acres in the southwest quarter of Section 6, Township 11, 
Range 8, December 29; Catherine Markle to Demas Deming and 
Curtis Gilbert, northwest quarter of Section 25, Township 12, Range 
9, December 8 ; Terre Haute Company to Demas Deming, Out-lot 
14, December 16; David S. Bonner to Robert S. Reynolds and John 
D. Early, Lot 143, December 24 ; Demas Deming to Robert S. McCabe, 
Lot 223, June 18; John Peters to Samuel Jackson, Lot 79, Febru- 
ary 4; Handy Hudson to William McComb, northwest quarter of 
Section 19, Township 11, Range 9, October 26; Abraham Lindley 
to Amos Rice, east half of the southeast quarter of Section 35, 
Township 13, Range 9; same, guardian, John Lindley to Amos 
Rice, west half of the southeast quarter of Section 35, Township 13, 
Range 9 ; Alvah Hotchkiss to John F. Cruft, west half of the north- 
west quarter of Section 34, Township 13, Range 8, December 2; 
John Jackson to William H. Levitt, northwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 22, Township 11, Range 8, May 15; Joseph Benight to 
Samuel May, south fraction of Section 1, Township 10, Range 
11, May 29; Elisha N. Huntington, commissioner, to Samuel 
Coloman, trustee for heirs of William Winter, southeast quarter 
of Section 35, southwest quarter of Section 35, southeast quar- 
ter of Section 25, southwest quarter of Section 25, northwest 
quarter of Section 25, Township 12, Range 9, and southwest 
quarter of Section 34, Township 13, Range 9, November 25; Isaac 
Cox to Benoni Trublood, east half of the southwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 13, Township 10, Range 10, October 12; Thomas W. Dawson 
to Peter and Betsey Nichols, Jonathan and Nancy Rodgers, John 
and Elenor Bell, Isaac M. Dawson, William A. and Mary Gans, 
Melinda, Asicke and Abigail Dawson, heirs of Isaac Dawson, east 
half of the southeast quarter of Section 11, Township 12, Range 9, 
August 11; county to Thomas Rodgers, Lot 292, June 8; Joel 
Dixon to Mahlon Stephenson, southeast quarter of Section 6, Town- 
ship 13, Range 8, December 11; Abigail, Eliza and Abby Packard, 
William G. Bowen and Susana C. Bowen to William C. Linton, 
south half of Section 2, and south half of the southwest quarter of 
Section 2, and south half of southeast quarter of Section 2, Town- 


ship 11, Range 9, December 17; Abel Bell to William Smith, east 
half of the southeast quarter of Section 1, Township 13, Range 8, 
February 17; Thomas Whaley to Elijah Overton, 50 acres in the 
Boutheast quarter of Section 14, Township 10, Range 10, November 
5; George Jones to Daniel Justice, 40 acres in the south part of 
Sections 2 and 3, Township 13, Range 9, January 21; William 
Lindley, executor, to Jonathan Lindley, northeast and northwest 
quarters of Section 33, Township 12, Range 9, November 28 ; county 
to John McCray, Lot 290, August 10 ; James Wasson to Enoch Dole, 
Lot 88, January 5 ; Joseph and William Montgomery to John Brit- 
ton, Lot 145, September 30; Thomas Manchester to Alvah Hotch- 
kiss, west half of the northwest quarter" of Section 34, Township 13, 
Range 8, January 24; Leonard Crawford to William Coltrin, Lot 
213, January 19; S. S. Collett to William Musgrove, northwest 
quarter of Section 13, Township 11, Range 10, December 24. 

Sixty years have now elapsed since the very latest of these trans- 
actions were had, and seventy -four years since the first, as contained 
in the first year's record. Soon it will be a century, then two cent- 
uries, and then two centuries and a half, which is drawing closely 
upon the life of the written records that were made nearly a century 
ago. The inferior paper made in that day then begins to decay 
and become so tender and brittle that, with the least handling, it is 
defaced, and falls in broken bits. 

Of all those mentioned of the many names given of the early 
comers to the county, you could count them all on the fingers of 
one hand. They have moved on to the silent city, and the most of 
their bodies are again mingKng with the elements from which they 
originally came. 

It is only the lowest or meanest order of human beings that feel 
no regret at the idea of immediate and utter forgetfulness with the 
passing away of life. When you are away from home, you gain 
your chief pleasure from the reflection that there are those who ever 
bear you in mind and who so frequently think and talk of you. 
There may be those who not only have no home, but no place nor 
person in all the world who would wish for their return, or their 
present welfare, or even bear with them the memory of the past. 
But such people are so rare, even if there be any, that they are 

When another brief eighty years have come and gone, all this 
animate life that is now so noisy, so busy, so rushing along the 
great highway, struggling, fighting, helping, crying and laughing, 
will, in their turn, be as silent as are the dead who are herein- 
before recorded. Let us hope that we then may be done by as we 
have tried here to do by our ancestors. 



Particulars of Many of the Pioneers— Mrs. Sophia Ramsdell Ful- 
ler — Old Settlers' Society — Capt. Earle's Recollections— etc. 

"TTTE have now passed over, in the chronological order of their 
VV coming, the first years from the first arrival of Joseph Lis- 
ten and his little colony to the year 1818, when there had gathered 
enough people in the neighborhood of the beautiful spot around 
Fort Harrison to justify the people demanding and receiving of the 
State a separate county of their own, which,' in a spirit of patriotic 
pride, they chose to name in honor of Col. Francis Vigo. 

In these accounts it is not claimed that a full and complete list 
of all who came within the years mentioned has been obtained. This, 
while greatly to be wished, that is, a full and accurate list and some- 
thing about them, as well as their posterity, is wholly impossible of 
attainment now. And another thing, unless one has faithfully tried 
it, he can not well conceive the extreme difficulty in fixing with any 
absolute certainty the exact year of the coming of a few — and how 
few that number is — that can with certainty be known as arriving 
at a fixed time. Where they did not tell themselves in their life- 
time, and where there is no one who came with them, or through 
some circumstance has had the day fixed with any absolute cer- 
tainty, and you are then left to dim recollection, to surmises or 
to second-hand information, then you will find, if you accept all 
your information, that there are many whom to your surprise came 
every year to the new country from the first arrival in 1811 to 
probably 1820. And still more often in looking over the old files 
of papers for the published obituaries, the writer was content to say 
that the deceased was "one of the earliest settlers." Again will be 
found, perhaps in the published funeral sermon, the general asser- 
tion that the dead was "one of the very first of those who made 
a home in Vigo county." Indeed, when you find in even historical 
sermons statements that give day and date with positive certainty, 
and you note that as a well-established fact, in the course of further 
investigation you may stumble on the incontestible evidence that 
the man was wrong by two, three, or, in one case, as I found, five 

As large as is the number of names mentioned in the preceding 
chapter, that gives the years in their order of coming, I would not 


have it understood that in every case, every instance of the many 
mentioned, that it is absolutely correct. In a few cases it may be 
that parties came earlier than that given, and in others later. I 
can only say that after long and the most dilligent search, I have 
written conscientiously, and as near the truth as to dates as it was 
possible to get. 

Nor above all do I wish it understood that all who came in the 
years mentioned are named in the preceding chapters. This will 
more fully appear in the progress of this chapter, especially of 
those who are known to have come in 1817 and 1818. 

I have before me an immense mass of notes on every variety of 
subject relating to the history of Vigo county — the most of them to 
its early history, but many that come to recent times, and it is for 
the sole purpose in this chapter that I have dropped the plan of 
giving more of the record year by year, and given it the more gen- 
eral title of "Looking Backward." This will enable me to clear off 
the huge conglomorate pile of notes and data, and at the same time, 
I hope, make one of the most interesting chapters of the book, as I 
will feel free to introduce nearly any important or disconnected fact 
as I may come to it. 

William Naylor was one of Harrison's soldiers who came with 
him on the expedition and helped build Fort Harrison ; was in the 
fight, and was also one of the brave men at the famous battle of 
Tippecanoe. The widow of his son George is now a resident of 
Terre Haute, William Naylor, when the cruel war was over, became 
a resident of Vigo county, and was one of its prominent citizens, 
and the name of Naylor, through those now here and the dead is as 
well known and as respectable as any in the county. 

In the late years of his life he wrote and published in a Terre 
Haute paper some very interesting reminiscences of those early times. 
He expresses the greatest admiration for his old gallant leader. Gen. 
Harrison, and bitterly denounced his detractors. He was a Ken- 
tuckian, and also defends the names of several of the officers in the 
command, and pronounces them true Kentuckians and "real born 
heroes," although he cannot help a little pleasanty at the numerous 
Kentucky "colonels" there were in the little army. He mentions 
especially " the brave and gallant Maj. White of Shelby county, 
Ky., who received five wounds in the battle" of Tippecanoe. He 
says these Kentuckians, most of the command being from that State, 
"were all distinguished military men at home, such as generals, 
colonels, majors and captains." 

He, referring to a once well-known citizen of Terre Haute, 
Capt. Hite, says that he volunteered when a boy about seventeen or 
eighteen years of age, in Jefferson county, Ky., and of him it was offi- 
cially said, " he acted bravely in battle." This man lived to an ad- 
vanced age iu Terre Haute, and was noted, old as he was, as one of 


the active Union men in the late war. He enlisted the first men, 
organized the " Silver Grays,'.' and drilled them from day to day, and 
was active in both sending recruits and aid to the brave soldiers at 
the front. 

Mr. Naylor then mentions the names of Daniel Emmerson, 
Thomas Emmerson, Benjamin Backus (a lieutenant, he thinks), 
Capt. Wilson and Thomas Bobbins, as men who were in the terri- 
torial militia in Harrison's army and expedition. He especially 
speaks of the cool bravery and daring of a little Yankee named 
Lucius Kibby, who killed an Indian in the battle." 

At this point he branches off into another eulogy of Gen. Harri- 
son and a philippic against his detractors, whom he sinks " deep 
in the vortex of scoundrelism," and then says: " In taxing my 
recollection of past events, I find I have left out the names of some 
persons whom I will here notice: William Polk * * Joseph 
Liston was with us while Fort Harrison was being built, and the 
army bought corn of him. He claims the credit of .breaking the 
first piece of ground on Fort Harrison prairie in those perilous 
times in the spring of 1811. As to his being in the battle of Tip- 
pecanoe or not, I can not say, as my recollection does not serve me 

He then mentioned an incident of his return to his home, which 
is illustrative of those times: " I will here mention one incident on 
our travel home from Busseron creek; at Shakertown, when two 
fellow soldiers, myself and a wounded soldier left this place for 
home. We had to travel very slow, not more than ten or twelve 
miles a day, our wounded brother soldier not being able to travel 
farther. So we wore the distance of about 140 miles slowly and for 
the most part we were treated with great kindness and respect, and 
were charged not a bill for our entertainment; but one evening at a 
place not far from the Half Moon spring, now in Orange county, 
we put up with an old Friend Quaker, who did not seem very will- 
ing to keep us all night. We told him he must, because we could 
not go any farther with our wounded soldier. He consented, but 
intimated that the Indians had given us about what we deserved. 
He made us pay a small fare." 

He then enters into some general reflections about the expedi- 
tion, and thinks it remarkable that the little army was not all de- 
stroyed by the savages, because, as he says, when we reflect that 
this little army penetrated into a wilderness country in the vicin- 
ity of a community of savage tribes of Indians who had been stim- 
ulated by British agents to acts of hostility toward the whites and 
the fanatical prediction and incantations of the Shawnee prophet, 
and the great distance that the army was then from any aid or 
succor — a distance of not less than 160 miles to the nearest point, 


Vincennes, at any other point not less than 250 miles. At that 
time the Indians could have raised 2,000 warriors in a few days at 
most, and have exterminated our little army, and why they did not 
do it is mysterious to me. He then raeniions some strange inci- 
dents that came under his knowledge: One soldier had a presenti- 
ment a few days before the battle that he would be killed. Although 
this was some days before the fight, he told his comrades, and re- 
quested that when he was dead they should " pull off his shoes and 
wear them home." He had made no mistake, and his wishes in re- 
gard to the shoes were faithfully carried out. The young man 
killed was named Fisler, who was shot dead at nearly the first fire 
in the action. He says there were others who had presentiments 
they would be killed before they got home, and their presentiments 
in each case were true. He then proceeds : 

" A few reflections on my own individual case: When I went on 
this campaign I was skeptical on the subject of the Christian re- 
ligion. I had figured out a. system of this kind: The Almighty 
had made the universe and affixed to it laws which were unalter- 
able, and those laws would govern it according to His will so far as 
inanimate nature was concerned, and that it had a power to con- 
trol the mental and moral worlds. That, indeed, it fixed the des- 
tiny of both, that so far as as our actions were concerned, they 
neither were good or bad, intrinsically, that we might call one good 
and another bad and affix punishment to the one and reward to the 
other, but that in the Divine mind both were equally right, having 
been produced by the unalterable laws of Jehovah." 

He then proceeds to tell how the whistling bullets about his 
ears in battle separated him on the spot from his " fashionable infi- 
delity," and from that moment on he regulated his every action 
in the implicit faith of the ever-ruling providences of God. 

These presentiments were very common in the late war among 
the soldiers when about to go into their first battle, but they wore 
off in time after passing unhurt through many. It is only a natural 
apprehension of danger liable to come to any man. 

William and Daniel Durham, brothers, were natives of Vir- 
ginia, that stopped a time in Kentucky and then came to Vincennes 
in 1816 and the next year came to Vigo county. Daniel was the 
elder of the two. Daniel died about 1S40. William died in 1848, 
aged seventy-eight years. Daniel settled one and a half miles south 
of Terre Haute, and William about the same distance north of the 
town. They both brought families to the State*. William and 
Jane Beasley were married in 1793 and had children: Thomas, 
William, Sarah, Daniel, Gabriel, Jane and Pleasant — all (^ad. 
Pleasant, the last one, died in 1888 at Kankakee, 111. Thomas was 
the father of William Durham, a resident of Terre Haute. Thomas 


Durham was married twice, first to INlary Liudley, daughter of an 
early settler, and the second time to Rebecca Bales. William is the 
only survivor of this family. The only other descendants of the 
first William Durham being Milton S. Durham*, attorney, and Mrs. 
Mary Dickinson, of Terre Haute. 

Daniel Durham's children were John, Thomas, William, Daniel, 
David, and Mrs. Martha Chestnut, Mrs. Catherine Baird and Mrs. 
Rebecca Dickson, the latter the only survivor. George and Lyman, 
the sons of Daniel, Jr., are prominent farmers in Prairieton town- 

The children of William, the son of Daniel Durham, are Mrs. 
Samuel C. Roger, and Will C. Durham, of the firm of E. H. Bindley & 
Co., Terre Haute. The eldest now living of all of Daniel's descend- 
ants is Mrs. Mary Hayworth, the daughter of Susan. There were 
two sisters, Mrs. Ruth Stephenson and Mrs. Mary Jones. Of the 
latter there are now none in the county, and of the Stephen - 
sons there are Mahlon and Thomas. 

In 1875 there was a movement set on foot to organize an old 
settlers' society for the county. This was warmly advocated by 
nearly all the oldest settlers then living. Preliminary meetings 
were had that year and the proper steps taken which resulted in a 
meeting in 1875 and 1876, the centennial year, the year in our 
national history that first awakened any general interest on the sub- 
ject of the history of the pioneers. A permanent organization was 
effected. From the records of the society is extracted the following : 
Henry Ross, Thomas Dowling, George K. Steele,- Henry Fairbanks, 
Charles Thomas Noble, being present at the office of Mr. Dowling 
in Dowling Hall, July 8, 1875. Mr. Dowling acted as chairman. 
Mr. Fairbanks, secretary. They were ordered by the meeting to 
give notice in the daily papers of a meeting to be held in Dowling 
Hall for the purpoge of organizing an " Old Settlers' Association." 
A meeting convened Saturday July 12, 1875, and elected the fol- 
lowing officers : President, R. W. Thompson; vice-presidents, James 
Hite, Chauncey Rose, John Scott, Curtis Gilbert, Joseph East, 
Beebe Booth, Sylvester Sibley, Perly Mitchell, Thomas Dowling, 
Henry Ross, Dr. Ezra Reed, George K. Steele, Alexander McGregor, 
Samuel B. Gookins, Charles T. Noble, Joseph S. Jenckes, Henry 
Fairbanks, T. C. Buntin, Harvey D. Scott, R. N. Hudson, Samuel 
Archer, John H. O'Boyle, Samuel Milligan, Thomas Pugh, Lucius 
Ryce, N. F. Cunningham, Martin M. Hickox, C. Y. Patterson, 
Lynns A. Burnett and Joseph O. Jones, and for Nevins township, 
Josiah Lambert and Tilghman High; Pierson township, William 
Littlejohu and Joseph Liston; Riley township, John Ray, Nathan- 
iel Lee and Henry Christy ; Honey Creek township, Joseph Greggs 
and Jesse Jones; Prairie Creek township, Samuel E. K. Fisk and 



Robert Pietz ; Prairieton township, Aaron Hoggatt and James Lee ; 
Linton township, William B. Eldridge and Phillip Eandolph; Sugar 
Creek township, John Crews and Jabez Casto ; Lost Creek township, 
John Dickerson, Zadoc Reeves and James Watson; Fayette town- 
ship, Daniel Barbour, Sr., and John Funkhouser; Otter Creek town- 
ship, Anthony M. Ostrander and Aquilla Phillips ; marshals, Col. F. 
C. Crawford and Capt. J. B. Hager ; corresponding secretary, Capt. 
S. H. Potter ; treasurer, M. W. Williams ; recording secretary, C. T. 

It was provided in the constitution: The objects of this associ- 
ation are hereby declared to be the perpetuation of the remem- 
brances of the scenes connected with the early settlement of the Wa- 
bash valley, its history, its personal recollections and friendships 
and the events which have marked the earliest struggles of the 
earliest immigrants to western Indiana. 

Books had been opened for some time in which old settlers were 
invited to enroll their names. A note inserted states that since 
enrolling their names the following have died: John McGrannahan, 
died September 28, 1875; Charlotte Wood, died August 3, 1875; 
Joseph Liston, died September 12, 1875, and Henry D. Williams, 
died September 2, 1875. 

The subjoined list is taken from the book. 


Res. in 




























































James Hite 

Chauncey Rose 

Isaac Beauchamp 

S. H. Potter 

Corey Barbour 

Thomas Dowling. . . . 

A. B. Pegg 

James Hook 

R. W. Thompson.... 
James A. Modesitt. . . 

J. L. Humaston 

George K. Steele...'. . 

H. D. Milns 

William H. Goodman 

John A. Ray 

Joseph H. Blake 

Zenas Smith 

John W.Smith 

M. W. Williams 

C. T. Noble 

H. Ross 

Peter Lyons 

Milton Rodgers 

Pearly Mitchell 

Samuel Magill 

Alex Sterrett 

Simeon Corey 

T. C. Buntiii 

Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Harrison Tp. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Sugar Creek. 
Eldridge . . . . 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Harrison Tp. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 


Connecticut... . 
Connecticut .. . 

New York 

New York 


North Carolina 



Terre Haute. . . 

New York 






New Jersey. . . . 


Connecticut — 
Massachusetts . 

New York 



N. Hampshire . 



New Jersey 















lies, in 


M. S. Durham 

J. F. Gulick 

William Slaughter 

Samuel Royse 

M. W. Sedam 

F. A. Ross 

L. A. Burnett 

Charles R. Peddle 

Henry Miller. 

George M. Sibley 

Sylvester Sibley 

Fred Schwingrouber 

John McGrannahan 

John C. Foxworthy 

Mary Foxworthy 

Lucy Edmunds 

W. Staunton 

James Staunton 

William I. Wesley 

C. W. Bishop 

A. Bishop 

John Rav 

Charlotte Wood 

Mary A. Lyons 

Mrs. Ophelia Beauchamp 

Thomas H. Nelson 

W. Shewmaker 

W. B. Warren 

John A. Wood 

C. C. Krapt 

Alexander Thomas , 

J. A. Foote 

Joseph Gilbert 

S. Paddock 

S. A. Freeman 

H. Brokaw, Sr 

Sarah Brokaw 

Lucius Ryce 

Sarah C. Ryce 

Caroline M. Early 

Joseph Liston 

S. C. Deming 

Demas Deming 

William Peppers 

Joseph York 

Thomas York 

Elisha Sibley 

Phoebe P. Sibley 

William K. Edwards 

J. S. Steele 

Eleanna Lane 

Joseph M. Ellison 

Elizabeth Ross 

Mary Jeffcoat 

James B. Edmunds 

Lucy Edmunds 

James A. Kers 

W. S. Clift 

H. D.Scott 

J. R. Whitaker 

Terre Haute. . 
Terre Haute. . 
Terre Haute. . 
Terre Haute. . 
Terre Haute. . 
Terre Haute . . 
Terre Haute. . 
Terre Haute. . 
Terre Haute. . 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. . 
Terre Haute. . 

Nevins Tp 

Hartford, Ind. 
Hartford, Ind. 
Hartford, Ind. 
Hartford, Ind. 
Hartford, Ind. 
Hartford, Ind. 

Riley Tp 

Lost Creek Tp 
Riley Tp .... 
Terre Haute. . 
Indianapolis. . 
Terre Haute. . 
Terre Haute. . . 
Terre Haute. . 
Terre Haute. . 
Terre Haute. . 
Terre Haute.. , 
Terre Haute. . . 
Terre Haute. .. 
Terre Haute.. . 
Terre Haute. . . 
Terre Haute. . . 
Terre Haute. . . 
Terre Haute. . . 
Terre Haute. . . 
Terre Haute. . . 
Terre Haute. . . 

Pierson Tp 

Terre Haute. . . 
Terre Haute . . 
Terre Haute. . . 
Terre Haute. . . 
Terre Haute. . . 
Terre Haute. . . 
Terre Haute. . . 
Terre Haute. . . 


Terre Haute. . . 
Terre Haute. . . 
Terre Haute. . . 
Terre Haute. . . 
Terre Haute. . . 
Terre Haute. . . 
Terre Haute. . . 
Terre Haute. . . 
Terre Haute. . . 
Terre Haute.. . 

Vigo County.. 






New York 

Philadelphia. . 
Tennessee. . . . 






Kentucky .... 
New York.. . . 


Terre Haute. . 


New York, 

New York 


Maryland .... 





NevF York 


New York, 



Terre Haute. . . 


New Jersey . . . . 
New Jersey. . . . 



Connecticut... . 













Parke County. . 

New York 

New York 

Terre Haute. . . 

New York 











































8. B. Gookins 

Mary C. Gookins 

Jacob H. Hagar 

EdH. Tillotson 

Sallie D. Williamson. . . 

JohnH. O'Boyle 

Beebe Booth 

Hannah Booth 

S. K. Sparks 

Catharine Sparks 

C. Gartell 

N. A. Cox 

Mary A. Tackman 

Henry I). Williams 

Mrs. Matilda Tailor 

Isaac Ball 

Zadoc Reeves 

Cliff W. Ross 

R. A. Morris 

M. Andrews 

John A. Hall 

William H. H. Yeager. 

L. G. Hager 

Jonas Seeley 

Noah Beymer 

Amelia Tell 

Cinderilla Ross 

M. M. Hickox 

Joseph P. Jones 

J. M. Dawson 

Mrs H. Tailor 

R. A. Tailor 

C. W. Dole 

S. D. Dole 

Mrs. H. M. Harding . . 

James W Watson 

Mrs. Sothonia Sibley. . . 
Mrs. Jane Wedding. . . . 

Mrs. Lucy Worner 

Charles Cruf t 

David W. Crosley 

Mrs. Sarah Tillotson . . 

Mrs. E. Knapp 

James Ross 

Joseph S. Jenckes . . .. 

John Scott 

A. McGregor 

John Weir 

S. S. Coltrin 

Elizabeth Coltrin 

James Burgan 

J. PI. Mclntyre 

Samuel Hayes 

Richard Bmtherton. . . . 

John J. Brake 

James B. McBride .... 

C. N. Gould 

Francis E. Warren . . . . 

Eliza Warren 

Samuel Archer 

Terre Haute., 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute.. 
Terre Haute . , 
Terre Haute. . 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. . 
Terre Haute. . 
Terre Haute. . 
Terre Haute.. 
Terre Haute. 
Otter Creek. . 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute . , 
Terre Haute. 
Lost Creek... 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute . 
Terre Haute. 
Vigo County 
Honey Creek 
Terre Haute . 


New York. . . . 



Connecticut.. . 


North Carolin 


Ken tuck}' .... 


North Carolina 



Fort Knox 

New Jersey. . . . 
New Jersey. . . . 




South Carolina 



Terre Haute . 
Terte Haute . 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Mattoon .... 


Terre Haute. . . 
Terre Haute. . . 

New York 

New York 






Lost Creek . . . 
Lost Creek . . . 
Harrison Tp. . 
Fayette Tp. . . 
Terre Haute. . 


Terre Haute. , 
Terre Haute. . 
Terre Haute. , 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute.. 
Terre Haute. , 
Honey Creek , 
Lost Creek. . 
Lost Creek . . 
Lost Creek . . 
Lost Creek . . . 





Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. 
Terre Haute. . 


New York 

New York 

Connecticut . . . 
Terre Haute. . . 




New York 

Providence . . . . 

New York 





Pennsylvania. . 






New Jersey 


N. Hampshire 










Real Estate. 














Edith Evans 

R. W. Kippetoe 

D. S. Danakisou 

Evaline W. Danaldson. . . 

James A. Hudson , 

Samuel Surrell 

C. W. Barbour 

Doroxy Barbour 

Daniel Barbour 

Elizabeth Barbour 

J. H. Kester 

Naoma Kester 

J. L. Merry 

ElishaM. L. Shaw 

Joseph O. Wedding 

Heury Anderson , 

Jeremiah Beal , 

Mary A. Mndison , 

Daniel D. Condit 

John B. Rupp 

G. W. Bement 

E. D. Carter 

E. W. Chadwick 

Mrs. Cliadwick 

H. D. Christy 

Samuel McMurtry 

N. A. Jeffers 

Norborn Thomas 

Mrs. Caroline Cornwell., 

Charles B. Brokaw 

Catharine Harper 

William Paddock 

P. E. Tuttle 

Adam Zener 

Isaiah Donahue 

Henry Fairbanks 

Mrs. E. H. Fairbanks. . . 

L. W. Dickerson . 

William Latta 

Joseph L. Joslin 

Henry Rhyan 

Reuben Houstead 

John Cummins 

George Jordan 

Grafton E. Cookerly 

Nathaniel Allen 

Solomon Franklyn 

Mrs. Mary Ann Markle . 

Mrs. Eliza Bennett 

Mrs. Caroline Ball 

E. C. Edmunds 

Nathaniel Balding 

M. B. Holmes 

Thomas Greggs 

Jonatlian Smith 

John W. Smith 

Mrs. Ann Pegg 



W'ah'sh ()cciii):ition. 

Terre Haute. . .1 North Carolina 

jTerre Haute. . .'Virginia ' 

jTerre Haute. . .[Kentucky 

JTerre Haute. . .iVirginia 

Terre Haute. . .Kentucky 

Terre Haute. . .'Maryland 

Vigo iNew York 

Vigo Ohio 

Vigo iNew York 

Vigo iNew York 

iTerre Haute. . .Pennsylvania. . 

Terre Haute. . .Kentucky 

Terre Haute . . . ilndiana 

Terre Haute. . JMississippi 

Terre Haute . . . [Indiana 

Terre Haute. . . Pennsylvania. . 

Terre Haute. . . Virginia 

Terre Haute . . . New York 

Terre Haute. . . New Jersey. . . . 

Terre Haute. . . Tennessee 

Terre Haute. . . Massachusetts.. 

Terre Haute. . . Indiana 

Terre Haute. . . Ohio 

Terre Haute . . . Indiana 

Vigo Ohio 

Lost Creek New Jersey 

Terre Haute. . . New York 

Terre Haute . . . Virginia 

Terre Haute. . . Indiana 

Terre Haute. . . Indiana 

Terre Haute. . . Ohio 

Terre Haute . . . Ohio 

Terre Haute. . . New York 

Newport Kentucky 

Vigo Ohio 

Terre Haute. . . Indiana 

Terre Haute . . . Indiana 

Vigo Indiana 

Vigo Indiana 

Vigo Ohio 

Vigo Virginia 

Vigo Ohio 

Vigo Indiana 

Vigo Pennsylvania. . 

Terre Haute. . . Maryland 

Terre Haute. . . Vigo 

Vigo New York 

Terre Haute. . . Indiana 

Terre Haute . . . Ohio 

Terre Haute. . . Indiana 

Terre Haute. . . Indiana 

Vigo . . . : Virginia 

Terre Haute. . . Kentucky 

Vigo Kentucky 

Vigo Kentucky 

Vigo Kentucky 

Vigo Ohio 



1817 i 

1837 ! 
1833 I' 

1838 I 
1843 ■ 

1837 iTailor. 

1817 Farmer. 

isii Farmer. 


1827 Farmer. 











1824 Carpenter. 










1818 Miller. 
1853 Railroad. 

1833 Farmer. 
1836 Farmer. 
1823 I 

1835 ; Farmer. 
1821 iFarmer. 
















1836 Farmer. 

1849 Farmer. 

1830 Farmer. 


1822 Farmer. 

1822 iFarmer. 


In the above list it will be noticed there were two over ninety 
years of age, sixteen past eighty, and thirty-eight past seventy 


years. And one of the over-ninety ones is the name of the first 
settler in the county, Joseph Liston, wlio was here in all those 
" sickly years" that are so universally a part of the accounts of the 
early times, and the other is that of the venerable Daniel Barbour, 
who was ninety-five years old, and wlio was among the first of the 
wave that came soon after Indiana became a State in 1817 (he had all 
the experiences of the pioneer in adversity, and lived to see the 
complete triumph of the long struggle) ; in its appropriate place, 
side by side with Daniel, was that of Elizabeth Barbour, aged 
eighty-eight years. 

The appearance of the true mother in Israel among the early 
settlers at their meeting certainly must have called to the ininds 
of those present that in awarding the meed of praise to the pioneers 
those grand women who came here were a fit theme for the histo- 
rian, poet or orator. They made the greatest sacrifices, and were, in 
fact, generally the true heroines. There was generally required of 
them a moral and often a calm physical courage, greater than that 
of the men. - Alone in their cabins with their babes, and the sav- 
ages flitting through the woods with their beastly cowardice and 
ferocity, gathering often the scalps of women and children ; in the crude 
homes they had watched to see the husband go away on his mis- 
sions, when there was not only the terror confronting the wife of 
the unseen dangers to which he might be going, but the lonely, 
helpless, despairing dread for the blessed prattlers at her breast 
and knees. Her work and lot were hard indeed. And then sickness 
and deaths in her own household; and to her widely scattered neigh- 
bors, and everywhere was she the ministering angel, still strong, 
patient, meek, but resolute, when the strong man shook, trembled 
and fell. Then it was that the weak had the strong arms and 
lifted him up. The husband carried the rifle, she the children, and 
when the bloody tomahawk beat out the brains of the babes, it was 
only when the dead mother lay where she had put up her arms and 
thrust her body to protect them. 

In the start to the new country it was the young wives that felt 
the keenest pangs in bidding farewell to the old home and in the 
camps along the lonely way they made the fires, cooked the food, 
cared for the children, and when they were asleep, by the light of 
the camp fire, mended their clothes and made their cloth or buck- 
skin shoes. In the pitiless storms that came upon them they were 
the ones to Avhom the children turned for protection, and never in vain. 
They learned to mold bullets, make fires (no matches), shoot, ride 
bareback, care for the stock, children, and generally even the hus- 
band ; to hunt out certain roots and herbs to doctor the sick ; to plant, 
cultivate, card, spin, weave and make the family clothing, and cook 
for, feed, protect and educate the young, and above and beyond all 


drill themselves to think and believe that tliej- were nothing — a 
mere charge and weight npon " their man," around whon centered 
the earth. I know of nothing in history to equal their heroic sac- 
rifices, and of course among the greatest of men there is nothing 
to compare with her self-al)negation. And when their long and 
stormy day has past, and the setting sun bursts from the cloiids in 
his golden splendor, telling of the fair weather to-morrow, it is 
then, to look upon the serene faces of these blessed old grandmothers, 
beaming a world of love, and still to spare, for all mankind, is a 
privileged glimpse surely at the pearly gates that open upon the 
Golden Shore. 

Old SeMlers' Meeling, i877.— September 11 of this year was 
another very interesting meeting of the pioneers. Col. K. W. 
Thompson returned to his home from his duties in Washington as 
secretary of the navy, and opened the meeting with a well-timed 
address of welcome. Judge S. B. Gookins was president. The 
venerable Rev. Aaron Wood opened the proceedings with prayer. 
Col. Thompson, among other things, said: "I am something of a 
pioneer. I came to this State in 1831, when it was a compara- 
tive wilderness. I remember the time when we received our mails 
once a week on horseback. I remember the time Avhen the first 
mail-coach came to the town where I lived. We all went out to 
see it — men, women and children, and we hailed it as a bright 
omen of our future. I have seen the immense forests which lay 
between here and the Ohio river felled by the energy and enter- 
prise of our hardy pioneer population, a population which has 
nearly passed away and which can never be found again; for, what- 
ever may be said of the enterprise, of the intelligence, of the ar- 
dor of the. present race of men, they can not supply that race of 
men who are passing away. * * * * It is well we should ask 
ourselves that question now, of how have all these marvelous things 
been brought about? We are in the midst of a very great crisis. 
There has been no time in the history of this country when the 
public mind was in such a state of irritation and excitement as it 
is now — irritation and excitement growing out of all sorts of con- 
troversies in the religious, the political and the social world. We 
are moving with lightning rapidity, but God only knows where. 
* * * * ^e may learn lessons of wisdom from these few old 
men that are yet left to us. Turn back to the pages of our early 
history and you will positively find more wisdom, more insight into 
the future, more clear-headed common sense and sagacity in the 
early legislature of Indiana than have been found at any era since 
then. In my opinion the day was an evil one for us Avdien we 
buried the old constitution which they made." [The writer of this 
desires to say that he had just been giving the first State constitu- 


tion a careful examination before reading this address of Col. 
Thompson, and that he not only heartily joins him in the senti- 
ment here expressed, but would add that he solemnly believes it to 
be one of the ablest State documents to be found in American his- 
tory; and he learns that the controlling mind in its formation was 
not a lawyer — hence its strong originality. ] The Colonel continued 
his model address, deploring that tendency of the times to rush on, 
heedless of the lessons of the past, and the race of law-makers to 
fill our statute-books with enactments " half, nine- tenths of it abso- 
lutely worthless." He strongly inculcated the lesson " of draw- 
ing wisdom from the Indiana pioneers, learning well the lessons 
they taught, and then we shall be prepared to perform our duties 
of citizens," and concluded with " a welcome — thrice welcome to 
the hospitality of our citizens." 

Sylvester Sibley was then introduced, but such was his emotion 
the reporter could catch but little he said, except that he came 
here fifty-three years ago and was at that time twenty-three years 
of age. 

W. R. Eldridge then spoke a few minutes. He was eighty-six 
years old. After telling of the long, hard fight they had, he said 
they had then no ministers, no churches nor school-houses. "In 
fifty-eight years that I have seen these things, one can not under- 
stand how it all could happen in that short time. We celebrated at 
Middletown the Fourth of July forty-three years ago. There were 
two old Revolutionary soldiers then present, and they were the ob- 
served of all observers. They fought the battle for us, why should 
we not honor them ? We did the same for you, my friends.'''' 

George B. Kichardson, a son of Joseph Richardson, next spoke. 
He came with his father in 1816, and was then seventy-three years 
old. He had been in the Mexican war, in California in 1849. A 
hale and hearty old man. 

Elijah Pound next told how he left Ohio with his father's family 
in 1816 — and there were sixteen in the family; how they landed in 
Prairie creek after the long and tedious voyage from Ohio. 

Mr. Durham then said he came early, and reckoned that he had 
"tramped" down more weeds than any man in Vigo county, and 
told how he believed he had killed the last bear in the county. 

;Jesse AVhitaker feelingly told how he had returned to again 
meet his old friends of Terre Haute. He was of the opinion that 
he had made more puncheon floor than any man in the county. "I 
passed through this town," he said, "when there was not a house in 
it. Where are my old friends who were with me then? The most 
of them have gone to their long home where I must go soon. I 
am eighty-six years old. I can recollect the time when we met in 
my house in Pierson township and had our prayer meetings, there 
being no churches here then." 




William Kuykendall next spoke. Among other things he said 
in the early days they harvested for one another and a man who 
hired a hand was thought a villain. 

David Smith said he had been on the Wabash sixty years. He 
spoke of the trials of the early settlers, but insisted they had as 
much fun on the average as anybody. 

C. G. Boord, who had settled in Washington county in 1815, 
next spoke. He spoke of the trouble with the Indians. He described 
how his family had to send to Louisville as their nearest market for 
everything they had to buy. He says: " When I was a grown man 
I wore a fox-skin cap to church, and yet I was respected." At the 
time of the meeting Mr. Boord Avas seventy-four years of age. 

Joseph O. Jones, one of the earliest settlers said that except for 
the scarcity of bread-stuff the first years they lived well. 

Col. E. N. Hudson said he had lived in the State fifty-three years, 
and in Terre Haute thirty-seven years. Among other things he 
said: " Sixty-seven years ago the thirteenth of last month, there 
floated down the Wabash river by the site of Terre Haute, 
400 armed, painted and plumed Indian warriors, led by Tecum- 
seh chieftain and Shawnee Prophet. There then was scarcely a 
white settlement between here and Vincennes. The whole country 
was in the possession and under the control of the most warlike 
Indians this country has ever produced. Not one single civil or re- 
ligious law presided over the country, and that even in the time in 
the memory of some who are present." 

Charles T. Noble next addressed the audience, giving many in- 
teresting reminiscences. 

James Hudson [wonder if this was the Hudson that was with 
Liston?] was introduced, but thought his experience too insignifi- 
cant to say anything about. 

Isaac Beauchamp said he came to the State in 1826 ; was married 
in 1828. He had gone with his father to Shakertown to mill with 
a grist of grain waiting their turn as long as four or five days. 

Alfred Pegg spoke briefly, and the meeting adjourned. 

The following names were added to the register at this meeting: 
Lemuel Surrell, Terre Haute, aged sixty, residence thirty-seven 
years; Robert Gilcress, Honey creek, aged fifty-seven, came in 1822; 
Isaiah Donham, Pierson township, age sixty-seven, came in 1833; 
William Durham, Kankakee, 111., aged seventy-three, came in 
1822; Ira R. Langford, aged sixty-one, came in 1848; James Mer- 
riman, aged sixty-three, came in 1826 ; John Davis, aged fifty-four, 
came in 1823. 

September 11, 1877, Rev. Samuel K. Sparks was ninety-one 
years one month and one day old. He with the following old set- 
tlers that day, upon invitation, dined at the Terre Haute House; 


William Eldridge, aged eighty-six; Zadoc Reeves, aged eighty-one ; 
John Dawson, aged eighty-seven; Jesse Whitaker, aged eighty-five; 
Margaret Merghing, aged eighty-five ; Eli Sinclair, aged eighty-four; 
Rev. James Lee, aged seventy-five; Henry Taylor, aged seventy-four; 
Rev. W. C. Blundell, aged eighty-one; Wm. Daniel Barbour, aged 
ninety; Sylvester Sibley, aged eighty-two ; Alexander C. Rockwell, 
aged seventy-four; John Davis, aged sixty-six. As Davis was only 
sixty-six the others looked upon him as a " kid," and patronizingly 
called him " Johnnie " and bid him to " run and bring them a drink 
of water," and they would " dance at his wedding," with other in- 
sinuations at the callow youth. The landlord declared the " boys " 
boisterous but good natured, and their innocent jokes and mirth richly 
repaid him. 

A Great Woman. — As a rule men have studiously reserved this 
term as applicable only to themselves and never to a woman. 
They are willing to call all womankind good, and with bated breath 
will sometimes concede that certain ones were eminent and de- 
servedly so. At one time in the history of civilization this was 
very real — women were little more than drudges and slaves, honored 
even by the contempt of their lords. They were prohibited from 
all education at first, and then to only the light and ornamental, 
such as French, music, drawing and needle work. But now this 
estimate of woman is more apparent than real, and the manner of 
reserving the word "great" almost exclusively for man is but a 
fashion or habit. The sure mark and indeed the unfailing measure 
of the advance of civilization is found in the public judgment as to 
who are the great men among them and the degree with which this 
passes from the warriors to the men of peace. When greatness 
was the number of scalps dangling at the belt, this was pure sav- 
agery and petrified at that, without hope of ever growing out of its 
ruts. To cut throats is not the supremest work of life, no more 
than wearing the prize-fighter's belt. 

The women and children of the early pioneer class have been 
left to an unmerited obscurity. To my mind they stand so distinct 
in the history of our country that it is seriously to be questioned if 
they are not much more in that upon which present civilization 
rests, deserving of the highest niche in the temple of fame. He 
who thinks these women were all coarse and ignorant, unkempt in 
person and mind, is exploiting his own ignorance of his own history, 
and is liable to give evidences of his own mental degeneration. It 
has been said that a man may be great to all the world, except 
his valet. Here his shams and pretentions are uncovered, and the 
follies and weaknesses laid bare and excite secret contempt. While 
the great women — more especially the pioneer women, are only 
great in their homes, in the seclusion of their families, where shine 


those qualities of the" true, the beautiful and the good. The manly 
man may be truly great whether he be king or coal-heaver. The 
womanly woman is great in her greatest obscurity, in her little 
kiiigdom of the heart wJiere she protects and cares for those about 
her, not for fame or applause, but because she is a true woman. 

Sophia Kamsdell was born at Hartford, Conn., June 18, 1795; 
married Benjamin C. Fuller, February 5, 1815. 

In the fall of 1820 Mr. and Mrs. Fuller, with their only child, 
the late Mrs. Burt, then in her fourth year, traveled in their own 
conveyance from Hartford to Wheeling and from there to Evans- 
ville in a flatboat, taking with them their horses, wagons and goods. 
They crossed over to Mount Carmel, 111., where they remained until 
February, 1821. They then removed to Eoseville, where their old 
friend and former neighbor, Chauncey Rose was engaged in the 
milling and mercantile business, and who had invited them to that 
place. Here Mr. Fuller purchased a farm on which they resided 
until 1847, when they came to Terre Haute, and built their resi- 
dence on the corner of Seventh and Mulberry streets. Having 
purchased thirty acres of land on the Bloomington road, now Poplar 
street, and made a permanent home on that property, where Mr. 
Fuller died in 1858 leaving a good estate, which was divided 
equally between the mother and daughter. Here Mrs. Fuller spent 
the remainder of her days and died May 31, 1880, within a few 
days of the age of eighty-five years. 

Mrs. Fuller had enjoyed good health for one of her age to within 
the last year of her life, when she commenced gradually to fail, and 
during the last month it was evident to those about her that the 
end was near. Until she became unconscious, about a week before 
death, she fully realized that her life was closing, and if there ever 
was one who simply drew the drapery of their couch about them to 
indulge in pleasant dreams this was evidently the one. There were 
neither fears nor solicitude, any more for the future than for the 
past. Her day's work was done and she simply went to sleep. 

She left her sister, Mrs. Bull, who had been her loved compan- 
ion for twenty-six years, the only survivor of the family. One of 
her sisters, Mrs. Wadsworth, settled in Maysville, Ky., at an early 
day. Her son, William H., became a noted lawyer of that place 
and a member of congress. 

I have said that Mrs. Sophia Ramsdell Fuller was a great 
woman. Although one of the pioneers she had read well the best 
literature of the times; a strong and close observer of men and 
things, with a mind eminently practical, and an intellectual strength 
equal in my judgment to that of Margaret Fuller, Avhose fame 
will never cease to grow. 

When Sophia Ramsdell was a young girl she formed the habit 


df jotting down certain things that she saw, heard or thought, not 
with the idea of keeping a diary, but simply to put them on paper 
and perhaps lay them away or destroy them, and that some scraps 
were forgotton by her and fell into the hands of those who held 
them sacred because she had made them, are we indebted for 
the rare privilege of examining them. As the rarest picture ever 
seen we give some extracts from her jottings about coming to the 
new country — a pioneer woman's story of the experiences and im- 
pressions written down at the moment. Such as can now be found 
are scattered and meager, but they are enough to whet the appetite 
for more and to cause a great regret that she had not written and 
given us a complete diary of her whole life. It is, however, enough 
to give us an inside view of the early woman pioneer life to make 
it one of the most valuable relicts of the century. Seventy years 
ago she wrote : 

1819. Husband sells stock in trade, closes business and returns 
delighted with the (to him) new world, the love of adventure in- 
creasing every day of his journey I think; but poor me would 
rather stay. 

1820. This is an eventful year of our lives; we break up, sell 
goods and chattels, leave friends, home, all, to seek our fortune in 
the far West; we hardly know where, but expect to live in Cincin- 
nati. Our purse contains thirteen hundred dollars ; we have a pair 
of horses, a neat wagon, our wearing apparel and bedding; and 
these constitute all of this world's goods that we possess. Oh! if I 
had health, my friends, I Avould not leave you with so heavy a heart, 
but I know and feel that the same God who has hitherto supplied 
all my wants will never forsake me in my need — farewell. 

In traveling through New Jersey they were both taken sick and 
detained five weeks. Of this she writes: 

October 24. This infortunate delay took from our purse one 
hundred dollars. Thanks to our Heavenly Parent that we are able 
to prosecute our journey. Our little daughter is quite well and 
anxious to be on the wing. 

October 25. Rode ten miles this day; met kindness and sym- 
pathy as we traveled among strangers; are recognized as the unfor- 
tunate young coiiple who were sick at Mr. D.'s tavern, too young 

they say to go to the far West. The manifestation of so much 
good feeling cheers us on our way. 

26th. Gaining health and strength every day, and the innocent 
prattle of our little daughter as we ride over a delightful country 
drives dull care away. 

27th. Drove twenty miles this day; shall probably average 
that to Wheeling. 

November. Arrived at Wheeling in good health; put up at a 


hotel, but old friends from Hartford soon learned of our arrival 
and we spend a few days with them ; meantime make preparations 
for descending the Ohio river. It seems like fate's decree to unite 
us in friendship with a family from New Jersey, emigrants like our- 
selves, but destined to Mt. Carmel, Illinois. Dr. Ezra Baker and 
family invite us to accompany them down the river. Our plan is 
to put our horses and baggage on the boat of Mr. Bissell, from 
East Windsor, Connecticut, as freight, and Mr. B. is to lash his 
boat to the Doctor's. 

November 10. Leave the shores of Wheeling pleased with our 
new friends. Ho! a steamboat approaches; my husband hails her 
and obtains a passage for myself and child to Maysville, Kentucky, 
to visit sister Mary. I can probably stay with my friends three 
days or more before the flatboat can reach there. 

November 16. Boats arrive all safe. Our new friends have 
prevailed upon my husband to abandon the idea of locating in 
Cincinnati; we are to proceed with them, to Mt. Carmel. This ar- 
rangement afflicts me; it seems to destroy my last hope of being 
near my dear sister Mary, my only relative in the western country. 
She is comfortably settled, and suffers few privations except the 
loss of friends — must I go so far from her and for what? A few 
acres of land on the beautiful prairie among the hunters and back- 
woodsmen. But sighs and regrets avail nothing; dearest sister 
farewell — I feel as if we part forever. Mrs. Baker is kind and tries 
to comfort me. She said to me: Your family is small; should you 
not be pleased you can return to Cincinnati after visiting with us 
in ourabode. The Doctor had purchased a section of land, prairie 
skirted with timber, no improvement upon it except a log cabin, 
and but one family within two miles of us; yet I think I shall be 
contented and pleased. We shall store our goods at Mt. Carmel, 
and we shall get along with the log cabin until we can build a 
larger house. Come, dry your tears; you will, I hope, think so 
well of this lovely spot and me as not to wish to leave it. The 
Doctor says he is anxious to have Mr. Fuller buy land adjoining us. 

I replied: I will try hard to be cheerful. 

At Cincinnati my husband bought a small boat, put into it our 
traveling baggage, purchased some articles such as pots, kettles, 
dishes, tinware, etc. ; we made a bedstead of our wagon bed, and a 
table of our goods' case, seats of our trunks, etc. Our horses 
remain on Mr. Bissell's boat and our small boat is lashed to Dr. 
Baker's large one. With this arrangement we leave Cincinnati for 
Louisville. Dr. Baker sends his man ashore to kill game as we 
glide slowly but safely down the Ohio. Wild turkey and squirrels 
are in great abundance. 

Reached Louisville in safety ; spent one day there and proceeded 


on our way to Evansville, which we reached with weather cold and 
unpleasant. We there disposed of our boats and traveled in our 
wagons to Mt. Carmel, where we arrived December 20, 1820, and 
remained here until February. We leave this wild looking country 
and the people, the men mostly dressed in buckskin, for the 
Wabash. Stopped a few days in Vincennes — a pleasant town ; stop 
a short time at Honey Creek and then on to Terre Haute. 

This is a beautiful spot of earth ; rivers on the west side and 
east so far as the eye can reach, delightful. Three frame houses 
and a few log cabins are all that is to be seen. Our destination 
is yet fifteen miles ahead to the mills of Brooks, JRobbics & Eose — 
the two latter natives of the same town with my husband. 

We reached the mills, a wild romantic looking place, situated on 
Eaccoon Creek, Parke county. There are but few white inhabitants ; 
most of the population is on Henry's prairie. Several tribes of 
Indians are near; many of them come to the mill every day, bring- 
ing their venison, wild turkeys, honey, etc., and the squaws their 
baskets to exchange for flour and other things. 

We are heartily welcomed and stop at the house of Mr. and 
Mrs. Brooks. 

March 22. Leave our friends' house only to be neighbors; 
they have built for us a snug log house with three rooms and a 
shelter to cook under, besides a small house in addition for our 
meat, flour, etc. My friend, Mrs. Brooks, is untiring in her efforts 
to make me contented; she is indeed a friend. Mr. Eose and Mr. 
Bobbins have taken their abode with us. 

July 10. Taken sick 

Now it is December, 1821, and I am just able to move about 
the house. My husband has the ague yet occasionally and is quite 
as feeble as myself. Oh ! I would we had never seen the Wabash ; 
our little darling prattler is our greatest joy; she is always happy 
and never tired of play. 

February, 1822. Have purchased a small farm of eighty acres, 
with the hope of adding the other eighty when it shall be in 

On the 22d moved to our farm; have a very good hewed-log 
house and a good log barn — thirty acres under fence. 

1824. Buy a farm of 160 acres on Little Eaccoon ; have good 
health; have become quite happj^, but work very hard. 

1827. Visit my New England home. Mother Fuller, Mr. 
Blinn and Cornelia returned with us and settle in Terre Haute. 

These are meager extracts, but they are a fine pen picture of 
the pioneer wife's western life, crowned with the words — "have 
become very happy." 

These are picked out solely with reference to that part of her 


life referred to her coming to the West. Had she written a full 
account of each day of what in looking back now we can only think 
of as a succession of days of dreary monotony, it would have made, 
touched Avitli the genius of the fair writer, an instructive and inter- 
esting book. 

Here are some extracts of herself: 

In 1856 she wrote: I am no longer young, yet I may pass o'er 
some years. I know they can not be many. Several times in my 
life sickness has come upon me. I did not think I could live. I 
have met many I thought grievous afflictions in my young days, 
and in my short-sighted folly for the time being have thought, 
Oh, that I could die and be at rest; but as all was wrong I regret 
it, for many times my griefs all turned into blessings, and as I 
now look over my past life, I j&nd no disappointment, no sorrow T 
could well lose, for the cloudy morning has often turned out the 
fairer day, and my past trials and little grievances have done me 
good. They were comparatively light, and I bless our Heavenly 
Father for His loving kindness to me all the days of my life. 

In 1859 she wrote: One year ago we followed the mortal re- 
mains of my husband to the cemetery; there we laid him away to 
rest in the silent tomb. Well, time that seems everything to man 
has not even an existence with God; in Him I trust now and for- 
ever. * * * * ]VIy time is swiftly passing, I know, yet I 
enjoy life every day, for it is beautiful, but I am admonished to be 
ready to die. I hope to have my reason and power of speech in my 
last ndoments, come when they may, for they will come in God's 
own good time. I hope to die at home, surrounded by family 
and friends. * * * There is a place left for me by the side of 
my husband. After life's fitful fever we shall sleep well. 

Again alluding to her husband's death, she wrote: It was 
hard for him to contemplate the laying aside of the well loved 
needs of earth for a future state of existence, not having the faith 
as strong as mine; but he yet did not fear to meet his God. To 
me it seems that death comes to none except to bring a blessing; 
yet life is sweet. My husband's last words were, "You have been 
my good wife always." This remembrance will solace my declining 
years. February 5, 1870, she wrote: This day brings me to the 
Fifty-fifth anniversary of my marriage. 

" When all thy mercies, oh, my God, 

My rising soul surveys, 
Transported with the view I'm lost 

In wonder, love and praise." 

Here is a glimpse of her philosophy of life: I willingly concede 
to every one what I claim for myself — the freest range of thought 
and expression, and am perfectly indifferent whether the sentiment 


of others on speculative subjects coincide or differ from my own. 
Instead of wishing or expecting that uniformity of opinion should 
be established, I am convinced that it is neither practicable nor 
desirable; that varieties of thought are as numerous and strongly 
marked, and as irreducible to one standard as those of bodly form, and 
that to quarrel with one who thinks differently from ourselves would 
be no less unreasonable than to be angry with him for having feat- 
ures unlike our own. 

"As those we love decay, we die in part; 
String after string is severed from the heart, 
Till loosened life at last but breathing clay. 
Without one pang is glad to fade away." • 

Mrs. Fuller was not a member of any religious society. Strong, 
pure, liberal and tolerant, her life was the gentle woman, her relig- 
ion that type of philosophy calmly contemplating the great cause. 

May 24, 1877, she made her will, disposing of her large prop- 
erty, giving liberally to her surviving sister and grandchildren, she 
provided for the founding of a Home for A ged Females, to be built 
and maintained on that portion of her property designated in the 
town of Terre Haute. 

The will was contested successfully by the heirs, but was the 
means of finally securing the establishment of the present Old La- 
dies' Home. 

Old Settlers'' Meeting, 1885. — Another interesting meeting of the 
early settlers was held in Naylor's Opera House in 1885, and from 
the records we extract the following: 

The meeting was organized hj the election of Col. R. "W. 
Thompson as chairman, and Col. R. N. Hudson, secretary. On 
being called to the chair, Col. Thompson stated that he was ad- 
vertised to make a speech. They had certainly been misled. The 
Colonel then related many interesting incidents of old times. When 
he came to Terre Haute, forty years ago, there was no building 
where the Opera House stands, nor a building between the cor- 
ner opposite and the Terre Haute House. The old .pinning wheel 
factory, built by John Keynard & Wood, was considered a marvel. 
Business was confined around the square. Mr. Farrington lived in 
what is now considered tbe south part of the city, and it was thought 
to be a great ways out to his house. One of the best gardens the 
Colonel ever raised was west of Third street. Charley Noble was 
clerk of the court. We used to get together and discuss politics 
and settle the affairs of the nation every day, and sometimes twice 
a day. The Colonel referred to the enterprise of tbe early settlers, 
but they have nearly all passed away. There is not a minister or a 
lawyer living here and practicing his profession who was here then. 
Some one said that the Hon. Harvey D. Scott was, but the Colonel 


said that Mr. Scott studied law with him. There was only one mail 
a week. Then the government gave them a mail carried by boys on 
horses who had relays every ten miles. Terre Haute people then 
began to think they were increasing their importance, and devised 
schemes to advance the interests of the town. He gave an account 
of the building of the Wabash & Erie canal, and of the impetus thus 
given the toAvn. Then the National road was projected and started, 
but the great impetus came when the Terre Haute & Indianapolis 
railroad was built, through the energy of Chauncey Rose. The first 
three times the Colonel came west was on horseback, and he made 
the trip twenty or thirty times by stage. He believed the city has 
30,000 of as intelligent and cultivated people as can be found any- 

Rev. Aaron Wood, of Yountsville, offered prayer. He then gave 
an interesting account of his coming to Terre Haute sixty years ago. 
He rode from Merom without his dinner, and stopped with " Dr. 
Modesitt, sir." (This was a favorite expression of the Doctor's, 
and it caused considerable laughter. ) He asked if there were any 
others in the audience who were herein 1826 besides Mrs. Chauncey 
Warren. Messrs. J. O. Jones, C. T. Noble and AVolsey Barbour 
said they were. He related many interesting anecdotes of early 
days, particularly of the interesting congressional race between Col, 
Blake and John Osborn and Dr. Shuler for Congress in 1860. Terre 
Haute was behind in church organization. He was pastor of Asbury 
church in 1854-58. He remembered the Rev. Mr. Jewett and the 
founding of the Congregational church. 

Capt. James Hook said he had been here forty-eight years. 
During that time there has not been a house on Main street from 
the river to the fair grounds that he has not helped to build or saw 
it in course of construction. There are but four men engaged in 
the same business now who were here when he came. They are 
Samuel Musselman, harness maker; Dr. Pence and P. M. Donnelly, 
druggists, and William Clark, barber. Mr. Clark shaved him forty- 
eight years jigo. He remembered Mr. Wolsey Barbour and Col. 

At the time Col. Thompson introduced Mr. Wolsey Barbour 
he said they practiced law together forty years ago. Mr. Barbour 
said he vould speak briefly as he was suffering from partial 
paralysis of the left side. He came here from New York with 
his father in 1817. They landed in London, Ind., on the Ohio, 
from a flatboat. His father and Dr. Durkee went to Vincennes 
on horseback. At Vincennes they were directed to come to Fort Har- 
rison, which was considered the place to locate. Land was held at 
from $10 to $15 an acre. They did not purchase land on the prairie, 
but went to Fayette township. The family remained a while in Fort 


Harrison. Mr. Barbour is sure it was Joseph Listen who carried 
the news of the peril of the fort from Indians to Viuceunes. He 
left the fort secretly, and slipped away, going down the bank until 
well out of danger. He gave a vivid account of the battle of Fort 
Harrison, as told him by those who were in the fort. 

Mr. J. O. Jones, ex-postmaster was next called for. Mr. Jones 
came to this section in 1816, where he remained until his parents died, 
when he was taken to New York by an uncle, and remained there 
until he was nearly twenty-one. He then returned to Terre Haute. 
He spoke of the bad health of the early settlers; of the njiasma 
and fevers. Game was plenty and very cheap. Mr. Jones declared 
himself a Hoosier, and expressed a determination, God willing, to 
die in Terre Haute. 

The Hon. Barnabas Hobbs, of Parke county, was introduced. 
Although not a resident of Vigo county, he was an early settler of 
Indiana, and had watched the State grow from a wilderness to the 
present position. Mr. Hobbs reviewed the early amusements, com- 
paring them with those of the present time. He compared the 
education of the present time to that of the early days. People 
then believed in ghosts and witches, signs, etc. Education has 
almost banished such foolish beliefs. 

Mr. C. T. Noble gave exceedingly interesting reminiscences. 
He came here in 1823, and was classed as one of the old settlers. 
He has lived here as resident since 1825. There are only two who 
can equal him, Harry and John Ross. He has seen the city grow 
from a very small village to its present size. He passed his early 
life as a teacher, and had taught Mr. C. W. Barbour. He wanted 
it understood that Mr. Barbour was one of his pupils, and he would 
say further that Mr. Barbour was a good boy at school. He taught 
in the first Sunday-school started in Terre Haute. Two sisters of John 
Cruft came here in 1829 or 1830 full of Yankee ideas. He related 
many interesting reminiscences connected with the school. The 
Misses Cruft brought with them Sunday-school tickets of various 
colors, which were given out to those who committed verses of the 
Bible to memory. In 1831 or 1832 Zenas Smith came here and also 
established a Sunday-school. In 1829 Mr. Noble took the census of 
the village to learn, for his own curiosity, the number of inhab- 
itants. He found in October, 1829, that there were eighty-three 
families in Terre Haute, and 558 inhabitants. In August, 1835, a 
bet of $1d on a side was made on the population. One contended 
that the town had a population of 1,500, and the other that it did 
not. Mr. Noble took the census, and found 183 families, and a 
population of exactly 1,200. He got the wagers for his labor. 
Mr. Noble also taught in the Terre Haute schools. He thinks the 
schools of to-day do not equal those of the early days. When he 


came here tliere Avere only two praying men in town, Thomas Par- 
sons and John F. Cruft. Mr. Noble has a remarkably clear mem- 

Capt Boord gave evidence of remarkable memory for a man of 
his years. Hecame to Indiana in 1815. He knew all of the men, 
with one exception, who composed the company that laid out Terre 
Haute. He came here in 1821. The Indians Avere troublesome. 
He related an incident told him by Johnny Green, an Indian chief. 
Several Indians went to a cabin below town with the intention of 
killing the settler and his family. Two of the Indians were sent 
to the cabin to reconnoiter. They gained a position where they 
could see into the house. They were in time to see the settler lead 
in evening prayer. This impressed them greatly, and they returned 
to their chief and told him the settler was a good man, and that 
they heard him talking with the Great Spirit. The Indians did not 
molest the settler. 

Col. Thomas Nelson was called for, and responded. Capt. 
Potter desired to know when the Colonel came to Terre Haute. 
During his remarks the Colonel said he came here forty-one years 
ago, and hereafter when anyone asked the Captain how old he (Col. 
Nelson) was, the Captain could reply "41." The Colonel said he 
could boast of having brought the first can of fresh oysters into 
Parke county, the first piano and the first bottle of champagne. 
(Col. Thompson — "Whisky was there before you came.") The 
Colonel's reminiscences were listened to with marked attention. 

Capt. Potter spoke for a few minutes, giving accounts of early 
business life, of the adversities and "booms." 

The following is the list of old settlers who attended the meet- 
ing: Edward Cruft, born in Terre Haute, January 30, 1830. 
William W. Goodman, born in Louisville, near Vinceunes, Septem- 
ber 9, 1814; moved to Vigo in September, 1819; farmer. Eichard 
Watson, born in Spencer county, Ky., October 7, 1826; came to 
Yigo in 1828; his father. Scarlet Watson, with family settled in 
Prairie Creek township, which has been his place of residence since ; 
farmer. Thomas B. Carr, born in Spencer county, Ky., July 13, 
1816; came here October 29, 1824; residence and post-office Terre 
Haute; merchant. John L. Dickerson, born in Butler county, 
Ohio (forgets when); came to Yigo county October 7, 1839; 
teacher. Charles T. Noble, Jr., born in Terre Haute on November 
2, 1842; lived here always; book-keeper. Samuel H. Jackson, 
born in Yigo county, February 11, 1823; farmer; post-office, Terre 
Haute; residence three and one-half miles southeast of the city 
Ebenezer C. Edmunds, born June 10, 1836, in Yigo county; son of 
Samuel Edmunds, former county commissioner, probate judge and 
justice of the peace ; one of the early pioneers of the county ; farmer. 


Benjamin F. SwofiFord, M. D., born in Randolph county, N. C. 
(time forgotten), crossed the Wabash river December 4, 1834, lived 
for many years in Fayette township. Sanford S. Ripley, born in 
Vigo county, Lost Creek township December 19, 1842; farmer. 
Joseph Hearn, born in Sugar Creek township, Vigo county, Ind., 
February 1, 1826; farmer, George Grimes, Loudon county, Va. ; 
came to Clay county, fall of 1841; now a resident of Terre Haute. 
William Beale, born in Jackson county, Tenn. ; came to Indiana in 
1830; lives in Terre Haute, Samuel Jones, born in Vigo county, 
Ind., November 21, 1842; son of Uncle Jesse Jones, an old timer; 
Samuel was several times elected trustee of his township, and was 
a candidate for county treasurer in 1884, but was defeated. Will- 
iam R. McKeen, born in Prairie Creek township, Vigo county, 
Ind., October 12, 1829; president of the Vandalia system of rail- 
roads, William T. Pittinger, born in Ross county, Ohio, April 22, 
1824, came here in 1827 to Fayette township; farmer; post-ofl&ce, 
Sanford, Vigo county. John W, Douglass, born in Lebanon 
county, Penn,, December 8, 1818; raised in Frederick county, Va, ; 
came here in 1841. William G. Jenckes, born in Lost Creek town- 
ship, January 7, 1836; farmer, James M. Turner, born in Spencer 
county, Ky., January 31, 1836; when arrived here, one year of age; 
father's name, John W. Turner. 

Wilson Naylor, born in Adams county, Ohio, December 5 
1828; came to Indiana when three years of age; family settled in 
Vermillion county, Ind. ; came to Vigo in 1864. Charles M. 
Warren, born in Terre Haute (he thinks) some time in 1840; 
banker. Samuel T, Reese, born in Vigo county, Ind., February 22, 
1824; lumberman. Henry T. Rockwell, born in Tioga county, N. 
Y., March 11, 1815; came to Indiana in 1820; raised in Parke county; 
lived in Vigo county since 1835; Terre Haute; oculist. Perry S. 
Westfall, born in Parke county, Ind., at Roseville, December 18, 
1834; came to this county in 1840. John B. Tolbert, born in Terre 
Haute, August 6, 1843. Charles B. Brokaw, born in Vincennes, 
Ind., September 20, 1830; came to Terre Haute in 1856; engaged 
all the time since with his brother, George B. Brokaw, in the carpet 
business, Isaac Deiter, born in Miami county, Ohio, June 11, 
1834; came to this county October 10, 1835, G. Foster Smith, born 
in Vincennes, December 27, 1824; came to Terre Haute August 30, 
1842, Benjamin F, Rogers, born in Nelson county, Ky,, February, 
29, 1832; came here in 1839; settled in Sullivan county; came to 
Vigo county in 1840; farmer; Terre Haute, Wesley H, IIull, born 
in Sullivan county, Ind., June 24, 1824 ; came to Vigo county in 1829 ; 
farmer, Robert A, Gilcrease, born in Washington county, Ind,, 
May 25, 1820; came to Vigo county November 20, 1822; settled in 
Honey Creek townsliip; farmer, Isaac Ball, born in Elizabethtown, 


Aui,nist 29, 182G; came here in 1842. Mrs. Rich Hebb. formerly 
Harriet Cochran, relict of Rich. Hebb (who came here in l''S35, from 
Maryland), was born in Fayette county, Penn., November 27, 1822; 
came here in 1838 ; married to Mr. Hebb in 1841 ; now lives in the 
city. Mrs. Derexa Barbour, formerly of Whitcomb; born in Preble 
county, Ohio, May 1, 1820; came to Clinton in 1829; married to 
Hon. C. W. Barlsour in 1840. Residence in Fayette township. 
William Paddock, born in Clarke county, Ohio, near 1818; came to 
Vigo and settled in Prairie Creek township; formerly auditor of 
Vigo county; now engaged in milling. Lemuel Surrell, born in 
Queen Anne's county, Md., October 16, 1816; moved to Terre Haute 
in 1837. E. Duncan Jewett, born in this county; forty-six years 
old; merchant. Eli B. Hamilton, forty-one years old. Charles W. 
Williams, thirty years old; clerk of the Terre Haute Gas Company. 
John W. Smith, fifty-eight years old ; an old Mexican soldier. Wiley 
Black, farmer; fifty-three years old. John B. Goodman, farmer; 
fifty-eight years old. Caleb Jackson, farmer; sixty-two years old, 
Jackson Cox, farmer ; sixty-five years old. Webster W. Casto, farmer ; 
fifty-one years old. Harrison Denny, farmer; sixty years old. Mrs. 
L. L. Denny, fifty years old. Marion McQuilkin, farmer; forty- 
three years old. AV. AV. Watkins, farmer; fifty-four years old. 
James Hook, born in Pennsylvania, aged seventy years; in Vigo 
county forty-eight years; contractor. O. J. Innis, born in Pennsyl- 
vania; came to Parke county in 1843; fifty-eight years old. Thomas 
Hannon, born in Pennsylvania; sixty-seven years old; been here 
forty-seven years. John L. Humaston, New York ; sixty -five years 
old ; been here forty-one years. H. D. Milns, born in England ; farmer ; 
seventy years old; been here fifty-two years. George G. Boord, born 
in Kentucky; eighty-two years old; been here sixty-three years. 
H. K. AVise, born in Pennsylvania; aged eighty-three years; came 
to Vincennes in 1824; was here sixty years ago. 

Isaac Beauchamp, born in Kentucky; eighty years old; came 
here fifty-seven years ago. Henry Boyll, was born in Kentucky ; 
farmer; sixty years old; came here fifty-seven years ago. Abram 
Baum, was born in Kentucky; seventy-one years old; came here 
fifty-three years ago. Philip Staub, born in Germany; eighty- 
seven years old ; been in America fifty-nine years. John Jackson, 
born in Illinois; sixty-five years old; been here sixty-four years. 
Stephen Hedges, born in Kentucky ; sixty-four years old ; been here 
thirty-four years. Edward S. Hussey, born in Baltimore; seventy- 
one years old; been here fifty-five years. Samuel Dodson, farmer, 
sixty-seven years old; been here forty-one years. John Ray, born 
in Ohio; seventy-four years old; been here sixty-seven years. A. 
W. Sheets, born in Vincennes; seventy-three years old; been here 
sixty-five years. J. A. Littlejohn, born in Kentucky; sixty-one 


years old ; been here forty-six years. William Peppers, born in Ohio ; 
seventy years old; been here fifty-two years. Thomas A. Eeed, 
born in Ohio; seventy-one years old; been here sixty-nine years. 
James M. Sanford, born in New York; sixty-five years old; been 
here forty years. William H. Chadwick, born in Vermont; car- 
penter; seventy-one years old; been here fifty years. David W. 
Rankin, born in Pennsylvania; seventy-four years old; been here 
fifty years. T. 0. Buntin, born in Vincennes; president of Terre 
Haute Savings Bank; seventy years old; been here forty years. 
Joseph O. Jones, born in New York; seventy-one years old; been 
here sixty-nine years. Elisha Sibley, born in New York; seventy 
one years old ; been here sixty-nine years. Jesse Lee, tailor, born 
in Virginia; seventy-two years old; been here fifty-three years. 
Benjamin F. Havens, born in Indiana; forty-six' years old; been 
here eighteen years. Samuel C. Preston, born in Putnam county, 
Ind. ; thirty-nine years old ; been here fourteen years. John A. 
Hall, farmer; seventy-four years old; been in Indiana fifty -five 
years. Mrs. Bishop (widow of Cyrus W. Bishop), sixty years old; 
been here thirty-eight years. Mrs. M. M. Riddle, forty-six years 
old ; been here twenty years. Peter Malcolm, farmer ; seventy- 
seven years old; been here forty years. J. W. Smith, farmer, 
seventy-five years old ; been here sixty -four years. H. L. Sin er, 
farmer; seventy-three years old; been here sixty-three years. 
George E. Hedges, carpenter; fifty-six years old; been here forty- 
five years. Peter Lyons, farmer; seventy-two years old; been here 
fifty-five years. William HufPman, eighty-five years old; been 
here fifty-six years. William Clark, barber; sixty-five years old; 
been here forty-six years. Charles C. Knapp, contractor; seventy- 
two years old; been here fifty years. Harvey Evans, farmer; sixty- 
seven years old; been here sixty-six years. Mrs. Alice Fischer, 
forty-nine years old; been here twenty-five years. Alfred Pegg, 
farmer; sixty -four years old; been here forty-eight years. Mrs. 
Ann Pegg, fifty-eight years old; been here forty-seven years. Mrs. 
Elizabeth N. Buckingham, sixty-nine years old; been here forty- 
five years. 

Peter B. Allen was one of the early settlers, and soon became one 
of the prominent men of Vigo county. The family arrived here June 
4, 1819. His children in the order of births were Catharine, Henry, 
Ira, Myron H., Amanda, Peter B., Adaline, Harriet and Chloe. 
Adaline married Britton M. Harrison, both dead ; had three 
children: George, Porter and Edward. Amanda married Silas 
Hoskins; family all dead except Eliza, living in Wisconsin. 
Chloe married Carlton Belt; they had four children. 

The great old wooden clock brought here by Peter Allen now 
is in the printing office of George M. Allen, The Express. It is 


not only a curiosity, but it has an interesting history as well as any 
of the other pioneers. By canal and flatboat and packhorse it made 
the long trip successfully, and was one, if not the first of its kind in 
the county. It is quite tall, and if there had been houses there 
with ceilings to the rooms it would have had trouble in finding one 
tall enough in which to stand. But the early cabins ran to the 
roof as a rule, and by putting it under the low peak it could in this 
Avay be put up. It told the time in Mr. Allen's house faithfully 
until he died, when it was sold at the sale, and for years it did 
duty for strangers, until Edward Allen, grandson of Peter, became 
grown and heard the history of grandfathei-'s clock, and went and 
purchased it, giving in exchange a new, high-priced brass clock, 
and now back in its old family it merrily is ticking away, no doubt 
good yet to keep the time for Ed's children, grandchildren, and 

When that clock came west, few as were the people here, 
clocks and watches were comparatively fewer then than now. If 
the sun would shine men could look at it and know very closely 
the time of day. The women had marks, generally at the door by 
which they counted the time and regulated their meals, and the 
blowing of the dinner horn. At night or cloudy weather they had 
to guess at it the best they could. Nothing was then, as now, 
cooked " by the clock." In the night watches, in extreme cases of 
sickness, they would roughly estimate the time by the burning of 
the tallow dip, if they could afford one, if not, they made out the 
best they could. It was probably quite a time after the original 
settlement before there was a man in the county who carried even 
a bull's eye watch, with its silver case upon case that from the 
size of a small saucer would peal off something like a hard boiled 
egg. At the beginning of this century watches were scarce and 
expensive as well as cumbersome and crude. 

Fifty Years Ago. — While the story of Gen. Peter Allen's old 
clock goes back over seventy years ago it induces the following 
reminiscences that run back only half a century: 

Fifty years ago the flint and steel were used in many a farmer's 
household for kindling the fires. Matches, not so plentiful as now, 
were called "locofocos," a name also for a time applied to the 
Democratic party. 

The spinning-wheel hummed and buzzed in many houses. Far- 
mers raised flax and hemp and wore their own " home-spun " and 

Gentlemen wore ruffled bosoms, "stocks " in place of cravats and 
high shirt collars. False bosoms, termed "dickeys" tied on with 
strings, served such as would make a prfftense of wearing a shirt. 

The "stock" was a collar of steel encircling the neck, covered 
with silk or satin and having a permanent bow in front. 


Shoemakers in the country made everybody's shoes and never 
kept their word. The village tailor sewed baggy trousers and 
black coats, generous in creases, and our fathers wore thera with 
contented and placid minds. A suit of clothes a year was the aver- 
age limit. 

Pantaloons were strapped under the boots; buttoning pantaloon 
straps was a hard and irksome and unclean business. 

Pantaloons and boots were frequently, when worn with straps, 
taken off and put on together to save time and trouble. The boots 
were "Wellingtons." The gaiter was little worn. 

Long, heavy cloaks, reaching quite to the heels, were worn by 
our elders. Such a cloak lasted almost a lifetime. Jesse Lee, the 
tailor, is, we believe, the only person still wearing ojie in this city. 

No male attire was perfect without a big " fob chain " and seal 
dangling from the waist-band. Gold watches were scarce. 

Silver watches were large in dimensions. The vulgar called 
them "turnips." They were wound up with a key, which was al- 
ways getting lost, and in the winding the machinery was noisy. 

Some of the styles and changes in cut and fashion were even 
more marked than those of to-day. At one time gentlemen wore a 
summer garment called a " blouse," though very unlike that of the 
French workman. It was of linen, reaching to the knee, belted at 
the waist, buttoning in front from the skirt to the bosom, and 
pleated above and below the belt. It resembled the old-time 
American hunting-shirt, and was a very comfortable and becoming 
garment. At another period men wore white duck-linen jackets, 
much shorter than the present sackcoat. 

Gentlemen put their feet in pumps, or low slippers, at balls and 
dancing parties. Dancing then in shoes or gaiters would have been 
deemed as great a lack of propriety as would be going to an even- 
ing party now in a pair of rubber boots. 

The ballrooms were illuminated by candles stuck in sockets on 
the walls. Or, if more pretentious, in a chandelier suspended from 
the ceiling. The candles would drip, and the ladies' and gentle- 
men's apparel frequently testified to that fact. " Kound dances " 
were barely tolerated — waltzing was scandalous. 

Some of the " steps " peculiar to that period required no small 
degree of agility on the part of the gentlemen. The " pigeon 
wing '•' and the "double shuffle" lifted a man quite off the floor, 
and would startle a modern ballroom. The ladies lifted their skirts 
so as not to interfere with their freedom of pedal locomotion, and 
were not adverse to the display of well-turned ankles. Striped 
and colored hosiery were unknown. 

Custom had not then sanctioned feminine skating. A girl on 
skates in 1843 would have been a phenomenon. So would also 
have been a feminine swimmer. 


Vegetables were far less in variety than now. Tomatoes were 
regarded with suspicion. They were called " love apples," cultivated 
as garden ornaments and suspected of poisonous tendencies. 
Canned fruits and vegetables were generally unknown. 

Children were more respectful to their elders. Boys were 
required to bow and girls to "courtesy" in entering and leaving the 
school-room. Boys said "sir" when addressed by a grown person, 
a juvenile habit now generally dispensed with and swept away by 
the march of progress. 

Party spirit was never more bitterly demonstrative than to-day. 
Sworn foes existed in every village, who had not spoken to each 
other for years on account of political differences. Men cried like 
children because Henry Clay was not elected President. The old 
aristocratic families who had held office since the time of Washing- 
ton and who deemed Federal office theirs by a sort of divine right, 
held firmly to their hatred of Andrew Jackson until relieved by 
death of their capacity for hating. A congressman then had a 
standing in the community which, in many cases, might now be 

The bottle of the period was a very thick, very heavy, very 
clumsy, very dark green 'and almost black "junk bottle." That, too, 
has gone out of existence with the "old soldier of the Kevolutionary 
War" and warming-pans. The common lantern of the time was 
of tin, pierced with many holes somewhat after the fashion of the 
nutmeg-grater, through which the light from a candle-end glim- 
mered and was often blown out by the strongest blast. 

A man returned to the east from Indiana, was deemed an 
adventurer and explorer. 

One who had seen London and Paris was a man of note in the 

On the schoolboy's map of that period the " Indian Territory " 
covered a great area, now occupied by prosperous States. California 
was known only in connection with hides and tallow. West of the 
Rocky Mountains, all save a small area of Oregon, was wild, vague 
and misty, and consequently mysterious and fascinating. 

Straw brooms were made "round" and "flat." The round 
broom, for floor sweeping, is obsolete. The country wife's favorite 
duster for cupboards and corners difficult of access was the wing of 
a wild goose. 

Wooden clocks were universal. " Brass clocks " were considered 
as " something extra," and sun-dials were occasionally seen. 

Old people called auctions "vendues." Children were whipped 
on their birthdays — a custom of unexplained origin. 

A woman or girl under the pressure of familiar rebuke was 
often called " a good-for-nothing trollope." This was due to Mrs. 


Trollope's book criticising so severely and justly the raw American 
manners and customs of that time. Our fathers swallowed criticism 
with a very wry face, especially when its origin was English. 

All men in these days chewed fine-cut tobacco. The spittoon 
was found even in the family pew. Cigarettes were unknown. The 
richer and older, families kept sideboards in the dining-rooms well 
stocked with liquors. The parson, making a parochial call, was 
still open to a cheering glass of spirits. A big jug of New Eng- 
land rum always accompanied a " house-raising." The whole 
village would turn out to help. Red-nosed deacons were not 
uncommon. Prosperous merchants sometimes walked unsteadily 
home about 5 or 6 o'clock in the evening. Such a gait and its 
inference was not then laid up against a man as now. 

Spitz dogs, English pugs and skye terriers were unknown ; so 
was lager beer. 

A divorced woman was a social pariah and a curiosity. 

Horticulture was confined to pinks, roses, sweet williams, mari- 
golds, sun- flowers, lilacs and hollyhocks. 

Unpainted houses were plentiful; otherwise the color was a 
glaring white, " picked out " with green blinds. Shades of color 
in house-painting had not appeared. 

The pump was of wood, long-handled, big-spouted, wheezy, and 
often out of order. 

The more pretentious architecture of the time ran largely to 
Grecian pillars and porticoes of wood. 

At the theater the entertainment commenced with a farce, was 
sometimes sandwiched with a pas seul by a danseuse, and did not 
terminate before midnight. 

The coarseness of the farce and also the play would not be 
tolerated by' the respectable audience of to-day as it was then. 
The " gags " were sometimes vulgar and indecent. 

Church members were never supposed to enter the theater. 
From the moral standpoint, it was dangerous ; from the religious, a 
"dark and bloody ground." Barnum, the showman, at last made 
matters easier by inventing the temperance drama and calling his 
theater a "lecture-room." Good people, ministers and deacons 
went to see this play and sugar-coated their consciences by the 
thought that they were learning "a great moral lesson." though 
had the same lesson been preached from the " lecture-room " stage 
instead of played on it, they would have paid no money to hear. 

There were boys then ten years old and more who had never worn 
trousers, and in some cases the age of a youth was big enough to 
go " a-courtiug " when he got his first pair of trousers, whether buck- 
skin or butternut. One man tells, and with the stamp of truth on 
every word, that when nine years old he was sent off a long distance 


to a high school, and on the way they stopped at a very fine hotel. 
He had never tasted coffee, and as the waiter gave him a cup he 
supposed he had to take it and the torture he endured in forcing it 
down, and then his hopeless horror when without asking the waiter 
filled it again. He had never seen plastered walls and ceiling and 
when his eyes fell upon it how he supposed the room had been cut 
of solid rock. 

Another western boy, when seventeen years old, was sent to Jef- 
ferson College, Pennsylvania, going by steamboat to the Ohio and 
up it to Pittsburgh. He reached the latter place in the night, and 
being alone confided his dilemma to the porter of the boat, who for 
50 cents carried his leather trunk so beautified with those laig brass 
tacks, to the noted Monougahela House, at that time by far the finest 
hotel west of the Alleghanies. He was told to register his name and 
was at once sent to his room. Here all was a new world to the excited 
boy's imagination. He was fresh from a western prairie farm, and 
had often been to the little village near by, and with wide open eyes 
and bated breath had seen the great old Concord stage come into 
town with four prancing horses, and was nearly blinded in looking 
upon the great man who held the lines and the beautiful long whip — 
the observed of all — the glass of fashion and the mold of form. He 
had at one time the temerity to clamber up and look into the coach, 
with its brass furnishing, and leather, and what an Aladin's cave 
met his eyes! Could he ever hope to ride in such splendor? fie 
could only compare it to the ox-wagon of the farm on which he had 
often rode in a boy's highest pleasure. He had seen the stage tavern, 
the only one in the place, and envied the royal high life of its board- 
ers — the village lawyer, and doctor, and hatter, and a merchant and 
others who worked at their trade in the little town. All these were 
favored even great people, but their lights paled when the whip 
stepped forth with that peculiar swagger, now a lost art to the world, 
of the stage driver, chewing twist tobacco and who always wore a 
broad leather belt instead of suspenders. He was the man of au- 
thority, with whom even the school teacher would esteem it a most 
distinguishing honor to have been found in company with or in con- 
fidential conversation. It was in this western life the boy had grown 
up that now found himself in a splendidly furnished room, with the 
gas jet's bright blaze filling every nook and corner of splendors. On 
the door he saw a printed notice to guests, which, late as it was, he care- 
fully read, and stood appalled at the information that the price was 

two dollars and fifty cents a day for board: " The great jee !!" 

and the exclamation stopped. He could go no further. He quickly 
slipped into bed, and with a healthy boy's appetite was soon sound 
asleep. As on the farm, he was wide awake with the daylight, and 
listened in vain to hear others moving in the kitchen preparing 


breakfast. He was soon dressed, and started with apprehension to 
find his way to the office ; soon took the wrong route, which was cor- 
rected by a friendly scrub girl. Finally he reached the office with 
its marble floor — the magnificent clerk and the " fronts " in a row 
on their bench. The room-bells began to tingle and the boys 
scamper off, while our hero was drinking in the marvels all around 
him. After awhile men, each with a paper in his hand, began to 
gather in the reading room, and he wandered in there, too. Ashe en- 
tered the door of this room a mirror just opposite gave him the im- 
pression of an open door into another room, while it looked much 
like the room he was entering, yet its immensity was astounding. 
He found a seat and picked up an old paper, pretending to read, too. 
By this time the immensity of the building began to come to him, 
and he had discovered that below Avere steam works of some kind. 
Suddenly a sound came he had never heard before — a frightful, 
hideous sound that under the most favorable circumstances would 
have sent tremors to his soul, and as the crowd quickly sprang up, 
the hero sprang even quicker and led out into the office. There was 
the magnificent clerk serene, and then he knew that the steam works 
had not exploded. He even in his terror did not wholly betray 
himself, and soon found out it was the gong announcing breakfast, 
and the crowd were simply going to eat. He followed and soon was 
seated at the table. Now on the farm it was the custom to put 
everything on the table, and when he was seated and had stealthily 
looked up and down the long table the only thing he could see to 
eat was a small piece of stale bread at each plate lying on top of an 
inverted tumbler, and of course at this moment he remembered the 
" two-dollars-and-a-half-a-day." The abhorrence of his life was the 
sour light bread of that day. The gorgeous negro waiters in their 
clean white uniforms, and the military movements as they were 
directed by the tallest one of the lot by striking a glass for every 
movement. They came rushing down, each with a pitcher of water 
taking his place, and then a stroke on the glass every arm was poised, 
and with the precision of one machine every glass was filled with 
water. And there he was, two dollars and a half a day and a glass 
of water and piece of light bread ! A^ the piece of bread was small 
the youth attacked it bravely. His trkining was to commence eating 
as soon as seated. He used the water so freely to wash down the 
bread that he emptied the tumbler, when the gorgeous waiter refilled 
it. He ate all before him, including the second glass of water, and 
as trained, when through he pushed back his chair and mournfully 
walked out. Two dollars and a half a day and that was the kind of 
breakfast they gave, and he wished he was back on the old farm 
where board was only fifty cents a week, if any charge at all was 


That boy probably learned more of the practical world on his 
way to school than he did in it. One of the diiferences between the 
old and the new is that then people traveled but little, and now you can 
find babes that have been across the continent, and others before 
they can talk have probably nearly encircled the globe. A man 
now goes to California or Europe and returns before his neighbors 
even learn that he has been out of town. 

Here is another instance of less than fifty years ago: A farmer 
in a neighborhood but little more than twenty miles from the city 
was getting ready to go to the city with two or three wagon loads of 
farm products. The fact was known several days before he started 
for miles around. An enterprising lad living three or four miles 
away was the possessor of five cents, and finally prevailed on his 
parents to let him ride "Old Charley" over and send his money to 
the city by the neighbor for investment. He arrived at the man's 
house the afternoon before he was to start very early the next 
morning. He announced his errand and handed over his five cents, 
and accompanied it with instructions as to- what he wanted bought 
about as follows: "A top, a dozen marbles with white alley, a fiddle, 
fishhook and line, a knife, a blacksnake whip with a tassel on the 
handle and a pony and saddle." The good man kept his face and 
promised to fill the important mission and return him the change. 
Of course it was easy enough on his return to give back the five 
cents with the story that before he got there some other boy had 
sent five cents and took all those kind of things there were in the 

Now the children of that day, it must not be inferred, were 
fools, compared to the children of to-day. They knew less about 
some things than children now know, but about other things they 
knew a great deal more. So far as meeting and fighting the real 
battle of life goes, they were no doubt far in advance of the aver- 
age children of to-day. The young pioneer boy carried within 
himself resources and a self-reliance that would be phenomenal in 
a boy to-day, if we except the street gamins and waifs of the cities. 

Sixty Years or More Ago. — The following list of old settlers, 
those who have been residents at least fifty years, and many of 
them much longer than sixty years ago, was furnished by Mr. 
Henry Warren, and was chiefly made up from the recollections and 
information he had from his uncle. Rev. Welton N. Modesitt, of 
New York. It is already a valuable list, but in a few years it will 
be far more valuable, and it will be turned to with still increasing 
interest as the centuries pass away: Thomas Rogers, Horace 
Baker, George W. Demense, Thomas Peters, Robert Harrison, B. 
M. Harrison, Noah Burnner, John Burnner, James Tribue, Gercham 
Jaques, John Prather, John Jones, William Hodge, Jonas Baker, 


James Thayer, James Kathbourn, Dabney, Cushman Disbrow, 

John Neavlin, Dr. Holmes, Benjamin G. Gilman, Green McClvre, 
George McHenry, Polly McClure, Eleasor Carter, Ed Carter, Ashby 
Holmes, George Lyons, Richard Eoss, Cyrus Bishop, Mrs. Jonas See- 
ley, "Aunty" Bishop, Jonas Seeley, G. B. Duncan, Skinner, 

Jacobs, James Whitcomb (ex-governor), Henry (attorney-at- 

law), Thomas Cone, Frank Cone, William Weatherwax, Samuel Hager, 
Rev. Hunneman, Dr. McDonald, Dr. Davenport, M. McClelland, 
S. G. Dexter, Sephas Holden, William Clark, Thomas Scott, James S. 
Baird, Edward Kirby, George Cunningham, Alexander Boatright, 
Alexander Hubbard, John Kirby, M. Tongate, W. Bush, John 
Mills, James K. Murry, David Sherwood, Elijah Stephenson-, John 
Willis, John Ashpaugh, Solomon Cox, Levi Dodson, Thornton 
Ooley, Jabez Casto, John Reeves, Webster Casto, William McFad- 
den, M. Bilby, M. Oldham, W. Taylor, Deacon Taylor, W. N. 
Steele, Nathan Mills, Joseph Hussey, Margaret Hussey, Jesse Lee, 
Mrs. Lee, Ziba H. Wolcott, Henry Tracy, William Probst, Charles 

E. Taylor, Thornton Cooper, William Johnson, John McClorey, 

Gildwell, Thomas Briggs, James Laney, Harvey Rea, John Rine- 
hart, Edward Rinehart, A. E, Rinehart, Arthur Patterson, George 
Smith, Alexander Ross, Harry Ross, James Ross, Ephraim Ross, 
John Ross, Thomas Pugh, Ishmeal Pyle, Isaac Lambert and chil- 
dren, Ned Hanyan, Thomas Reeves, Sile Hanyan, Andrew Wilkins, 
Jeremiah Rappalyle, Robert Sturgis, Maj. Chunn, Ralph Robbins, 
Wait Robbins, Charles Prathers, William Buxton, Sr., William Bux- 
ton, Jr., Jonas Baker, John Barton, William Barton, William Kan- 
non, Stephen Larnard, William Murfur, John Jenckes, James 

Jenckes, Bowes Jenckes, Thomas Fry, W. H. Sage, Cyrus Finch, 

Finch, Satty Brown, Anson Wright, Lester Wright, Solomon Wright, 
Stephen Havens, Robert Havens, John Brown, W. W. Noaill, 
James Staggs, W. Bradford, William Gibson, Caleb Crawford, 
Thomas Case, Capt. Hudson, James Hudson, C. T. Hayden, Will- 
iam Musette, Richards, J. R. Cunigham, J. R. Edmiston, James 

McConnell, James McGravy, Stephen Earned, Maj. Miller, Alexander 

Miller, Jefferson Lovelace, William Mass, Harris, Joseph 

Brown, Jonathan Osborn, B. W. Osborn, Thomas E. Sangster, W. 

F. Pettit, John R. Serrend, Sr., John R. Serrend, Jr., James Serrend, 
John R. Wheelock, E. Elkin, Jarathraeal B. Jenckes, Jacob Sick- 
ford, John CoUett, Stephen Collett, Richard Blackman, Groen- 

endyke, Silas Haskins, Peter B. Allen, Lawrence, James Mus- 

selman, Edward Musselman, Samuel Musselman, Conrad Schat, C. 

Patrick, Kockner, Harry Rea, Thomas Durham, Potts, 

William Durham, John Dickson, John Chesnut, John Reinhard, G. 
McClure, William McClure, George Smith, James Smith, Zenas 
Smith, David Smith, John Smith, Jr., John Lyons, Isaac Elston, 


George Mickleberry, James Mickleberry, Henry Smith, James Hick- 
land, William Goodman, Cagy Goodman, John Hamt, George Rams 
dell, James Hurst, Michael Ward, Peter Crine, George Hager, Sr., 
George Hager, Jr., Samuel Hager, Jonas Seeley, William Rankin, AV. 
C. Lintou, David Linton, Henry Earle, Capt. William Earle, George 
Brasher, Henry Brasher, Ransom Brasher, William Brasher, Joseph 
Miller, Ransom Miller, William Miller, Joseph Parsons, Dr. Par- 
sons, Hillary Parsons, Harry Buckingham, William Boswell, Hack 

Bosworth, Wilson, Daniel Johnson, Ralph Wilson, George Hus- 

sey, Jesse Lee, Stacy Winter, W. Peters, Major Cochran, George 
Cochran, James Cochran, Hathaway Sadler, William Probst, Will- 
iam Brannon, John Davey, James H. Bilbey, Dr. Hitchcock, Mar- 
cus Hitchcock, James Hitchcock, G. P. Cookerly, Daniel Barbour, 
Orson Barbour, Cory Barbour, Wolsey C. Barbour, Sam Ever- 
sole, Joseph Eversole, Sr., Joseph Eversole, Jr., Dr. E. V. Ball, 
Stephen Trogden, John F. Craft, W. B. Krumbahrs, William 
Pound, Thomas Pound, Capt. John Strain, Solomon Goodrich, John 
Roatledge, Sr., John Roatledge, Jr., James Roatledge, Thomas 
Roatledge, William Steele, Rev. Weltou M. Modesitt, James A, 
Modesitt, W. D. Wood, John Greno, John Hemmely, James McCall, 
William McCall, Henry McCall, Munson Gosnell, Jack Gosnell, 
Cyrus Egitant, Daniel Miffins, Jeff. Miffins, Robert Anderson, George 
Anderson, Ned Miles, Andrew Rhodes, Isaac Madden, Isaac Whit- 
lock, Dr. McDonald, Dr. Davenport, Stephen G. Dexter, Enoch Dale, 
and sons. Dexter Dale, C. M. Dale, James Dale, Stephen Wooley, 
Horace Manse, Sephas Holden, J. G. Baird, Thomas Scott, Edward 

Kirby, George Cunigham, N. F. Cunigham, Frank Cunigham, 

M. Tongate, William Bush, Elijah Stephenson, John Miles, D. Mel- 
lens, Nathan Mills, David Sherwood, John Willis, John Ashpaugh, 
Solomon Cox, Levi Dodson, L. G. Warren, Chauncy Warren, W. B. 
Warren, Henry Warren, C. M. Warren, Joseph H. Blake, Curtis 
Gilbert, Dr. C. B. Modesitt, Chauncey Rose, Henry Rose, Demas 
Deming, Scott Bump, Gen. Charles Cruft, Capt. Edward Cruft, 

Oldham, William Taylor, Ziba H. Wilcott, Henry Tracy, 

Thornton Cooper, W. Johnson, John McClory, Robert Glidwell, 

Gildersleeve, Thomas Briggs, James Long, Albert Long, Harvey 
Rea, John Greno, James McCall, Cyrus Egitant, AVilliam McCall, 
Henry McCall, Robert Anderson, George Anderson, Harrison Ander- 
son, Edward Wiles, Major Whitlock, N. Beemer, John Beemer, 
James Tribue, William Hogue, Jonathan Osborn, Jacob Sickford. 

A Centenarian. — And now past her hundredth year by nearly 
three years, according to her own count, and past it by over two 
years according to the count of her friends. 

Mrs. Anna Baldy, "Aunty Baldy," as she is better known to this 
and the past two generations, is still one of the notable individuals 


of Terre Haute. The true record is: Born October 24, 1789, and 
•has spent nearly the century of her life, or, rather, much the larger 
part of it, in Terre Haute. And, all things considered, is wonder- 
fully strong and vigorous, mentally and physically. Serene and 
pleasant, with a life of much sunshine and happiness, she has out- 
lived her kith, and in that is alone, but not lonely, as she has 
kept her heart full with the young generations that have come on 
to know her and to venerate and respect her. 

October 24, 1889, the people celebrated her centennial birthday, 
when she received her friends at the Home for Aged Women. 
These friends had made up a purse of one hundred gold dollars, 
each one giving just one dollar, the total representing one hundred 
years of her life, and each dollar representing one cent for 
each year. Of course, one of her chief visitors was Mrs. Sarah 
Tilletson, in her eighty-seventh year at the time. These two old 
ladies had been acquaintances and friends much longer than it is 
permitted most persons to live. The visitors were greatly enter- 
tained at the many reminiscences of these two venerable ladies — the 
most recent gossip of theii-s was of things that happened more than 
sixty years ago. "Aunty" Baldy, when the day came and she 
realized that she was one hundred years old, met the realization as 
in a profound and silent revery ; her mind evidently going back to 
her well-remembered babyhood and those who had been dead for 
nearly a century, but this soon passed, and when there was but a 
few minutes until the clock would strike the hour, she would still 
say, "If I live twenty minutes more I'll be a hundred." Evidently 
for many years she had been prepared to go at any moment; when 
she got up in the morning it was in her mind, " if I live till night," 
and when she went to bed it was, " if I live till morning." She 
has long neither feared nor courted death — come when it may, it 
will simply be the tired child sweetly going to sleep. 

Among the friends that called on the occasion were: Mrs Sarah 
Tillotson, Mrs. McEwan, Mrs. Samuel McKeeu, Mrs. Huston, Mrs. 
John Vaughn, Mrs. W. H. Stubbs, Mrs. Mann, Mrs. Jessie Lee, 
Mrs. M. S. Durham, Mrs. J. O. Jones, Mrs. J. A. Parker, Mrs. Dia- 
mond, Mrs. Peter Miller, Mrs. Hessler, Mrs. W. H. Gloyd, Mrs. 
John Katzenbach, Mrs. Shannon, Miss Bidaman, Miss Mahon, Miss 
Jennie Same, Kev. J. W. Crum, Mr. William Jones, Mrs. John 
Beagan, Mrs. J. H. Briggs, Mrs. E. A. Hess, Mrs. J. H. Turner, 
Mrs.' Eilife, Mrs. C. Miller, Mrs. E. Whittaker, Mrs. William Fre- 
mont, Mrs. D. F. Hayes, Mrs. Dan Davis, Mrs. J. G. Hicklin, Miss 
Guerineau, Miss May Hussey, Miss E. B. Warren, Miss Douglass, 
Mrs. C. M. Warren, Mrs. Hague, Miss Brasselton, Miss Adamson, 
Miss Alice Jackson, Miss Chrissie Katzenbach, Mrs. Dale, Mrs. 
Bidaman, Mrs. Bannister, Mrs. Dr. Mahon, Mrs. Clemens, Mrs. C. 


E. Fuller, Mrs. Henry Bugli, Mrs. Isaac Ball, Mrs. E. N. Hudson, 
Mrs. McCoy, Mrs. Geddes. 

Those who made up the purse of one hundred dollars as a 
memorial gift so eloquent of their love and respect for the old lady, 
and which affected her most profoundly and warmed her heart as 
had seldom been in life by the precious token, were the following 
among others: Eliza B. Warren, Lucy C. Wonner, Joseph Gilbert, 
Mrs. Joseph Gilbert, Mrs. C. E. Fuller, J. H. Turner, James Koss, 
Mrs. L. Surrell, W. E. Douaghoe, Mrs. J. H. Sykes, E. W. Kemp, 
P. J. Kaufman, W. W. .Kaufman, Jacob Baur, Joe Miller, Mrs. 
H. D. Milns, Mrs. C. M. Warren, Mrs. J. A. Parker, Harry Don- 
ham, Mrs. Jennie C. Turner, Mrs. Isaac Dale, A. E. Meyzeek. Mrs. 
Samuel McKeen, Mrs. Samuel Reese, Henry Warren, Mrs. Robert 
Geddes, S. C. McKeen, J. F. Gulick, James Hunter, S. Swope, 
Theodore Stahl, J. Q. Button, Mrs. Robert Huston, Miss Guerineau, 
Mary E. Whittaker, Mrs. R. N. Hudson, Harry Ross, John Brake, 
R. W. Thompson, Mrs. H. Fairbanks, Mrs. 0. Fairbanks, Mrs. 
Persis Jones, C. F. Putnam, Dr. Young, T. J. Griffith, G. E. 
Brokaw, F. C. Danaldson, W. S. Rea, Buntin Drug Company, J. E. 
Somes, L. B. Martin, F. C. Buntin, M. S. Durham, G. W. Bement, 
Mrs. W. B. Warren, Mrs. Washington Johnson, A. Z. Foster, Mrs. 
Isaac Ball, Mrs. N. Filbeck, Mrs. A. J. Crawford, Miss Mary 
Hickcox, Mrs. Mary Weiss, Mrs. Sarah Deming, J. H. Sykes, 
George M. Allen, Daily News, W. H. Albrecht, W. H. Sage, 
George Buntin, Edward O'Boyle, J. T. H. Miller, Mrs. Mann, J. 
W. Miller, J. W. Crum. 

The following names were signed to a call upon the old settlers 
to organize an old settlers' society. It was stated in the call, which 
was issued in May, 1885, that all were included who had been here 
forty, years and over: H. Ross, Griffin Gray, Grafton F. Cookerly, 
C. W. Brown, H. D. Scott, R. N. Hudson, Preston Hussey, Joseph 
S. Jencks, E. N. Wyeth, J. B. Hager, C. M. Warren, Demas 
Deming, Thomas B. Carr, Lemuel Surrell, John B. Goodman, 
Jacob Seitz, J. L. Dickerson, W. A. Ryan, William Clark, D. E. 
Paddock, Nat. Allen, Samuel McKeen, C. T. Noble, Sr., John 
Prather, E. D. Carter, H. T. Rockwell, James Ross, J. W. Hunley, 
Jesse Lee, David Rippetoe, James M. Phillips, William A. McClure, 
James L. Davis, Peter Hughes, Helmsly Simmons, William Dur- 
ham, J. O. Jones, L. W. Dickerson, E. W. Chadwick, Solomon 
Franklin, R. W. Thompson, William R. McKeen, Joseph Gilbert, 
William Peppers, S. M. Young, E. H. Tillotson, W. F. Walmslye, 
William H. Brown, Thomas Beauchamp, A. M. Buckingham, Isaac 
S. Calvert, John Sums, W. W. Casto, John G. Brake, Reason 
Meek, Jackson Cox, P. M. Donnelly, James H. Turner, Eli B. 
Hamilton, T. P. Murray, M. S. Durham, John D. Chestnut, F. C. 


Crawford, G. E. Hedges, E. H. Thomas, P. S. Westfall, W. H. 
Sage, C. 0. Knapp, J. L. Humaston, Marion McQuilkin, James 
Hook, E. J. Sparks, D. W. Cropling, J. H. Blake, William G. 
Jencks, George E. Farrington, C. T. Noble, Jr., T. C. Buiitin, 
Harmon Blood, D. W. Eankin, G. F. Smith, George W. Carrico, 
S. K. Allen, James L. Beard, William Paddock, F. Nippert, D. S. 
Danaldson, J. B. Hedden, Samuel Connor, C. Gartrell, D. Gartrfell, 
William F. Schaal, James D. Sankey, M. C. Eankin, John Carter, 
James Schee, A. B. Trueblood, H. Evans, William P. Pugh, G. G. 
Boord, J. D. Bell, S. S. Finch, H. Haynes, Allen Pence, Edward 
Cruft, M. G. Ehodes, E. W. Eoss, S. H. Potter, S. Musselman, M. 
W. Sedam, William Slaughter, A. B. Pegg, E. M. Gilman. 

Another Centenarian. — John Dawson was born in Stafford 
county, Ya., November 15, 1789, the son o£ George and Nancy 
Dawson, one of five children. He was a lad ten . years old when 
Washington died, and can distinctly remember the thrill of sorrow 
that reached his backwoods home in Virginia on the announcement 
of the sad event. A number of Washington's relatives were his 
neighbors. His father owned his farm about ten miles from Dum- 
fries on the Potomac river. When John was seventeen years of 
age his parents removed to Kentucky — 700 miles, and at that time 
a perilous voyage. He regards it yet as the leading event of his 
young life. 

The trip was a severe one, and made under very great hardships. 
It was late in the fall, and during the entire trip, which was made 
in fifty days, continuous bad weather prevailed. There was a cold 
rain and sleet most of the time. To add to these discomforts the 
little party was often forced to remain in camp for several days at 
a time by the severe weather. They settled in Nelson county, Ky. 
At the age of twenty the subject of this sketch was married to Miss 
Sarah Eobison, who died a few years after, leaving two children — 
one son and one daughter. The children all died. In the fall of 
the same year, 1812, came the announcement of the war, 1812-15, 
Dawson joined a regiment, the Seventeenth Kentucky Volunteers, and 
served through the war under Gen. W. H. Harrison. He made the 
campaign from Kentucky to Canada. His regiment did some skir- 
mishing, but was in no hard battles. Eeturning from the war in 1815, 
Mr. Dawson went back to Nelson county. Shortly afterward he was 
married to Miss Lucetta Bridwell, and two years later removed to 
Indiana, settling in Lawrence county. His migration occurred in 
1817, and was but two years after the Indians had evacuated that 
part of the State. The State was then in its infancy, and Mr. 
Dawson devoted a great deal of his time at that period to hunting. 
Many the deer he has slain in that section, and many the hunting 
stories he can relate of his experiences at that time. It was at 


this period that he fitted himself for the position of school teacher. 
He has been a great man to change his location, and in the next 
forty years he taught school in perhaps a half dozen counties in 
this State. A great number of men who have come into promi- 
nence in commercial and political circles received from John Daw- 
son their rudimental education. He taught school until about 
thirty years ago, when he retired from the work. 

Fifteen children came to bless Mr. and Mrs. Dawson's wedded 
life — five boys and ten girls. Of these only four are now living: 
Hilton Dawson, lives at ShelburQ, Ind. ; Frank Dawson, at Haw- 
ville, Ind.; "Mrs. Elizabeth Douglass, at Terre Haute with her 
father, to whom she is a most loving and devoted daughter; and 
Mrs. Martha Douglass, of this city. Mrs. Dawson died in 1872. 
Fifteen years ago Mr. Dawson removed to Terre Haute, and has 
since resided here. Of grandchildren and great-grandchildren 
there are a large number. Some of them are not even known, 
having removed to distant sections of the- country. As nearly as 
can be estimated there are thirty grandchildren, sixty-four great- 
grandchildren and seven great-great-grandchildren. 

The great lapse of time since the birth of this republic has 
served to throw a halo of romance about all stories of revolution- 
ary days, but Mr. Dawson can recollect the times when the stern 
cruelties of those days were new, even fresher than those of the 
late war. He said: "Of course, as a boy, I paid particular atten- 
tion to war stories, and many times did I listen with bated 
breath to the recitals that were told by the old soldiers, my father's 
comrades; My father served the seven years of the war under 
George Washington, and while he was away my mother had q, hard 
fight for life. While he fought for his country and freedom she 
fought so keep her children warm and to keep the wolf from the 
door. After I was born the veterans used to talk over old times 
together, and many times have I seen brave, strong men with tears 
running down their cheeks. The memories of their sufferings did 
what the actual war could not do, it brought them to tears. 

Elisha U. Brown whose name is so prominent on the records as 
one of the organizers of the county, had settled on what is now 
known as Spring Hill farm — the present property and for some 
years the residence of Hon. Richard W. Thompson, Mr. Brown's 
family were relatives of John P. Usher, and were no doubt the 
cause of that gentleman's coming to Terre Haute to locate. Mr. 
Brown died at his home on Spring Hill in 1837. 

Joel H. Kester, long familiarly known to everybody as " Uncle " 
Joel Kester, died September 28, 1881, aged seventy-seven years. 
He was one of the early settlers in Vigo county. He was born in 
Welby, now Spencer county, Ky., February 29, 1804, and came to 


Indiana in 1827 and settled in Prairie Creek township. In 1824 
he was married to Naomi Carr, and had three children: John, 
who died a young man; Sarah married Gilbert Thomas, and Mary, 
widow of Virgil Sparks. 

In 1850 he removed to Terre Haute and engaged in business, 
keeping a grocery store for several years on the northeast corner 
of Fourth and Walnut streets. He was trustee of Harrison town- 
ship and served a term with credit in that ofl&ce. In the death of 
Mr. Kester the entire community felt the loss of a good and an 
honorable man. 

George Jordon, of Honey creek, was a representative of one of 
the oldest families in the county. He was born in Pennsylvania, 
April 5, 1798, of Scotch parents. When four years old his parents 
removed to Rose county, Ohio, where the son grew to manhood, 
and had the sparsest opportunities for an English education. In 
1817 Mr. Jordon came to Honey Creek township and made a crop 
on Isaac Lambert's farm. In 1819 he walked back through the 
woods to Ohio. In 1824 he married Judith H. Bennett; they had 
eight children, all survived their father. 

Samuel Sparks came here and cultivated a crop of corn in 1812. 
He attended an old settlers' meeting in 1875 — ninety years old; 
born near Louisville, Ky., in 1786. He reported having seen much 
trouble with the Indians. One night seven horses were stolen, and 
he described 'the pursuit and recapture of fourteen stolen horses, 
by making a night attack on the Indian camp and killing seven of 
the red skins. He spoke of the early clothing all made of animal 
skins; of their cedar " poridgers," wooden dishes and forks; how 
he came as a "ranger " in 1812 and bought land from a man named 
Ross. [Can find no other tradition of R. — j Samuel Sparks had 
been a preacher for forty years and had established a half dozen 
Baptist churches in this section. 

Mr. St. Clair came in 1818 from Kentucky, first stopping near 
Buck creek, where were thirty Indian camps. He never had 
any trouble with the red men except on one occasion, when he and 
the Indian shot the same deer and " discussed " the right of prop- 
erty. Mr. St. Clair was eighty-two years old in 1875. 

At this meeting a call was made for all present who had been 
in Fort Harrison for protection or were there immediately after 
the battle; one man responded — Mr. Richardson. Mrs. Ball, Mrs. 
Wilkin, Mrs. Johnson, Mrs. Haynes and Mrs. Wedding also indi- 
cated that they were in the fort. Mr. Richardson described the 
alarm given by the Indians; how they were encamped opposite the 
fort across the river, awaiting their annuities; the men had gone 
to Vincennes mostly from the fort and left the women and children 
but poorly protected; the Indians suspected that they were to be 


cheated; iu the night the traders awoke the people in the houses 
outside the fort walls, including himself. It was discovered that 
the tires of the Indians had been put out and their dogs were 
howling. The Indians danced their war dance and came over, but 
on seeing the people in the fort and prepared to defend themselves, 
they looked about and left, after stealing several horses and some 
articles from the houses outside. 

Mr, Ray, aged eighty-one, said he came in the fall of 1818. 
He was an old soldier of the war of 1812. 

Lewis Pucket was a younger brother of the noted Tom Pucket. 
He lived nearly his entire life in Vigo county, coming with his 
family iu 1816. He lived in Honey Creek township, where he died 
August 16, 1873, aged sixty. He was a plain, unassuming farmer 
and known by all as an honorable good man, 

Benjamin McKeen was born January 1, 1803, in that portion 
of Mason county that is now Lewis county j at the age of five 
years with his father's family, went to Adams county, Ohio, where 
he remained until 1811, at which time, young as he was, he came 
with his two brothers to Knox county, Ind. The family were 
Shakers and the boys stopped at the settlement in " Shaker Prairie '^ 
on Busseron creek. 

In 1823, when Benjamin was twenty years of age, he came to 
Vigo county. The brothers were mechanics, but workmen with 
the brain as well as the brawn. Benjamin soon after coming to 
Terre Haute, engaged in the New Orleans trade, carried on then 
by flatboats from the Wabash to a large extent. He was prominent 
in county affairs, and served in different county offices, especially 
as county commissioner to the time of his death, which event took 
place in December, 1866. The aim and delight of his life was to 
realize the growth and prosperity of the country in this vicinity, 
especially Terre Haute. No man ever performed either his private 
or public duties more earnestly, promptly or efficiently. The 
records of the county court are the evidences of his labors in office. 
" It is not all of life to live, nor all of death to die." And this 
was as true of Benjamin McKeen as of any man who ever spent 
his active life in Vigo county. 

Mr. McKeen left a widow and five children — three sons and two 
daughters — who are among the most estimable and prominent of the 
people of the county. 

A Valuable Scrap of Early History. — A few years before his 
death Capt. William Earl, the first-born male white child in Terre 
Haute, who was left an orphan quite young, and when nearly fifteen 
years of age succeeded in filling the measure of his young life's 
ambition and went down to the sea in ships. The stout-hearted 
lad shipped before the mast, and about the time his old Terre 


Haute friends had forgotten him, they heard the welcome news that 
the boy had gone from the humblest beginning as a sailor to the 
highest in command of his vessel. Fortune had smiled upon him, 
and his boyish dreams, acquired in a canoe on the Wabash, and 
then on a flatboat, as he said " to harden him," as he intended to go 
to sea and some time be the captain of a ship. 

All over the globe sailed this bold boy and man, but the heart 
pictures that he ever carried with him of his boyhood home and his 
Terre Haute friends never faded the least by time. The remarkable 
cirpvimstances of his life, his intense love for Terre Haute always, 
and his memory quicked, and his wonderful power of observation 
as a boy, and then being away from these the remainder of his life, 
all combine most fortunately to give us a picture as' made upon his 
mind nearly sixty years ago that could have been preserved in no 
other way. That he wrote down these recollections and gave them 
to us is more fortunate still. Under any circumstances this man's 
recollections of his early boyhood would have been valuable indeed, 
but as they do come to us they are far more valuable and less likely 
to mix up events and times and incidents and persons than if he had 
remained here all his life and seen and been a part of the constant 
occurring changes. 

From one of his communications to the Terre Haute Journal is 
taken the following extracts, and is an account of a trip he made 
from Terre Haute to Vincennes, many of his comments are as good as 
Dickens or anybody else ever conceived. 

"I send you an account of a trip to Vincennes in 1833, when I 
was quite a lad * * I wrote it during a very stormy passage 
across the Southern ocean, and I have had neither leisure nor in- 
clination to copy or correct it. * * I have tried to avoid all sea 
language, and have only used nautical terms where I could find no 
other word to express my meaning so well. 

"I only mention the horse with the cloven foot to show how the 
boys of those early days were addicted to habits of observation, * 
* I know this communication is too long, yet I was even tempted 
to tell how I crossed Honey creek on my pony, with Mary Ann 
Morgan sitting on the crupper. The water was more than half up 
the pony's sides. Mary Ann in trying to keep her feet dry lost her 
balance and hold of me and tumbled over backward, I caught her, 
however, by some part of her dress and towed her over the creek 
heels foremost. She was a sorry-looking sight when she reached 
the bank and stood on end. Her hair hung down her pallid cheeks 
like sea weed round a clam. Her dress clung to her as close and 
was as wet as the skin of a seal. Mary Ann was of good pluck 
and equal to the emergency. She thanked me for landing her on 
the right side of the creek, and then retired to a clump of bushes to 


make her toilet over again. I think she must have disrobed, for it 
wasn't long before I saw several garments (some were of calico and 
some were white) spread by hands attached to bare arms on the 
bushes in the warm summer sun, and not a long time elapsed be- 
fore Mary Ann emerged from the copse as dry as when we started 
from home. 

* * "It was in the early part of June, 1833, and early in the 
morning Mrs. Probst sewed $100 inside the lining of my vest. 
Mr. Probst instilled or tried to instill about as many instructions in- 
side of my head, how to go to Vincennes and enter an eighty-acre 
lot of land for him, and I mounted pony and was off on a gallop, 
down Second street to Main, down Main to Eagle and Lion 
corner, and then I made a straight wake for Vincennes. Pony and I 
were excellent friends. Mr. Probst had bought him for Asa and me 
of Micajah Goodman, over in Sugar Creek township, and gave 
$15 for him. He was a stocky, stubborn, self-willed little fellow of 
an Indian pony of considerable power for his size, and of great en- 
durance. He had a habit of taking the bits in" his teeth and running 
away with me at times. I could only stop him by steering into a 
mud hole or against a fence. 

" Just south of the hill I saw Maj. Lewis emerge from the 
bushes — you don't remember Maj. Lewis, do you? Well, the Major 
was very black, very short, wore a high bell-crowned hat, gray hair, 
a long, blue swallow-tailed coat that reached down to the calves of 
his legs, with brass buttons. I turned my head the other way, gave 
the pony the reins — pony laid back his ears, bared his teeth and 
made for the Major. 'Take 'a care dar, mine! I iell you, mine!'' 
shouted the Major, and I reigned up just as he entered the hazel 
bushes, his coat-tail on end and the whites of his eyes gleaming over 
his shoulder. The danger over he came out, saying: ' Dat hoss is 
mitey wish us, Massa Bill; you mus' be car'ful.' The Major was an 
institution, made lots of fun for the boys, not one of whom would 
hurt a hair on his head. He blackened boots, and his wife (Jenny 
I think was her name) did washing. 

"There were only one or two houses between Terre Haute and 'Old 
Terre Haute;' three or four between Old Terre Haute and Honey 
Creek bridge. A Clem family lived next to the bridge. In crossing 
the mile or so of prairie just south of the creek, passed two frame 
houses on the left, two on the right, then came the Quaker meeting 
house in a neck of woods on the left side of the road. Emerging 
from this strip of woods, the road lay along near the gentle slope to 
Honey Creek bottom ; past Moses Hoggatt's farm on the left, then 
came Robert Hoggatt's farm, then his store of brick, both on the 
right ; a little farther south on the top of the rising ground was Peter 
Agney's grog-shop. Nearly the whole of Honey Creek prairie was 


fenoed in on the line of the road. South of that pi'aiiie the travel- 
ing was more solitary, the road more wild. After passing Middle- 
town came Gordontown, a collection of seven or eight substantial 
new hewed-log houses tenentless, having been deserted some years 
previously on account of milk sickness. Somewhere not far south 
of Gordontown I rode up to a house a little back from the road on 
the right, and asked for a drink of milk. It was brought out to me 
by a very pleasant looking woman, who, learning I was from Terre 
Haute inquired if I knew Cyrus Grace (a bandy-legged clerk of 
William C. and David Linton) ; I think she was his mother. 

"After this I saw a fresh horse track, which rather puzzled me, as 
one foot left a cloven impression in the soft clay. I soon came up 
with a man riding a gray horse with his right foot split. This man was 
merciless in the number, kind and quality of the questions he asked 
me in regard to my business at Vincennes; I parried them as well 
as I could with the truth for a long time, but finding that entirely 
inadequate to the occasion, I am afraid I invented excuses for my 
visit to Vincennes and my business there, for which I have never duly 
repented. I was glad when he turned o& to the right with his cloven- 
footed horse and corn bags, yet he kindly invited me to stop at his 
house on my return. 

" The remainder of the road to Merom was mostly through the 
forests, now and then a small clearing indicating life. 

"I arrived at Merom shortly after noon ; as I alighted at the tavern 
door I sank to the ground unable to rise; three men ran out and 
picked me up and carried me into the house. One of these men was 
John Boudinot, one was Cyrus Bishop, and the other I do not remem- 
ber, but he was moving with his family to Terre Haute, where he 
afterward lived. I was very lame from riding so long and so fast 
without dismounting. The landlord joked me so seriously about 
Terre Haute that I almost cried with vexation. At last John Bou- 
dinot said: 'Let the lad alone, Major,' and there was peace. After 
dinner I went out to see Merom. Merom was in its normal condi- 
tion — asleep. The nearest approach to any work going on was a 
tailor slumbering on his bench and a dog gnawing a bone. I walked 
out to the blufP that overlooks the river, and while there a man 
lounged along with about as much energy as a soldier would require 
to haul a shad off of a gridiron. He pointed out to me the many ad- 
vantages and beauties of Merom, dwelling especially on an eagle's 
nest in a dry tree on the opposite side of the river. I told him I 
couldn't see any particular advantage an eagle's nest was to a town. 
He went off in high dudgeon, saying that I was too young to ap- 
preciate natural beauties." 

Has Merom waked up to the reflection of anything better than 
an eagle's nest in the State of Illinois? [Yes, they have a tri-weekly 
railroad. 1 


"About the middle of the afternoon I was ready to continue my 
journey. When I was about to mount, the landh^rd commenced run- 
ning on Terre Haute again. He must have been pretty severe for 
I forgot the respect due to my elders and said, as I mounted intoiny 
saddle: ' My worthy patriarch (his name was Abraham, Isaac or 
Jacob) I have seen Merom, and come to the conclusion that God 
must have created the town, for the people are too lazy to have built 
it, and have not spirit enough to finish what is begun.' A cane 
whistled by my head to the other side of the road. I don't think he 
tried to hit me with it. I added some other impertinence which I 
have forgotten; the men on the porch laughing loudly at me, or the 
landlord, I didn't know which ; I don't know that I cared. 

"As I rode through the woods after leaving Merom, I pondered 
over the thought of how great a traveler I was becoming. It may 
be well to remark in this conversation that these lines are on ship 
board at a point 192 miles distant south from the southwest extrem- 
ity of Van Dieman's land, precisely the same longitude. 

" I arrived at Mr. Webb's, six miles below Merom, long before 
sunset. There was no one at home but a girl some twelve or thirteen 
years old. She went with a run to the stable to put away pony, and 
then came back to sit on the steps of the porch to talk. We had not 
been there long before a traveler came along from the south on 
horseback. He had evidently neither traveled far nor fast that day. 
He was dressed in black, and with great neatness — not a spot or 
blemish on his shirt bosom, a very (for those times) narrow, black 
neckerchief; his hair smoothly brushed, and his hat shining. He 
was tall and slender, not a wrinkle on his smooth-shaven face; his 
hair light and thin, but he was not inclined to be bald. I was 
much pleased with his looks, and the young girl and I put away his 
horse, and then went back and resumed our seat on the steps. 
Meantime the stranger had prepared his toilet and was walking in 
front of the house when we returned. He would occasionally speak 
to us a pleasant word. After a while he came and sat down between 
us, which I didn't thank him for, and I felt very indignant when he 
took the girl's hand in his; my anger soon passed away, however, 
as he talked. I had never heard a man talk as he did to us two 
children. There was a kind of manner of speech and tone of voice 
that invited one to ask questions. He told of places where he had 
been. I deemed him a great traveler, and must have tired him with 
questions, but he answered all cheerfully. About sunset Mr. Webb 
and wife returned, and we soon had supper ; after Avhich the stranger 
and I walked up and down the road in front of the house. He had 
made me talk, and I suppose I uttered some first-rate nonsense. I 
was an ardent Whig, and I suppose I abused Jackson and Ratliff 
Boone and the Indian agent, who had just been elected to the United 


States Senate. At this the stranger said, 'Anybody might know 
I came from Terre Haute;' whereupon I flew at him with, 'And 
isn't Terre Haute as good as any other place to come from ?' ' Oh, 
yes, any one had better come from there than any place I know of,' 
he replied. I could faintly see there was a covert meaning to what 
he said, and I thought best to make a drawn battle of it. He in- 
quired my name, and I told him, with the addition that I was called 
tow-head sometimes. I was impertinent enough to ask his. I did 
not quite catch the name; it sounded like Jones or Bohrens, but 
most like Bones, and I called him Mr. Jones. We .were both ready 
to start the next morning at the break of day. As I was about to 
start to mount Mr. Jones came up to me, and wishing me good-bye, 
he added: 'If you should ever have occasion to speak of me and 
should be asked what my name was, tell them John Tipton.' Here 
was a pretty kettle of fish! John Tipton! Indian agent! United 
States Senator from Indiana, and what not! The very man I had 
been abusing. I begged his pardon as well as I could. He told me 
' never mind ;' he had had, and expected to have, worse things said 
of him than I had uttered. I saw him again in 1837, when he was 
going south, perhaps to attend Martin Van Buren's extra session of 
Congress. He stopped all night at Prairieton, where I was living 
at that time. He laughed when I reminded him of our meeting at 
"Webb's. He asked me if I had got no farther than Prairieton on 
my travels. 

" A heavy thunder storm had passed during the night, and Mr. 
Webb told me I had a creek to cross which would probably be 
swollen, and for me not to attempt the crossing if the water was 
above a certain mark, but to go a quarter of a mile farther up, where 
I would find shoal water. I found the water up to the mark, and I 
plunged in — the pony came near being swept away — gaining the 
other bank, I halted, looked back, shook my head and started on at 
a gallop. I took breakfast at Samuel Emerson's. Mr. E. was pro- 
prietor of the mail stage between Terre Haute and Vincennes, I 
believe. Shortly after leaving that place, in crossing a little stream 
of water the pony made a jump and I was left sitting in the mud 
and water. I slipped off my nether garments, however, washed 
them in the brook, and dried them on the bushes in the warm sun. 
I stopped at a farmhouse about half way between Mr. Emerson's 
and Vincennes and asked for a drink of milk. A boy brought it to 
me, and asked me to dismount and get something to eat. I de- 
clined, and was soon at Vincennes. I was not long in finding the 
land office, or one of them. I forget which I had to go to first, 
register or receiver. I felt very important when I told the gen- 
tleman in the office that I wished to enter an eighty-acre lot, and re- 
peated the town, range, section, quarter and half quarter, and then 


compared my little slip of paper with his noting. He asked me if 
I were not very young to be sent so far on such business. I must 
have felt twice as large as usual when I told him I did not think 
anyone too young to do what he was able to do.' He accompanied 
me to the other office, where the business was soon settled. One of 
the gentlemen, I forget which, offered to let me stop at his house 
while I remained at Vincennes. One of the gentlemen's name was 
John Badolet. I remember him well, for I took dinner with him 
at Homer Johnson's hotel a few days afterward. 

"I stopped with a family named Bailey. There were two brothers, 
John and Thomas, and a sister named Emeline, besides a little girl 
named Clara. Mrs. Probst and Mrs. Lane, of Terre Haute, were 
also sisters of the family. I had a grand time at Vincennes, last- 
ing all day Wednesday and Thursday. Cherries were just ripe 
and I put many of them where they would do the most good. I 
stuffed little Clara, who was only four years old, so full that Emeline 
scolded me. 

" The next day after my arrival I wandered about the town and 
saw much to wonder at. I saw a cotton factory, wind-mills invented by 
a man named Coleman, that spread as much canvas as a line of 
battle ships leaving the hub of the universe — the printing offices of 
the Vincennes Oazeite and the Vincennes Sun. Mr. Caddington 
was the editor of the first, and I know Elisha Stout was editor of 
the other, and a stout old Democrat he was, too. His editorials 
were in the first person singular, very non-committal, except in 
politics ; here is an example plastered to my memory, ' I am cred- 
itably informed that the Wabash River is on the rise.'' [In all the 
books is there in a sentence a neater or more complete picture than 
this of the Captain's about the "stout old Democrat?" — Editor.] 

"I saw a sign which read: 'Rum, Gin and Brandy, Raisins and 
Candy.' I fell in with a lot of boys throwing tin in the rear of 
Nick Smith's tin shop. They asked who I was and where I came 
from. After they had satisfied themselves on this point, they 
wanted to know if I wanted to fight. I told them ' no,' whereupon 
one of them dared me to knock a chip off his shoulder. I told him 
he might keep the chip there, I had no objections. He then at- 
tempted to put one on my shoulder. I stepped aside and told him 
I didn't want it there ; he followed and made the second attempt, 
when I struck him on the side of the head with my fist. This was 
a signal for hostilities. All hands pitched in, the consequence was 
the distinguished traveler from Terre Haute got a pretty thorough 
pounding. I made out to get hold of a hickory switch, and made 
some of them hop about like French dancing masters, and kept 
them all at bay.. Just at this stage of the engagement some one 
took hold of my arm. I looked around and saw Jake Gullinger, he 


said: 'What, Billy, are you here fighting half the boys in Vincennes!' 
He made us all make friends; then we set to work ornamenting Nick 
Smith's shop with bits of tin. Poor Jake; he was a horse-race 
rider or a race-horse rider, I don't know which you term it. He 
was killed, I believe, by a fall from a horse some three or four years 
afterward. His mother, I think, lived out in Lost Creek township. 

"On Friday morning, just as day was breaking, I mounted pony 
and started on my way home, with a heart overflowing with joy 
and my pockets stuffed with doughnuts. I took a pretty early 
breakfast at Mr. Emerson's and pushed on for Mr. Welsh's, where 
I arrived a little before noon. I didn't leave there until the mid- 
dle of the afternoon or later, finding it hard to leave the little girl. 
We parted, however, and we have never met since, for she was not 
at Mr. Welsh's the following year when I went to Vincennes. I 
intended to have galloped through Merom, and was doing so when 
I was stopped by my friend of the Eagle's Nest. I had observed 
a number of the more enterprising citizens asleep on the sunny 
sides of their houses, apparently preparing for the fall campaign 
against the fever and ague. The Eagle's Nest inquired the 
news. I informed him that Gen. Jackson had been elected 
President the November previous. He told me they had already 
received the intelligence through Mr. William S. Cruft, who had rid- 
den over from Carlisle the day before and found a small boy awake in 
the streets and had told him. I was also hailed and brought to bay 
by the patriarchal innkeeper, to whom I gave a newspaper, had a 
short talk with him and resumed my journey. He didn't say ' Terre 
Haute ' once. After I left him I began to think what a cheery 
voice he had and how kindly he spoke ; how rudely I had spoken to 
him the Monday before ; my heart misgave me, I turned the pony, 
went back and asked forgiveness for my impoliteness. You can't 
tell how light my heart became as soon as I had done this. 

"I remember nobody attached to that house except the boy with 
the freckled face and red hair. After supper he took a position 
near the sign-post and repeated some lines with considerable 

A stranger traveling through the West 

By chance espied a Hoosier's nest, 

And fearing he might be benighted 

He hailed the house and then alighted. 

The Hoosier met him at the door; 

Their salutations soon were o'er, 

He led the stranger's horse aside 

And to a sturdy sapling tied. 

Then having stripped the saddle off, 

He fed him at a sugar trough; 

The tired traveler walked to the door, 

Had to stoop to enter in, 

The entrance closing with a pin. 


Inside two rifles placed above the door, 
Three dogs lay stretched upon the floor, 
Dried pumpkin overhead was hung. 
Around the fire was gathered soon 
Some five or six young Hoosieroons, 
With mush and milk, tin cups and spoons, 
White heads, bare feet and dirty faces, 
Seemed well inclined to keep their places. 
Supper over it was not long before 
Good madam, anxious to display 
Her rough and undisputed sway, 
Her offspring to the ladder led 
And cuffed the youngsters up to bed. 
Then the conversation became general, but 
Mine host he centered his affections 
On game, and ranges and quarter sections. 

" This fragment has clung to my recollection nearly fifty years. 
I never heard it repeated but the one time, never saw it in print. 
The boy said he saw it in a Cincinnati paper. We sat on a sloping 
bank near the sign-post and talked over our hopes and intentions. 
He was going to congress and I was going to see the world. I 
wonder which has come the nearest to his goal ? 

" The following morning I was ofP bright and early. My desire 
to know the news of the painter of the landlord's sign was very 
great ; he had evidently taken great pride in this exhibition of his 
literary attainments, for he bad attached his name to it. If I only 
knew his name I would assist thus far to immortalize it. * * * 

" It was a lovely morning and quite early when I came to the 
vicinity of Gordontown. I checked up to a slow walk to enjoy the 
solitude; to me these deserted houses were a Tadmor. Often and 
often, even to this day does Gordontown haunt my dreams, always 
however, connected with a lone rock away down in the great 
Southern ocean, over which I have just passed ; that rock in dreams 
appears to rise sheer aloft a thousand feet ; its base baffles the briny 
waves ; its summit renders asunder the low, swift flying clouds ; no 
animal life can exist upon it ; no wild sea-bird can hover near it, no 
sacred albatross on balanced wing can sail around it. How often 
in these visions of the night have I hove" my ship to, under stern 
stay-sails under its lee amid the thick haze and upon the troubled 
waters, and watched this seeming embodiment of desolation and 
despair fade away in the mists of the night. Walking my horse 
slowly along I was soon startled by a herd of seven or eight deer 
trotting out from among the houses into the road. As soon as they 
saw me they bounded up the road to the north with pony after 
them. They soon sprang into the woods to the left and I galloped 
along to Middletowu, where I watered the pony and met Steve 
Taylor (saw-buck). Stephen rode two or three miles along the 
road with me and then turned off to the left as the deer did, but not 
with the same speed. When going south through Honey Creek 


prairie I had noticed the height of the corn, and now returning I 
was surprised at its growth in five days. 

" Just north of where Prairieton was afterward laid out I came to 
a two-story white frame house. A little girl some ten years old was 
in the yard. She had long dark curls and very bright eyes. I 
asked if I could get a drink of water for myself and pony. She ran 
and opened a side-gate and I rode in and dismounted at the well. A 
large trough stood by the pump. I filled it with water and 
plunged my head into it to the chin — a practice that I have followed 
so far back that my mind runneth not to the contrary. The little 
girl exclaimed with astonishment: ' Is that the' way thee drinks 
water?' I answered: ' No, miss, I don't .drink water when I can 
get milk.'" 'Oh!' she said, 'thee has never been weaned yet. 
But thee must not let Aunt Racheal hear thee call me miss.' 

" ' What then is your name?' I asked. 

" 'Mary Johnson Hoggatt' she replied, scampering off. 

"I heard her ask 'Aunt Kachel' for 'a bowl of milk for that 
crazy boy out there.' 'Aunt Rachel' sent out a towel and a comb. 
I had let the water run out and by this time refilled the trough, and 
the pony plunged his nose into the water half way to his eyes. 

" ' Why, that horse does just the same as th^e did. Does he want 
some milk too ?' 

" I soon dispatched mymilk and its accompaniments and thanked 
my little bright-eyed handmaiden, mounted the pony and was again 
on my homeward-bound passage. Near the Friends meeting-house 
I met Capt. McComb, Col. Dowling's veteran voyageur, who in 1836 
had been forty -two trips to New Orleans. I went to New Orleans 
with him in 1838 on his forty-fourth trip. He was going to hit a 
man over the head one day with the skillet-lid for speaking ill of 
me. I had a short yarn with him. I stopped to have a few words 
with Jacob Jones at his house. I always liked Jacob because he 
would tell me every time I saw him that when he was assisting to 
build a chimney to my father's house, they came to work one morn- 
ing in September, and were told tbat they could not work that day 
as a man-child had been born during the night. His name was to 
be William and is the writer hereof. 

" I crossed Honey creek at the usual place, of course I would not 
cross at a bridge if I could help it. 

" I stopped my horse to view the surroundings, where the ghost 
had lately been seen — near the corner where the same year the corn 
grew eighteen feet high. 

"I arrived home late in the forenoon. Asa met me at the gate 
and took the pony to ride around to the stable, but somehow man- 
aged to fall overboard before he got there. This tumbling off the 
pony was chronic with Asa. I was warmly greeted by Mrs. Probst, 


Lane and the children. That night a letter which I had mailed at 

Vincenes arrived. I had takejii that precaution in case I met with 
an accident." 


Became a County, February 15, 1818. 

IN our account of the settlement of this particular spot on the 
Wabash River, we have now arrived at the time when the rapid 
increase of population demands that a new county be formed. In 
the beginning of the year 1818 this was Sullivan county, and the 
settlement in the vicinity of Fort Harrison became fully entitled to 
be stricken off and have their own convenient seat of justice, and 
this public necessity was heeded by the legislature. The following 
is the act: 

An Act for the Formation op a new County off op the County of 

Sullivan. Approved, January 21, 1818. 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, That 
from the fifteenth day of February next, all that part of the county of Sullivan 
included in the following bounds shall form and constitute a new county, that is 
to say: Beginning at a point on the Wabash river where the seclion line between 
fractions 14 and 23, in Range 11 -^est, Township 10 north, strikes the same^ thence 
east with said line to where it intersects the range line dividing Ranges 6 and 7 
west.Township 10 north; thence with said range line to the Indian boundary; therrce 
north with said boundary to the division line between the State of Indiana and the 
Illinois Territory; thence south with said line to where it strikes the Wabash river; 
thence down said river to the place of beginning. 

Sec. 2. The said new county shall from and after the fifteenth day of Febru- 
ary next be known and designated by the name and style of Vigo county, and it 
shall enjoy all the rights, privileges and jurisdictions which to a separate county 
do or may properly appertain and belong. 

Ssc. 3. That Elihu Stout, of Knox county; John Allen, of Davies county; 
Charles Scott, of Sullivan county; James D. Jones, of Gibson county, and Marstin 
G. Clark, of Washington county, be, and they are hereby appointed commissioners 
to designate the place for the seat of justice of Vigo county, agreeably to an act 
entitled "An act for fixing the seats of justice in all new counties hereafter to be 
laid off." The commissioners above named shall convene at tlie house of Trueman 
Blackman, in the neighborhood of Fort Harrison, on the third Monday of March 
next, and then proceed to discharge the duties assigned them by law. 

Sec 4. The board of commissioners, of said new county of Vigo, shall, within 
twelve months after the permanent seat of justice shall have been established, pro- 
ceed to erect the necessary public buildings thereon. 

Sec. 5. Until suitable accommodations can be had, in the opinion of the circuit 
court at the seat of justice of said new county, all the courts of justice of the same 
shall meet at the house of Trueman Blackman, near Fort Harrison, from whence 
they may adjourn, if they think proper, to any other suitable place near the center 
of said new county, and as soon as the public buildings are, in the opinion of the 
circuit court, in a suflicient slate of forwardness for their accommodation, the 


courts shall adjourn to the county seat; and after that time the circuit court and 
all other courts necessary to be holden at the seat of justice of the-county aforesaid, 
shall be held at the county seat established for said county. 

Sec. 6. Whenever the seat of justice of the said new county shall have been 
established, the person or persons authorized by law to lay off the lots and sell the 
same shall reserve ten per centum on the net proceeds of the whole sale of lots for 
the use of a county library in said new county, which sum or sums of money so 
received shall be paid over to such person or persons as may be authorized to receive 
the same in such manner and in such installments as shall be authorized by law. 

Sec. 7. Be it further enacted. That the said county of Vigo, which was for- 
merly a part of Sullivan, shall form a part of the respective counties of Knox, Davies 
and Sullivan, for the purpose of electing senators and representatives to the General 
Assembly, until otherwise directed by law, in the same manner as if this act had 
not been passed. 

Sec. 8. This act to talse effect and be in force from and after its publication. 

This was the new county of Yigo [pronounced Veego, though 
the pronunciation Vygo is entirely permissible]. The name is pure 
Spanish, and the soft pronunciation would seem to be preferable. 

The boundary lines originally differed materially from those of 
the present. In the above description it will be noticed that the 
starting point is between Sections 14 and 23, where the line strikes 
the Wabash river, and then due east (this is just three miles 
north of the present southern boundary line of the county) ; then 
it ran east to the range line between Ranges 6 and 7 (that was two 
miles farther than the east line of the southern part of the county 
now is) ; then it followed this range line to the " Indian boundary 
line." That is now a " lost line " on the present maps, and hence 
the school children in studying their geographies could not trace 
out the original boundary line of the county without studying the 
history of the treaties with thelndians and Harrison's purchases, 
from time to time, of their lands. This Indian boundary line 
evidently was what was known to the Indians and the early settlers 
as "the 10 o'clock line." 

This line runs in a northwest and southeast direction — as the 
Indians could comprehend about in the direction of the 10 o'clock 
sun. It passed the mouth of Raccoon creek in Parke county and 
passing east of Brazil to White river in Jackson county. 

Vigo county then included on the east a strip two miles wide, 
commencing at the southeast corner of the county, and extending 
north to the south line of Township 13 and along the range line 
between 6 and 7, as now, but striking the Indian boundary line in 
what is now Parke county; then going northwest past the mouth of 
Eaccoon creek to the State line. The county then included what is 
now a part of Clay, and the southwest part of Parke, and nearly 
the south half of what is now Vermillion county. 

It continued in this shape until January 10, 1819. On the first 
day of January of that year the legislature passed an act contain- 
ing the following: "After the 10th of January next all that part 
of the county of Sullivan lying within the following bounds to 


wit: beginning on the Wabash river at the southwest of the said 
county of Vigo on the said river Wabash ; thence with the 
meanders of the same to where the township line dividing Towns 
9 and 10 intersects the Wabash ; thence east with the said line to 
the range line dividing Eanges 6 and 7 ; thence north with the said 
line between Ranges 6 and 7 to the southeast corner of Vigo 
county, shall be, and the same is hereby attached and shall form a 
part of said county of Vigo." 

January 9, 1821, the new county of Parke was formed from the 
north part of Vigo county. This fixed the north boundary line of 
Vigo county as it is now. The act provided: "That all that part 
of Vigo contained in the following bounds, shall form and consti- 
tute a separate county, viz.: Beginning at the line dividing the 
States of Indiana and Illinois, where the line between Townships 

13 and 14 north, intersects the same; thence east to the line divid- 
ing Ranges 6 and 7, west of the third principal Meridian,'''' etc. 

The same year, December 31,- 1821, the new county of Putnam 
was formed, and that again remapped Vigo. Its boundaries were 
as follows: Beginning in the center of Range 7 west on the line 
dividing Townships 10 and 11 north; thence east fifteen miles to 
the line dividing Ranges 4 and 5 west; thence north twelve miles 
to the line dividing Towns 12 and 13 north; thence east three 
miles; thence north twelve miles to the line dividing Townships 

14 and 15 north; thence west fifteen miles to thS line between 
Ranges 6 and 7; thence south six miles; thence west three miles, 
and thence south eighteen miles. 

This act remained in force one year, when an amendatory act 
was passed, which restored to Vigo county her original boundary 
lines as they existed before Putnam was formed. The new boundary 
lines of Putnam, and restoring the territory of Vigo was an act of 
the legislature of December 21, 1822. The following are the new 
metes and bounds of Putnam : Beginning in the center of Town- 
ship 12, north, on the range line dividing Ranges 6 and 7, west; 
thence east twenty-four miles to the line dividing Ranges 2 and 3; 
thence north with said line twenty-seven miles to the line dividing 
Townships 16 and 17, north; thence west with said line twenty-four 
miles to the line dividing Ranges 6 and 7 ; thence south twenty- 
seven miles to the place of beginning. 

This restored the territory of Vigo, " except any part of her 
original territory that might be in the new boundary lines of 

But in time some confusion arose as to the exact boundary 
lines, and the jurisdiction, especially of the counties, lying along 
the Wabash river. 

In 1852, in order to correct any inaccuracies in the statutory 


definition of different counties' boundary linee, the general assem- 
bly passed an act dividing the State into counties and defining their 
boundary lines. Then in 1873 a supplemental act to the above was 
passed, and of Vigo county it is enacted : 

" The district of country within the following boundaries shall 
form and constitute the county of Vigo: Beginning at a point on 
the Wabash river, where the line dividing Townships 9 and ten 
strikes the same; thence east to the line dividing Ranges 7 and 8; 
thence north to the line dividing Townships 12 and 13 north; 
thence east to the southeast corner of Section 32, Township 13, Range 
7 west; thence north to the line dividing Tovnships 13 and 14; 
thence west to the State line ; thence south with the State line to 
the Wabash river; thence down the same to the place of beginning." 

This described the lines bounding the county, and especially 
the county's east line, dividing Vigo and Clay. It so remains at 
present, and in all probability will not be subject to any more 

The county was not fairly upon its feet as an independent mu- 
nicipality until some vexed questions arose as to the term of office 
of the county commissioners, and the legislature finally had to step 
in and untangle matters. 

January 8, 1821, an act was passed " legalizing the board of 
county commissioners of Vigo County." The preamble recites the 

Whereas, It is represented to this general assembly that in March, 1818, the 
county of Vigo was organized and three commissioners for said county were 
elected; and the act organizing the board of county commissioners does not pro- 
vide when the election for commissioners shall take place upon the organization of 
the new county; and whereas, the first board were [was] elected in March, 1818, 
and Ezra Jones being elected one of said board, drew for one year, and Isaac Lam- 
bert, who drew for two years, and John Hamilton, who drew for three years; and 
the said board being of opinion that the seat of the said Ezra Jones would be va- 
cated in August, 1818, ordered an election, whereupon the said Ezra Jones was 
re-elected; and that in August, 1819, the said Isaac Lambert's seat would be vacated 
and ordered an election to fill the vacancy, when the said Isaac Lambert was 
re-elected to fill his own vacancy, and that in August, 1820, the said John Hamil- 
ton's seat would be vacated, and an election was ordered at the last annual election 
to fill the vacancy of the said John Hamilton, when Gersham Tuttle was elected 
and received his certificate and was sworn into office; and an election was ordered at 
the last annual election, also to fill the vacancy of Ezra Jones, who had previously 
resigned, and John M. Coleman was elected'to fill said vacancy; and whereas John 
Hamilton has considered that he has a right to his seat until March, 1821, in conse- 
quence of which four commissioners have appeared and taken their seats at the 
last meeting of the board of county commissioners; and whereas, doubts are enter- 
tained of the legality of said board since August, 1818, and also of the time of the 
commissioners elected in March, 1818, were to serve. " After this very full statement 
of the tangle the legislature confirmed all of them and legalized all their acts. 

John M. Coleman was appointed by the legislature as one of the 
county seat commissioners for the new county of Parke formed out 
of the northern part of Vigo county. 

In 1818 an act of the legislature authorized Jane Dubois execu- 


trix and Touissant Dubois and William Jones executors of Touis- 
sant Dubois, deceased of Vigo county, to sell and convey a por- 
tion of the lands of said deceased, not otherwise disposed of by his 
will, for the payment of the debts of the estate. 

In 1818 the legislature appointed Touissant Dubois of Vigo 
county, one of the commissioners on county seat for the new county 
of Owen. 

January 2, 1821, an act apportioning the senators and repre- 
sentatives of the State was passed. By this act Vigo county was 
entitled to one representative. And the counties of Vigo, Sullivan, 
Greene and Owen were made a senatorial district. 

January 2, 1819, the State was divided into four judicial cir- 
cuits, Vigo was in the first, and courts were to be held in the county 
in the " fourth Mondays in February, May and September, and 
shall sit six days, if the business requires it, at each term." The 
counties composing the first circuit were Knox, Sullivan, Vigo, 
Owen, Monroe, Lawrence, Dubois and Davies. 



UPON this honorable body devolved the duty of creating and 
putting in motion the machinery of the new county. 

The first meeting was May 13, 1818; John Hamilton and Isaac 
Lambert, commissioners, present. 

First business consisted of authorizing an order to Curtis Gil- 
bert, clerk, $27 for record books; |10 to Nathaniel Huntington, 
for drawing bonds; $400 to William Durham "in part payment for 
building walls, etc., of court-house," and $300 to Elihu Hovey and 
John Brocklebank " in part payment for building the court-house," 
and John M. Coleman is allowed $300 " in part payment for build- 
ing the foundation walls and piers of the court-house." The money 
for public buildings came from the Terre Haute Land Company — 
the $4,000 the company gave to have the county seat located here. 
The court then adjourned. 

The next meeting was June 25 following, when an additional 
payment of $60 was allowed John M. Coleman. 

At the August meeting following, $10.75 was allowed Elisha 
U. Brown for surveying and laying out road in now Parke county. 


The same man was allowed $15 for " taking a list of the taxable 
property of the county " for the year 1818. 

The law allowed the commissioners $2 a day for services in 
actual attendance. 

The first board of commissioners was Ezra Jones, John Hamil- 
ton and Isaac Lambert. 

At a meeting March 11, 1819, Andrew Brooks was appointed treas- 
urer of the county, and Elisha U. Brown, "lister;" Daniel Stringham 
was appointed superintendent of school Section 16, in Township 11, 
Range 9; Peter B. Allen in school Section 12 north, 9 west; Caleb 
Crawford for Section 13 north, Range 9; Joseph Walker for 14 
north. Range 9; John Venesse, 16 north, 9 west; William Adams, 
15 north, Range 8 west. 

At this meeting the county was divided into four road districts. 
The next day the road, districts increased" to seven, and Otis Jones 
was appointed supervisor of first; John Dickson, second;' Ezra 
Jones, third; Robert Graham, fourth; Joseph Walker, fifth; Robert 
Mitchell, sixth; John Beard, seventh. 

In March, 1818, elections were ordered on first Monday of 
April following for the election of justices of the peace. Moses 
Hoggattwas appointed inspector of elections, and Elisha U. Brown, 
Joseph Walker and John Vanness also appointed election inspectors. 

His Jones, Elisha Bentley and William Walker were appointed 
to lay out the system of roads for the county. This included twenty- 
one new roads to be laid out, and to be opened immediately to 
accommodate each settlement. 

The following rate of taxes for 1818 was fixed by the board: 
On farst-rate land, every 100 acres, 50 cents; on second-rate land, 
43f cents, and on third-rate land, 31^ cents; for every horse, mare, 
mule or ass over three years old, 37| cents; for stallions, once the 
rate they stand by the year ; every tavern |20 ; every ferry $5 ; for 
town lots 50 cents on every $100. Lucius H. Scott was appointed 
"agent" (that is, tax collector), and required to give bonds in the 
sum of $25,000. 

In August, 1818, the board held a meeting at the house of Otis 
Jones for "the purpose of receiving testimony, and deciding the 
right of Lucius H. Scott to the office of sheriff." The first acting 
sheriff, Truman Blackman, had been 'appointed, and an election was 
held on the first Monday in August. Scott's election was contested 
on the ground that the election notices were not according to law. 
The contest was dismissed and Scott duly declared elected. 

November 10, 1818, Touissant Dubois was licensed to establish 
a ferry at Terre Haute. He was required to "procure and keep 
constantly in good repair a flat-bottomed boat sufficient for the 
transportation of loaded wagons and four horses, and one good skiff 


for the transportation of passengers." The ferriage was allowed, 
for a wagon and one horse, 25 cents; wagon and two horses, 50 
cents; wagon and four horses, |1 ; ox teams in proportion; man and 
horse, from April 1 to December 1, 12^ cents, at other times, 25 
cents ; cattle, 6 J cents ; hogs and sheep, 3 cents each. At the same 
time a license was granted Adam Weaver, for a ferry at Terre 
Haute on the same terms as the proceeding, and each was charged 
$10 license. 

February 10, 1819, Andrew Brooks was appointed county 
treasurer; John Britton appointed same time "lister;" Peter Allen, 
inspector of elections in Harrison Township; James Jones, inspector 
in Honey Creek Township; William Adams, Jr., and John Durkee, 
inspectors in Wabash Township ; Otis Jones was appointed constable 
in Honey Creek Township. 

In February, 1819, on-the petition of Harrison and Independency 
Townships, two roads were established: One commencing at the^ 
west end of Ohio street, then direct to the Wabash river ; the other 
commencing at the western shore of said river, running to Mai. 
Robert Sturgus' mill on Sugar Creek. 

At the same time a road running east from Terre Haute to the 
county line, near the corner of Sections 1 and 4, Township 12, 
Range 7, was provided for, and Robert Sturgus, Caleb Crawford and 
William Walker were appointed viewers. This was road No. 30. 

Another road .at the same time was provided for to'commence on 
Market street at the intersection of Swan and to run in the direction 
of Swan street; then west to the river, and to continue west from 
the west side of the river to Sturgus' mill. 

Another road was provided for to commence at the Fort Harrison 
road opposite the lone tree near James phesnut's on Honey Creek 
prairie ; thence to the ford of the bayou ; then to the Wabash river ; 
then down the bank of the river to McClure's ferry, "or in that 
direction as far as the county goes." 

Another act locating a road "from the school-house near the 
dwelling of Elisha Bentley on Honey Creek prairie," running 

George Kirkpatrick, February, 1819, was licensed to keep a 
tavern in Terre Haute ; Charlton Britton appointed constable in 
Harrison township ; Robert Mitchell, constable for Wabash township ; 
Solomon Lusk, for Independence ; February 9, 1819, James Cun- 
ningham licensed to keep a tavern in Terre Haute. 

At the same time Charles B. Modesitt and Curtis Gilbert were 
licensed to establish a ferry at Terre Haute. Their ferry was to run 
from Lots 256 and 257, at the foot of Ohio street [the board called 
it the mouth of the street]. 

At the May session a road was ordered from Lambert & Dickson's 


mill to the house of Moses Evans, and then to the southeast corner of 
the county. Eleazer Aspinwall, agent for the Terre Haute Company, 
petitioned for change of road. Two justices of the peace were allowed 
for Wabash township. 

May session, 1819, Joseph Malcom was authorized to open a ferry 
across Wabash river, south of Terre Haute. Same time tavern rates 
were fixed as follows: Whisky, half pint, 12^ cents; rum, half pint, 
37^ cents ; brandy and wine, pint, 50 cents ; victuals per meal, 25 
cents; horse kept on hay and corn, 50 cents; oats and corn per 
gallon, 12^ cents ; lodging per night, 12^ cents. Tavern license in 
Terre Haute raised to $20 a year, and ferries at Terre Haute and 
John Durkee's and Salmon Lusk's ferries, |12 per annum, and 
the charges for ferrying reduced 25 per cent. 

Elisha Bentley was appointed road supervisor for District No. 2 ; 
Isaac Lambert for No. 3; William Walker for No. 4; Abraham A. 
Markle for No. 5 ; Seymour Treat for No. 6 ; Peter Allen for No. 
7 ; Gersham Tuttle for No. 8 ; Jacob Bell for No. 9 ; Joseph Walker 
for No. 10; Eobert Sturgus for No. 11 ; John Durkee for No. 12, and 
Truman Ford for No. 13. ^ 

Under the law of 1819 Robert Harrison was appointed inspector 
of flour, beef and pork. 

May 1819 the board " ordered that the act of the State entitled 
'An act supplemental to an act for opening and repairing public 
roads and highways, approved December 31, 1818,' be, and the same 
is hereby in force in this county." 

' Same time the board selected the following petit jurors for the 
succeeding year: John Adams, Truman Blackman, Jacob Balding, 
Robert Brasher (hatter), James Bennett, John Briggs, John Blair, 
George Clem, Thomas H. Qlarke, James Curry, Eli Chenoweth, John 
Campbell, Alban Davis, Archibald Davidson, William Phillips, 
Luther Franklin, Robert Graham, Gordon Hallaway, William 
Adams, Amos P. Batch, Robert Bratton, Michael Blair, John Beard, 
Michel Brouellette, Alexander Chamberlin, Stephen Campbell, 
Robert S. MqCabe, Robert McCoskey, Isaac Chenoweth, William 
Drake, William Durham, John Dickson, George French, William 
Foster, Ariel Harman, William Hamilton, Caleb Arnold, William 
Bales, John Blocksom, Samuel Blair, John Bailey, Daniel Barbour, 
James Chestnut, Caleb Crawford, Anthony B. Conner, John McCaw, 
Nathaniel F. Cunningham, Joseph Dickson, David French (State 
treasurer), Thomas Ferguson, John Goodwin, Robert Hopkins, An- 
drew Himrod, Henry T. Irish, James Johnson, Otis Jones, Pierre 
Laplante, Elisha Parsons, Samuel L. Richardson, Abraham A. Mar- 
kle, Samuel May, Jeremiah Mote, Sr., Salem Pocock, George Rec- 
tor, John Robertson, Eleazor Paddock, Jr., Thomas Pucket, John 
C. Packard, James Pettingall, Henry Redford, Hamilton Read. 


Grand Jurors. — Peter Allen, William Adams, Jacob Bell, Elisha 
U. Brown, Abraham Elliott, John Hamilton, George Kirkwood, 
Joseph Liston, Joseph Leiceler, Samuel McQuilkin, Armstrong 
McCabo, William Paddock, George Kush, Joseph Shelley, William 
Thomas, Joseph Walker, Jeremiah Wilson, George Webster, George 
Jones, James Jones, Jr., Daniel M, Brown, David Barns, Joseph 
Evans, John Jenckes, John Kesler, Isaac Lambert, David Lyon, 
Macom McFadden, William Mote, Kobert Sturgus, Robert Robin- 
son, Daniel Stringham, Gresham Tuttle, William Walker, Ebenezer 
Wilson, Charles B. Modesitt, David Likins, Abraham Markle, Elisha 
Bentley, Alexander Barns, John Earle, Henry Kuykendall, Thomas 
Pounds, Ezra Jones, John Mansfield, Robert Mitchell, Joseph Mal- 
com, Jeremiah Raymond, Dimsey Sibald, Seymour Treat, John 
Vannesty, Casper Weaver, Edmund Liston, James Hall. 

George Clem petitioned to vacate road from Terre Haute, cross- 
ing Honey creek at John Goodwin's. 

A road tax was levied for 1819, on every 100 acres — first rate 
land, $1.50; second-rate land, $1.31|^; third-rate land, 93| cents. 

The grand and petit juries were furnished room at Dr. Modes- 

August 17, 1819, board met at the house of William Walker. 
The business of this meeting was to investigate the legality of 
Isaac Lambert's re-election as commissioner. He wfts confirmed. 

Out of thi-s election grew the muddle in the doings of the board 
that had finally to be cured by act of the legislature recited in a pre- 
vious chapter. 

The county commissioners who signed the records for 1820 were 
John M. Coleman, Isaac Lambert and Gersham Tuttle. 

In the early part of 1821 a coroner's inquest was held upon the 
dead body of Isaac Ashton. Jurors in the case were William C. Lin- 
ton, Daniel Wylie, Thomas H. Clarke, Thomas Rodgers, Abraham 
Morehead, Samuel Mites, Macom McFadden, Robert Graham, 
Samuel Slaven, John Slaven, John Harris and Reuben Newton. 

At a special session of the board, March 3, 1821, Thomas H. 
Clarke was appointed county collector. 

In the organization of this county it seems that the counsel and 
advice of Attorney Lewis B. Lawrence was had, as in 1821 the board 
allowed Lucius H. Scott, administrator of the estate of Lawrence, 
the sum of $150 "for services of the said deceased rendered the 
county in collecting and for advice." 

At the March term, 1821, $243 was allowed Henry Bedford "as 
the balance due him for building the jail." This was the old log 
jail on Lot 117 on the northwest corner of Third and Walnut 

Circuit court, April term, 1821, was held at the house of Robert 


Harrison, for which he was allowed $12, and John Harris was 
allowed $6 for jury room at his house. 

Henry Allen was allowed S52 for services as "lister" for the 
year 1821. 

Hovey & Brocklebank were contractors for all the carpenter 
work on the court-house. 

August meeting, 1821, William C. Linton appears as one of 
the board, having been elected on the first Monday of that month a 

August 2, 1821, Thomas H. Clarke sent the following: 

To the Honorable, the Commissioners of Vigo County: 

Whereas, There is a misunderstanding relative to the oflfice of collector, and 
many persons suppose that I am collecting taxes by virtue of an appointment from 
your honorable body, and not by virtue of the authority vested in me by the sheriff 
of this county, this is therefore to correct the misunderstanding. I have 
collected taxes in behalf of the sheriflE of said county, and if the commissioners 
conceive that I have the least pretensions to the office of collector by virtue of 
their appointment, I hereby resign all such pretensions. 

It will be noticed in a preceding chapter that the legislature 
finally had to adjust this matter of tax collecting, and legalize pre- 
ceding actions. 

Adam Weaver was in 1821 running the " lower ferry," and was 
complained against, but the complaint was dismissed. 

The first record found of an appropriation to a pauper was a 
doctor's bill to Dr. Modesitt for attending P. Jenkins, in August, 

A bridge had been built across Honey creek at Lambert & 
Dickson's mill, and Samuel Caldwell and Moses Hoggatt appointed 
to build a bridge across Honey creek " at the lower ford " at the 
August meeting, 1821. Commissioners at this meeting were William 
C. Linton, Gersham Tuttle and Isaac Lambert. 

It seems at the November session, 1821, the county had on 
hand two more paupers, John O'Brien and C. V. Hutton. 

November 14, 1821, Isaac Lambert resigned the office of county 
commissioner, and Moses Hoggatt was elected to fill the vacancy ; 
sworn in January 21, 1822. 

At this session the minutes show that Charles B. Modesitt had 
paid his ferry license and given notice of his ferry having been 
" personally discontinued." 

Thomas H. Clarke, treasurer, reported as the law required, Feb- 
ruary 11, 1822: 

Paid in since last report (November 10) $ 715 32 

And to building fund 2,004 15i 

These sums had been paid out for their respective purposes. 
Caleb Arnold was appointed "lister" for the year, 1822. 
Robert Graham was paid at the February session, 1822, $148 
for building the Otter Creek bridge at the "army ford." 


In August, 1822, L. H. Scott resigned as county agent, and 
James Farrington was appointed to fill vacancy; salary $60 a year. 

August 19, 1822, board of commissioners met at the house of 
Moses Hoggatt to consider the question of contest of the election 
of Thomas H. Clarke, sheriff. The court met and adjourned from 
day to day. Finally adjourned to Terre Haute, and testimony all 
in, they voted to "throw aside as illegal the vote of Harrison 
township, on account of the malconduct of Joseph Mark, inspector 
of said election." 

December 5, 1822, Robert Sturgus was " appointed treasurer in 
the place of Thomas H. Clarke, commissioned sheriff." 

The commission to lay off a State road from Evans ville to Terre 
Haute reported January 1, 1823. Within this county they de- 
scribe this work as commencing " from the meeting-house, near 
Prairieton creek, and then by mile-posts running north and north- 
east. The commissioners were John J. Neeley, Samuel Emison 
and James Wasson. 

At the February meeting of the board, 1823, the commissioners 
present were Gersham Tuttle, W. C. Linton and Joseph Liston. 
At this meeting John Jackson, George Webster and Elisha Parsons 
were appointed commissioners to "view and open a part of the 
Evans ville State road." 

Robert Sturgus was appointed county treasurer for the year. 
Again the board for the year established the prices for ferries, 
hotels and whisky, rum and wine, at the old figures given before, 
except ferrying was considerably reduced. 

Conrad Frakes was appointed constable for Prairie Creek town- 
ship ; Jehu Hay worth, for Honey Creek ; John Price, for Reiley ; John 
Harris and Macom McFaddeu, for Harrison; Elisha Huntington, 
for Otter; Amos Smith, for Paris; and Ellison Crews for Sugar 
Creek township. 

Election Inspectors: Armstrong McCabe, for Prairie Greek 
township ; James Jones, Honey Creek ; William Ray, Reilly ; 
William C. Linton, Harrison ; George Webster, Otter Creek ; 
William Adams, Nevins; John Durkee, Paris; and William Ray, 
Sugar Creek township. 

April 8, 1823, James Blake and John M. Coleman filed their 
report of the survey of State road, John Britton, surveyor. The 
road, so far as Vigo county was concerned, commenced at the fifty- 
seven-mile stake, and thence to Terre Haute. 

Grand Jurors. 1823: William Adams, William Adams, ^r., 
Daniel M. Brown, Robert Bratton, James Bennett, Elisha Bentley, 
Benjamin Bailey, James Barns, William Button, John Briggs, 
Daniel Barbour, Robert Caldwell, John Cox, John M. Coleman, 
Nathan Riddle, Isaac C. Elston, Stephen Campbell, Isaac Cheno- 


weth, William Cook, Abram C. Davis, Daniel Durham, William 
Drake, William Durham, Elisha Parsons, Joseph Evans, Thomas 
Forgason, George Hussey, John Jackson, Daniel Jenckes, Daniel 
Justice, James Jones, Nathan Kester, Benjamin Kerchival, Joseph 
Liston, Abraham A, Markle, William Mote, William Armstrong, 
Joseph Malcom, Armstrong McCabe, Joseph Noblit, Jeremiah 
Nevans, Keuben Newton, Gaylord Porter, Thomas Pounds, Salem 
Poccck, Jonathan E. Greene, William Eay, David Reynolds, Joseph 
Shelby, George Webster, John H. Watson, William Walker, 
Nicholas Yeager, John Black. 

Petit Jurors: Henry Allen, William Arnett, Dexter Angell, 
Caleb Arnold, Elisha U. Brown, Jacob Balding, Evan Brock, 
Thomas Black, John Britton, Alexander Chamb^rlin, John Coltrin, 
Caleb Crawford, Elijah Corson, William Caldwell, John Campbell, 
Jr., Stephen S. Collett, George Clem, James Curry, Price Chees- 
man, Samuel M. Caldwell, Eleazer Daggett, Joseph Dickson, 
Thomas Durham, James Drake, George W. Dewees, Joseph Ever- 
sole, Athel Forgason, William Foster, George Frence, James Fer- 
ril,Woolin A. Gugg, Thomas Greene, Micajah Goodman, Zebina C. 
Hovey, Bradford Heacock, Ansel Harris, Hallam Huntington, 
John Harkness, John Hawk, Robert Hoggatt, John F. King, 
Isaac Keys, Joseph Kester, John Dickson, Isaac Laforge, Macom 
McFadden, Asa Mounts, George Malcom, Joseph Mark, Robert 
S. McCabe, Robert Michel, John McGriff, John Mansfield, 
Robert McCaskey, John M. Martin, Eli Noel, William Paddock, 
Peter Price, Daniel T. Pinkston, William Pounds, William Roy, 
Jr., John L. Richardson, Jeremiah Rappleye, Lewis Rodgers, John 
Robinson, Samuel Roy, Sylvester Sibley, Jonas Seeley, Abner 
Scott, Henry Shoemaker, William McGlone, Elijah Tillotson, 

At the May term, 1823, the county road districts were reformed 
and seven districts made. Supervisor of Number 1 was Richard 
Hicks ; 2, Thomas Pounds ; 3, Enos Brock ; 4, John Jackson ; 5, John 
Dickson; 6, William Durham; 7, Daniel M. Brown; 8, Isreal Har- 
ris; 9, Joseph Dickson; 10, Peter Allen; 11, Jacob Balding; 12, 
Nath. Huntington; 13, William Adams; 14, Mark Williams; 15, 
John Durkee; 16, William Caldwell; 17, John Block. 

At this term Demas Deming was allowed $90 for use of room 
for court clerks. Robert Graham had contracted and built the Otter 
creek bridge. 

This year the rates of taxes changed as follows : 

First rate land, 100 acres $1 00 

Second rate larid, 100 acres 66f 

Third rate land, 100 acres 50 

On every horse over three years old 37i 

On every work-ox 25 

On every tavern in Terre Haute 20 00 


On every tavern elsewhere 10 00 

On every ferry in Terre Haute 20 00 

On every ferry above Terre Haute 15 00 

On every ferry below Terre Haute 5 00 

Town lots, each $100 ' 50 

At the August meeting, 1823, Elijah Parsons appeared as the new 
commissioner, with William C. Linton and Joseph Liston. The 
best land in the county was taxed one cent an acre (public build- 
ings and school houses all to build yet) . How does that compare with 
present taxes with everything built and paid for ? 

The increase of wealth has more than kept pace with the neces- 
sary increase of public expenditures, please bear in mind. 

D. Johnson & Co. was allowed a license "to sell foreign goods" 
on payment of $10.90. 

This year the taxes were raised a little: Horse, 37| cents; ox, 
18| cents; taverns or retailers of spirituous liquors in Terre Haute, 
$25; elsewhere, $10. This is the first mention of "retailers of 

Thomas H. Clarke was sworn into office of collector, Februarv, 

A bridge was ordered across Prairie creek at the State road 
crossing, and Armstrong McCabe, Ebenezer Paddock, Jr., and 
Benjamin Kircheval appointed commissioners thereof. At the same 
time the old bridge over Otter creek was ordered removed and a new 
one built, James Barns, Joseph Evans and George Webster to con- 
tract for same. 

Nathaniel Huntington and Henry Markle were authorized to 
build a toll bridge across Otter creek, at Abraham Markle's mill. 

May 13, 1824, at special session William Durham had com- 
pleted his contract on the walls, etc., of the court-house, and a final 
settlement was had and his bond cancelled. 

The law changing the board of three commissioners went into 
effect in 1824, and the first meeting of the board of justices convened 
Monday, September 6, 1824, as follows: Joseph Dickson, Ichabod 
Wood, Charles B. Modesitt, Mark Williams, Isaac Keys, Fisher 
R. Bennett, Armstrong McCabe, Joseph Malcom, James Hall, 
Nicholas Yeager. When the members were duly sworn they pro- 
ceeded to ballot for president of the board. . Mark Williams was 
elected for the term of one year. 

John Campbell was county treasurer. A special tax on land 
for roads was levied on non-residents' lands. James Farrington 
was county agent. Samuel McQuilkin was granted a license to retail 
liquors in Terre Haute for one year — $20. License to retail foreign 
merchandise was granted to J. F. and W. F. Cruft — $15. Sheriff 
ordered to advertise election of one justice of the peace to reside in 
Terre Haute. Ordered that a scrowl with the letters L. S. written 


therein be considered the seal of this board until a different one is 

Macom McFadden, a constable in Harrison township, resigned 
September, 1824. 

Same year, September 8, merchandise license was granted to 
William C. and David Linton; liquor license granted to Israel Har- 
ris in Terre Haute ; also to Francis Cunningham, and the same to 
John Campbell. 

At the November meeting of the board of justices, 1824, John 
F. Orufts was appointed president. The board adjourned to the 
house of Israel Harris. The next day Armstrong McOabe and 
Israel Harris took their seats as members of the board. 

November, 1824, license to sell foreign merchandise was issiied 
to Bonner & Earley. 

Full board met at the house of Israel Harris, January 3, 1825, 
as follows: Joseph Dickson, Fisher R. Bennett, James Hall, John 
Jackson, Jr., Charles B. Modesitt, Joseph Malcom, John F. Crufts, 
Robert Graham; Mark Williams, president. Ordered that sealed 
bids for furnishing the southwest upper room of the court-house 
(lathing and plastering) be received. Henry Allen was appointed 
county "lister;" John Campbell appointed treasurer. Abraham 
Markle granted license to retail foreign merchandise, 

January 7, 1824, the legislature passed an act providing for 
laying out and opening a State road from Terre Haute to Crawfords- 
ville. Jacob Bell and James Smith were appointed commissioners, 
and Joseph Shelby, surveyor. The survey was completed July 25, 

September 5, 1825, the ofl&cial term of Mark Williams, presi- 
dent of the board of justices, having expired, John F. Crufts was 
made president for the ensuing year. 

The new members for this year were Armstrong McCabe, Ash- 
ley Harris, William Bay and Gooding Halloway. John Campbell 
Curry appointed county treasurer. 

November 8, 1825, Henry Allen was appointed county agent, vice 
James Farrington, resigned ; Henry Allen appointed collector. 

At the meeting of the board of justices, January, 1826, Alanson 
L. Baldwin, Ashley Harris and Mark Williams appeared and took 
their seats as member^. 

January, 1826, a bridge was ordered "over Honey creek at R. 
W. Spears' mill," and James C. Turner, Robert Bratton and Daniel 
T. Pinkston appointed to superintend the same. 

Stephen S. Collett, trustee seminary fund, resigned in 1826, and 
John Campbell was appointed. Masons were granted the use of the 
grand jury room for one year. 

George Malcom appeared at the May meeting, 1826, and was 
sworn in as a member of the board of justices. 


This year a new tax rate was made: Horses, 50 cents; work 
oxen, 25 cents; two-wheel pleasure carriages, $2; four-wheel, $3; 
brass clocks, S2; gold watch, |2; silver watch, $1; pinchback 
watches, 75 cents; license to retail liquors at Terre, Haute, $20; 
other places, $10; retail merchandise, $25; ferry at Terre Haute, 
$15; elsewhere, above, $10; below, $5; on lands exclusive of im- 
provements, 100 acres, first rate, $1; second rate, 75 cents; third 
rate, 62^ cents. 

May, 1826, John F. Crufts resigned and Charles B. Modesitt 
was elected president of the board of justices. 

Same time William Durham, John F. Crufts and Thomas Par- 
sons were appointed a committee to erect a jail as follows: "The 
rooms to be eighteen feet square in the clear, two stories high, the 
ground room to be ten feet, the upper nine feet high in the clear, 
to be built of good white oak timber; the foundation to be good 
stone; and also to build a frame the same size as the jail, for the 
purpose of accommodating the jailer, to be attached to the jail with 
a passage between six feet wide and under the same roof." The lot 
selected was 117, on the corner of Walnut and Third streets. 

September, 1826, Stephen S. Collett, justice of the peace for 
Harrison township, appeared and took his seat in the board. Mark 
Williams was again elected president of the board. License issued 
to Chauncey Rose to retail merchandise; also to Lucius A. Scott. 

January, 1827, at meeting of the board, Stephen S. Collett was 
appointed president _pro iem; Henry Allen again appointed county 
collector. James Farrington was appointed county treasurer, vice 
John Campbell, removed. S. S. Collett resigned his seat in the 
board of justices July, 1827. 

The July session of the board of justices, 1827, ended as such 
the existence of that body. The law was changed to the old system 
of the three county commissioners again in force; and John F. 
Cruft was elected to a term of three years, Ebenezer Paddock to 
two years and Alban C. Davis to a term of one year. The new com- 
missioners held their first meeting November 5, 1827. At the 
August election, 1828, Alban C. Davis was elected commissioner 
for the term of three years, 

John F. Cruft resigned the office of county commissioner and 
superintendent of public buildings January 5, 1829. William 
Probst was elected county commissioner at August election, 1829. He 
was re-elected at the August election, 1830. He was made superin- 
tendent of public buildings. 

Amory Kinney resigned the office of justice of the peace of 
Harrison township. May, 1830. 

A commissioner of school lands in the county was ordered 
elected in 1831. 


At the May session of the county board, 1831, the overseer of the 
poor. Sugar Creek township, was authorized to buy horse, saddle 
and bridle, not to exceed $30 in value, " for the purpose of removing 
William Baine, who is likely to become a pauper," and sweet Will- 
iam was " removed." 

May session, 1831, the county was divided into districts for the 
election of county commissioners as follows: "All that part of the 
county lying north of the center of Township 12 to constitute the 
first district; all that part of the county lying south of the center of 
Township 12 and north of Township 10 to constitute the second 
district; and that part of the county lying in Township 10 north, 
to constitute the third district." 

James Farrington was appointed county treasurer in 1829 ; Will- 
iam Ramage appointed to take care of and keep the court-house and 

The seminary trustees purchased in November, 1831, of William 
C. Linton, out-lot No. 43, for the purpose of erecting thereon a 

Asa L. Chase was elected county commissioner at the August elec- 
tion, 1833. He was succeeded by John H. Watson, elected August, 
1835, and he succeeded by William Kay, elected in August, 1836. 

May, 1837, Samuel W. Edmunds resigned the office of com- 
missioner of school lands, and the board appointed Cromwell W. 
Barbour to fill the vacancy. 

The legislature, in 1835, provided for a county assessor, and 
the board appointed Ezra M. Jones. For 1836, Henry Allen was 
appointed; 1837, Timothy D. Bailey. He resigned on account of ill 
health, whereupon William McFadden was appointed for the north 
part of the county, and Walter E. Earley for the south part. 

Edward V. Ball was appointed medical attendant upon the pau- 
pers of the county in 1837. 

Collector for 1829 was Henry Allen; 1830, William McFadden; 
1831, Charles G. Taylor; 1832, Ezra M. Jones; 1833, William McFad- 
den; 1834, Charles T. Noble; 1835, Ezra M. Jones; 1836, John 
H. Watson, reappointed in 1837 ; 1839, Benjamin McKeen. 

In 1830 Samuel McQuilkin contested the election of Charles G. 
Taylor, declared elected sheriff. The board confirmed Taylor's 

Lost Creek. — March session, the county commissioners ap- 
pointed under the act of the legislature, " an act to provide for the 
drainage of Lost Creek," approved January 21, 1837, appointed 
James B. McCall, James Barns and Jacob Burnap drainage com- 

Thomas Pound was elected county commissioner at August elec- 
tion, 1837. 


"At the March session, 1839, appears the last record in the 
county commissioners' court, made by Curtis Gilbert as clerk of 
the county. He retired from the office that he had filled so well 
twenty-one years, and was succeeded by Charles T. Noble. 

William Ray was re-elected commissioner in August, 1839. 

At the August election, 1840, Orrin Dowdy was elected county 
commissioner for the First District, and Isaac M. Ray for the Second 
District, successors to William Ray and Thomas Pound. 

Joel H. Kester was elected to succeed Paddock, in 1841. 

In January, 1841, the commissioners contracted with Samuel 
Ray to keep all the paupers of the county " except Gohen," for the 
sum of $700 a year, the county to supply the poorhouse rent free. 

In 1842 the offices of treasurer and collector were joined, and 
Nathaniel F. Cunningham apippinted to succeed James Farrington. 

A board of tax equalizatiwnjor the county met in Terre Haute 
in November, 1841, consisting of Orrin Dowdy, Joel H. Kester and 
Isaac M. Ray, the county commissioners, and William Paddock ap- 
praiser, and Wells M. Hamilton, auditor. 

Special session of the county commissioners November 16, 1841, 
to fill the vacancy in the recorder's office, caused by the death of 
Daniel H. Johnson. Charles T. Noble was appointed recorder. 

Stephen H. Taylor was appointed assessor in 1842. 

Britton M. Harrison was appointed inspector of salt for the 
county in 1842. 

The commissioners fixed the rate of taxes for 1842 as follows: 
On James Farrington's ferry, at Terre Haute, $35; on Charles B. 
Modesitt's ferry, $25 ; on Walter W. Farley's ferry, above town, $10 ; 
on Ninevah Shaw's ferry, $10; on Malcom's ferry, $10; and on each 
license to retail liquors in Terre Haute, $30 ; and in all other parts 
of the county $5 ; on each traveling caravan, circus, show, theater, 
collection of animals, $20 for each day's exhibit; license to vend 
wooden, brass and composition clocks, $75; foreign merchandise, or 
foreign and domestic groceries, $5 ; on every thousand dollars' worth 
or under of property, $2.50; every additional thousand dollars' worth, 
and in that proportion, not to exceed $20; also on each traveling 
merchant or peddler, $5. There was a road tax " on each poll " of 
50 cents, and also 20 cents on each $100 of property as listed on the 
assessor's books. 

August, 1842, Fdward Miles was elected commissioner to succeed 
Isaac M. Ray. Cromwell W. Barbour was re-elected school com- 

At the June term, 1836, John H. Watson was appointed to con- 
tract for the building of clerk's and recorder's fire-proof offices to be 
erected on the public square, south of the court-house. Watson was 
one of the county commissioners. 


Nothing came of this order, and the matter rested antil the 
June session, 1843, when the board accepted the bid of John Bou- 
dinot to erect a fire-proof clerk's and recorder's offices. At the meet- 
ing of the board, July 23, it was ordered that the site for the clerk's 
and recorder's offices be changed, and they were ordered to be erected 
on Lots 1 and 2 in the subdivision of Lot 96. The board appropriated 
the sum of $1,085. The city was required, as a condition, to con- 
vey to the county one undivided half of said sub-lots, 1 and 2, and 
also unite with the county in the erection of the building for the 
use of a part of the same for the town; the town and county to hold 
the property in common; the town to occupy the second story, and 
the county to have the lower rooms; the house to be 33 feet' front by 
fifty feet deep; the county's part to be divided into three rooms; a 
hall to be 12 feet wide. 

This fire-proof house was built. In December, 1843, it was 
ordered that the three offices of the new building, the front room on 
Market street, for the use of the treasurer and auditor, and the middle 
office, the clerk, and the back office to the recorder. 

The condition of the ground between the old court-house and the 
town hall, or the fire-proof clerk's office, is indicated by the order of 
the commissioners appropriating $50 to " assist in filling and 
grading the pond." 

This building became known as the Town Hall, and was jointly 
occupied by the county and city until 1852. 

County purchased the lots south of one and two where the hall 
stood, extending to Ohio street, and is the same ground now occu- 
pied by the old court-house, which has passed into private hands 
and the old building refitted and made into business rooms below 
and offices above. 

The town hall was totally consumed by fire in 1864. There 
were papers of the county lost, but the records were all saved. The 
fire had started in the adjoining frame buildings, and, as the roof 
was of shingles, it caught, and the interior, or woodwork, burned 

In January, 1865, the county, through B. H. Cornwell, pur- 
chased the city's interest in the lots on which stood the old town 
hall, paying therefore $850. At the same time Benjamin McKeen 
was delegated to go to Indianapolis and procure a plan and specifi- 
cation for the building afterward erected at the southeast corner of 
the public square, on the lots occupied by the " town hall " and 
those purchased running to Ohio street, and in March, 1865, bids 
were asked for the erection of a court room and county offices. Clift 
& Williams and Hadden & Reece were contracted with as builders, 
March 28, 1865, for the sum of $24,050. The contractors to take 
the remains, walls, etc., of the old town hall, and 194,400 brick that 


were on the ground at $8.75 per thousand; the building to be com- 
pleted on or before December 1, 1865. 

The auditor's report shows that there was expended on the build- 
ing, from June 31, 1864, to May 31, 1865, $5,075.50, and there was 
expended from June 1, 1865, to May 31, 1866, $26,131.31; then 
there was for furniture, etc., $190 expenses, making the total cost 

September 7, 1866, the board ordered courts to be held in the 
the new court-house, on Lot 96. This is the building on the cor- 
ner of Ohio and Third streets. 

Edward Miles was elected commissioner in 1842. 

Orrin Dowdy was re-elected commissioner at the August election 
1843. John Britton continued to fill the office of county surveyor, 
and Nathaniel Cunningham, treasurer. 

County commissioners at the September term, 1843, were Orrin 
Dowdy, Joel H. Kester and Edward Miles. 

Ordered that the Cumberland, or National, road be placed under 
the supervision of the respective road supervisors through whose 
districts it passes. 

Five dollars was allowed Smith & Button for sperm candles 
furnished at the last term of the circuit court. This item is valu- 
able as indicating about when the use of sperm candles came, and 
also that the circuit courts had night sessions and crowded the work 
before them, working hard all day and late into the night, very 

William L. Weeks in 1843 contracted to take charge of the 
county poorhouse and to keep the paupers, to be at all expense of 
food and clothing, and receive in gross therefor the sum of $500. 

Edwin Gartell was allowed $10 for taking James Johnston, a 
counterfeiter, to Warrick county. 

Wells M. Hamilton continued as auditor, and Nathaniel Hunt- 
ington county treasurer. 

" Ordered that Jehiel Fisk be allowed, etc., for medical services 
administered Burgulia Fenemore " — both dead. 

The following grim account needs only one word of explanation. 
It was Noah Beauchamp who was the "prisoner." 

Items presented by the sheriff of Parke county, allowed: 

Thomas R. Yeomans, sheriff, dieting prisoner $36 87 

Coffin 8 00 

Shroud and making 4 57 

Nails and lumber for gallows 5 78 

Rope 1 00 

Barber's bill for shaving prisoner 1 75 

Washing clothes for same 3 00 

Erecting gallows 10 00 

Total $69 97 


William McFadden was allowed ^50 for boarding jurors upon the 
trial of Samuel Dias and Hanna Gilman for murder. 

March session, 1844, E. W. Thompson and E. Flint appointed 
trustees of the Vigo county library, to fill vacancy caused by the 
resignation of Thomas H. Blake and the death of Mr. Prindle. 

August election, 1844, John Carr elected county commissioner, 
representing District No. 3, succeeding Joel H. Kester. 

Nathaniel F. Cunningham entered upon another term of office of 
treasurer, October, 1844, with William Wines, John H. Watson and 
Samuel Crawford, securities. 

Same day Wells M. Hamilton again commissioned auditor, with 
Charles T. Noble and John H. Watson, securities. 

In 1845 tax rate fiixed as follows: For State pujrposes, .20 cents 
on each $100 worth of property assessed, and a poll tax of 50 cents, 
and 1 cent on each $100 for a lunatic asylum, and 5 mills on each 
$100 for a deaf and dumb asylum, and two mills on same for the 
education of the blind. 

For county purposes the sum of 20 cents on $100, and a poll 
tax of 50 cents; on Farrington's ferry on the National road, $30; 
on Modesitt's ferry, $20 ; Durkee's, $5 ; on Adair's, at Fort Harri- 
son, $10; on Malcom's, $3; Ninevah Shaw's ferry, $5; on liquor 
license in Terre Haute, $20; elsewhere, $10; each menagerie $8 
per day; circus, $10; show and wax figures, $5; theaters, $5 a 
day ; rope walking and dancing, $5 a day, same, sleight-of-hand per- 
formances; broker's license, $100 per year; to mend brass clocks, 
$10; merchandise, $5 on each $1,000. 

August election, 1845, Thomas Durham elected county commis- 
sioner for the Second District, to succeed Edward Miles. 

In December, 1845, Kichard W. Thompson and John H. Wat- 
son gave bond for keeping Modesitt's ferry. 

August election, 1846, Samuel W. Edmunds elected commis- 
sioner of the First District, and Benjamin McKeen elected from 
the Third District. The board then being: First District, Samuel 
W. Edmunds; Second District, Thomas Durham; Third District, 
Benjamin McKeen. 

Thomas Durham 1st is the way this commissioner designated 
himself from the other Thomases in the family. 

In 1847 Benjamin McKeen removed from the Third District, 
whereupon the associate circuit judges, William Dickerson and 
Jacob Jones, appointed Samuel M. Young to the office of commis- 
sioner of the Third District. 

August election, 1847, David Boyle elected to succeed Samuel 
M. Young. 

In August, 1848, Ishmeal Pugh elected county commissioner 
from First District. 


1848 William Goodman contested election of William Gan- 
non, trustee of Congressional Township 12 north, 10 west. Upon 
hearing, the election of Gannon was declared void because he was 
a non-resident. 

David Boyle, commissioner of Third District died in the latter 
part of 1849, whereupon the county associate judges, Jacob Jones and 
E. Tillotson, appointed Jacob Hess to fill the vacancy until the next 
regular election. 

Jacob Hess was elected at the following election in August, 1850. 

Ishmeal Pugh resigned as county commissioner in 1852, 
and in September of that year the remaining county commissioners, 
under the new law on that subject, proceeded to fill the vacancy by 
the appointment of Hiram Smith. 

By re-election the board stood without change until 1856; at the 
October election that year Simpson Stark was elected to the board. 
In 1849 David Bell was elected recorder for a term of seven years. 

In 1851 Albert Lange was elected auditor: 

In 1855 Albert Lange re-elected county auditor; also David 
Bell, re-elected recorder. 

Jacob Jumper elected, October, 1856, county commissioner for 
Second District. 

Robert Allen elected surveyor. 
John T. Pounce elected assessor. 

In 1856 William J. Ball, one of the stockholders of the draw- 
bridge company, filed with the commissioners a schedule of rates of 
tolls, which, having been duly published, was adopted by the board. 

Jlenry Fairbanks, treasurer of county, 1885. 

At the March meeting, 1851, of the commissioners, the following 
were spread upon the records: 

Whereas the oflBcial relations heretofore existing between this board and 
Wells M. Hamilton, late county auditor (and cferk of this board) have been re- 
cently severed by reason of the expiration of his term of office, therefore 

Resolved, That this board takes pleasure in bearing their testimony to ihe 
faithful, honorable and efficient manner he has discharged the duties appertaining 
to that offipe. * That Vigo county loses an officer that during nine years of 
constant service has always proven himself worthy of the fullest confidence. 

In September, 1856, the board established the second election 
precinct in addition to Macksville in Sugar Creek township. The 
election place in the new precinct was at the house of Dr. Robert 
Calhoun on the north side of the National road, and John Crews 
inspector of elections. 

October 12, 1858, Clark S. Tuttle, elected commissioner. 

November, 1859, Benjamin McKeen elected commissioner for the 
Second District. 

December. 22. 1866, Benjamin McKeen died, a member of the 
the Board of County Commissioners. John L. Brown and C. W. 


Barbour, the other commissioners, met and passed resolutions in re- 
gard to the death of their fellow-member of the board; "deploring 
the death of this upright citizen and faithful public officer, and tend- 
ering heartfelt sympathies to the family and friends in their irrep- 
arable loss." These resolutions being spread upon the records, 
Alfred B. Pegg was appointed to fill the vacancy. 

The board, September, 1863, composed of C. S. Tuttle, Elijah 
Thomas and John Crews. 

November, 1858, James S. Wyeth contracted to build "a new 
wrought-iron fence around the court-house " to be completed on or 
before June 1, 1859; John M. Walter contracted to build foundation 
for fence. 

June, 1861, board allowed Isaac Beauchamp $1.50 "for hauling 
Lewis Bradford to the river by order of the sheriff." No further 
mention is made of Bradford, possibly this is the original McGinty. 

William Brown elected 1860 a member of the county board. 

John Crews and Elijah Thomas members in 1862. 

August, 1859, Harvey D. Scott filed bond as county treasurer, 
with K. N. Hudson, W. R. McKeen, S. E. Freeman, S. H. Potter, 
T. C. Buntin, B. McKeen and J. C. Eoss, sureties. 

1859 Cullum H. Bailey, elected recorder, gave bond with E. W. 
Thompson, W. K. Edwards, and H. Eoss, sureties. 

1862. — Charles Kern, sheriff; John D. Murphy, coroner ; Eobert 
Allen, surveyor; B. H. Cornwell, auditor; E. J. Sparks, recorder. 

At a special election, October, 1862, John Crews was elected 
county commissioner. 

The bond of B. H. Cornwall presented for the office of auditor, 
objected to by the incumbent of that office, Allen, who claimed 
there was no vacancy, as the term for which he had been elected 
had not expired. 

Burwell H. Cornwall, auditor. May, 27, 1861, the auditor 
appointed CuUom H. Bailey, deputy. 

At the State election, October, 1858, Nathaniel F. Cunningham, 
so long the efficient treasurer of Vigo county, was elected State 
treasurer, and by law he would take the office in February, follow- 
ing, therefore in January he resigned the office of treasurer of 
Vigo county, to take effect February 8, 1859. 

Joel H. Kester was appointed treasurer vice N. F. Cunningham, 
resigned February 8, 1859. 

Cunningham discovered that he had to send his resignation to 
the governor from whom he held his commission, and this he did, 
and the board again appointed Joel H. Kester, treasurer. 

In 1862 Edward B. Allen, auditor, it seems, was absent from 
the county much of his time and left no deputy. The board 
appointed Milton S. Durham deputy auditor, with authority to sign 
the auditor's name and perform the duties of the office. 


In 1864 B. H. Cornwall elected auditor; 1866, William Pad- 
dock; 1870, Samuel Eoyse; 1878, Andrew Grimes; 1886, Frank 

Recorders.— 1849-59, David Bell; 1859-63, C. H. Bailey; 
1863-67, K. J. Sparks; 1867-75, John B. Meyer; 1875-79, 
Chauncey R. Pritchard; 1876-84, J. N. Phillips; 1884, Levi Ham- 

October, 1864, Frederick Markle, elected commissioner from the 
First District; term three years. 

October, 1865, John L. Brown, elected county commissioner; 
term three years. 

Frederick Markle died October 12, 1866, whereupon the board 
appointed Cromwell W. Barbour to fill vacancy. 

January 4, 1866, Fred Stocker, coroner, resigned, and William 
H. Merry appointed to fill vacancy. 

Joseph F. Weeks, assessor Linton township, died in October, 
1866, whereupon the auditor, B. H. Cornwall, appointed William 
L. Weeks to fill the unexpired term of two years. 

In 1867 J. N. Shepherd, treasurer of Vigo county. 

October election, 1860, Joseph H. Blake, elected clerk of the 
Vigo County circuit court, and gave bond in the sum of $10,000. 
April 22, 1864, Thomas Dowling, petitioned the common pleas 
court to be released from Blake's bond, and a new bond filed, 
April 22, 1864, William Mack, John J. Brake and P. Shannon as 

In 1867 Rufus H. Simpson circuit clerk. 

October 8, 1867, Benjamin Mewhinney was elected commissioner 
for the Second District. 

At the same time Daniel Hollingsworth elected for the First 

The new board of commissioners, John L. Brown, Benjamin 
Mewhinney and Daniel Hollingsworth convened in call session 
October 26, 1867. 

Tuesday, October 13, 1868, Benoni G. Trueblood elected county 
commissioner from the Third District. 

Martin Hollinger elected clerk of Vigo County circuit, 1868, 
and common pleas court, and William H. Stewart elected sheriff. 

Hollinger's election contested by James H. Turner without avail, 
and Stewart's election contested by Nicholas Filbeck; same result 

November, 1870, term of office of Hollingsworth and Mewhin- 
ney having expired, Joseph H. Blake was elected commissioner from 
the Second District and Nathan Balding elected from the First 

M. C. Rankin, elected treasurer in 1859, presented official bond, 
with D. W.Minshall, W. B. Tuell, D. W. Rankin, William R. Mc- 
Keen and C. Rose as sureties. 


James M. Sankey, elected treasurer, 1871. 

County loaned, September 28, 1864, S. C. Keith $100, condi- 
tioned that he take his son, Oscar F., to New York and secure his 
admission into an asylum there, and that Vigo county shall incur 
no other or further expense thereabout. 

October election, 1864, John Kizer was elected sheriff; Fred 
Stoecker, coroner; Christopher N. Demorest, county surveyor' 

4uditor B. H. Cornwall makes itemized report of the county's 
expenditures for the fiscal year, June 1, 1865, to May 31, 1866: 
Receipts .|;237,542.16 

Some of the principal items are: 

Loans $B8,000 00 

County tax 107,507 75 

Ninety-five per cent, soldiers' relief fund 34,951 64 

Road tax 2,033 34 

Special school tax ; 14,129 70 

Dog tax 1,806 43 

Poor-house farm 1.500 00 

The remainder is composed of small items: 

Salaries $7,807 58 

Jurors 1,89151 

Bailiffs 1,646 05 

Poor 9,383 54 

"Specific" 5,597 67 

Criminal expenses 4,642 16 

Public buildings (care) 441 16 

Coroner's inquests 326 75 

Roads and bridges 6,718 99 

Elections 89 00 

Books and stationary 3,611 35 

Assessing revenue 1,870 12 

Special school fund 13,040 12 

Road fund 1,997 50 

Township fund 6,034 77 

Interest on loans 3,441 42 

New court-house. 26,132 31 

Relief soldiers' families 9,914 25 

Loans refunded 70,900 00 

Other small items not enumerated. Balance of receipts over ex- 
penditures, $59,047.30, 

June 22, 1864, in accordance with the provisions of the law, the 
auditors of the counties of the congressional district met in Terre 
Haute to consider the question of land taxes, or assessments in the 
different counties. Auditors present from Sullivan, Greene, Parker, 
Vermillion, Vigo, Putnam, Owen and Clay. 

This was a congressional district tax equalizing board. 

Vigo county lands were increased twenty per cent. Other 
counties were reduced ; others increased, and some unchanged. 

October, 1867, Benjamin Mewhinney re-elected county commis- 
sioner for the Second District and Daniel Hollingsworth re-elected for 
the First District. 


In 1869 B. G. Trueblood was elected county commissioner. 
April 24, 1871, County Commissioners J. H. Blake, B. G. True- 
blood and Nathan Balding convened to consider the subject, in re- 
sponse to many petitions, of purchasing the bridge across the- Wa- 
bash, and also to consider the question of building a court-house. 
The board ordered an election on May 2, 1871, to express the 
voters' desire in reference to purchasing the bridge, and also as to 
building a new court-house. 

The auditor of the county, Samuel Eoyse, was then secretary of 
the board, and he informed the board that he declined to record the 
order for the election in reference to the bridge and court-house, 
whereupon the board authorized its chairman, J. H. Blake, to 
record the proceeding. 

County attorney 1868, John T. Scott. 

The matter of appointing a county attorney came before the 
board, December, 1868. Thomas J. Forrest offering to attend to 
all the duties of that office for the annual sum of $400 and was 
appointed; re-appointed on same terms, 1869, from December 
to December. 

December, 1871, board ordered all paupers to be cared for at 
poor-house, appointed Thomas Dowling, Chauncey Rose, Curtis 
Gilbert, James B. Edmunds and C. H. Allen, committee to visit 
county poor-house every three months and examine, and report the 
condition of the same. 

In 1871, Lewis L. Weeks elected county commissioner. 
At June meeting board, 1864, the commissioner's districts, estab- 
lished in 1831, were abolished. Commissioners at this meeting, 
Lewis F. Weeks, Joseph F. Fellenzer and Stanley Bobbins. The 
board then proceeded to establish new districts, as follows: All 
that part of the county lying north of the center of Township 12, 
to be and constitute the First District; all that part of the county 
lying south of the center of Township 12, and north of the 
center of Township 11, constitute the Second District; and that 
part of the county lying south of the center of Township 11 to 
constitute the Third District. 

At the December meeting of the board, in 1872, the records say: 
The board finds that the building temporarily used for court rooms 
and county offices is unsuitable, and unsafe; that the court rooms 
are small, can not be properly heated, and are so situated that the 
noise from the street greatly interferes with the transaction of bus- 
iness ; that the county offices are small, exposed to dust, and the rec- 
ords liable at any time to be destroyed by fire, and an incalculable 
loss thereby entailed on the people; the board further find that there 
should be erected on the public square a court-house with county 
offices, where the records will be safe and the court room in the prop- 
er place for the transaction of business. 


It is therefore ordered by the board that a court-house with 
county offices be erected on the public square that shall be com- 
pleted by the first day of December, 1875, to cost, when com- 
pleted, $250,000. Bids to be received first Monday in March, 1873. 

December 2, 1872, plans and specifications adopted for new court- 
house. Bids had been called for, and T. B. Snapp bid to do the en- 
tire work for the sum of $292,000. Accepted^by the board: J. H. 
Blake, Nathan Balding and Lewis L. Weeks, commissioners. 

This order rescinded December 10, 1872; giving many reasons 
therefor, among others the unanimous " voice " of the people 
" against the erection at this time, and for many years to come," 
etc. All preceding contracts and undertaking wholly revoked and 
annulled. " J. H. Blake voting against said proceeding." 

December 17 following, another meeting of the board was had, 
and the original order for the building of a new court-house passed 
much in the same words of the first order, and again bids called for; 
bids to be received June 2, 1873. 

Again at the board meeting, in 1873, the minutes recite that at 
the special election on the subject of building a new court-house, held 
May, 1871, the vote was 450 for and nearly 4,000 against the proj- 
ect; it is therefore ordered that no new court-house be built, and 
that the iron bridges advertized heretofore also be not built. 

Commissioners Dowling and Weeks voted for this resolution, and 
Blake against. 

January 29, 1874, Harman Blood was awarded the contract for 
building fire-proof vault and auditor's office. 

The fire-proof safe in the auditor's office was sold April 30, 1874, 
to Fred A. Ross. 

March 10, 1874, D. W. Minshall, acting for the president of the 
Draw-Bridge Company in his absence, offered to sell the bridge, 
road, buildings, etc., the entire franchise and propertv for the sum of 

This bid was accepted by the board, Commissioner Weeks voting 

March 16, following, this order was rescinded. The next day, 
however, it was reconsidered, and the county purchased the bridge 
for the sum of $80,000, payable in ten-year bonds, drawing 8 per 

Stanley Bobbins elected commissioner in 1874. 

William B. Crossley's bond as county assessor, filed December 
9, 1874. 

January 27, 1872, Commissioners' Blake, Balding and Weeks 
contracted with Joseph Abbott to sink a well at the poor farm. The 
expressed hope was to strike a flowing vein of pure artesian water. 
In the records it is sometimes called the oil well and sometimes by 
other names. 

^ li/ /m-Tvci/f^tJ---^ 


December, 1872, the board ordered Joseph Abbott paid $7,368. - 
6B for work on poor-farm well. No satisfactory water was obtained, 
and the well was abandoned. 

December 16, 1873, the auditor was instructed to advertise for 
bids to build a fire-proof vault in the office of the county auditor. 

April 26, 1873, Nathan Balding, commissioner, resigned, and 
Thomas Dowling appointed to the vacancy, Joseph H. Blake dis- 
senting, and putting the reasons therefor on record. 

An entirely new board was elected at the next election, to wit: 
Lewis L. Weeks, J. F. Fellenzer and Stanley Bobbins. 

October, 1874, election Lewis L. Weeks re-elected county com- 

Charles H. Bottman, elected treasurer for two years, commenc- 
ing August 21, 1873 ; bond |400,000, with E. Ohm, Gerhard Esh- 
man, F. W. Shaley, Anton Mayer, J. J. Baur, F. L. Meyer, W. B. 
McKeen, Philip Schloss and D, W. Minshall, sureties. 

December 4, 1873, William H. Duncan appointed county attor- 
ney, $400 per annum. 

John W, Wilson and John R. Jorden appeared as the newly 
elected commissioners at the D( member term, 1876. They were 
sworn into office by Martin Hoxiinger, clerk of the Vigo circuit 

At this meeting resolutions in memory of Thomas Dowling, ex- 
commissioner, whose death was appropriately noticed, and an 
engraved copy thereof presented his widow. 

Nekton Bledsoe elected commissioner at the October election, 
1876, for the Third district. 

October, 1875, William H. Duncan resigned office of county 
attorney, whereupon Isaac H. C. Boyse was appointed to fill the 

December 4, 1876, Charles T. Burton appointed county attorney. 

September term, 1875, commissioners agreed to defray one-half 
the expense of fitting up the inside of a work-house, and pay one- 
half expenses of boarding those detained therein. 

Bobert Allen, county surveyor, resigned March, 1875, and C. 
N. Demorest appointed to the vacancy. 

The donation made by the will of Col. Francis Vigo of $500 for 
a bell for the court-house, was presented by T. C. Buntin, and 
accepted by the county, April, 1876. 

March term, 1877, board thanked Frank Armstrong for the 
efficient work performed by him in keeping records and minutes of 
the commissioners. 

James M. Sankey filed bond as county treasurer June, 1875. 

March 9, 1875, the general assembly passed a law requiring all 
county and court clerks to enter into bonds. Therefore Martin 


Hollinger, clerk circuit court, filed his bond for the unexpired term 
of his office, September 14, 1875. 

September 12, 1876, commissioners concurred in the action of 
the city in its contract with James Hooks to build a brick pest hos- 
pital, to cost $6,000. 

Newton Kogers executed bond as county treasurer, March, 1877. 

June, 1877, commissioners contracted for a new draw-bridge at 
Terre Haute. 

April, 1877, the " draw " in the Terre Haute bridge was re- 
ported unsafe. A new "draw" was ordered to be contracted for — 
the contract awarded to Jabez Smith. 

June, 1875, John Royse appointed county superintendent for 
the term of two years. 

December, 1875, Charles Gerstmeyer resigned office of coroner, 
and J. W. Boston appointed! 

April 1, 1877, ordered that public square be kept free of 
horses and cattle, gates kept closed except Sunday, and no more 
shows allowed thereon. 

October, 1877, Newton Bledsoe elected commissioner for the 
Third District. 

September, 1875, board accepted invitation to attend laying 
corner-stone of Rose Polytechnic Institute. 

A. Daily, superintendent, report of county asylum for August, 
1875, shows number of paupers, seventy-nine, and cost of keeping 
each per day, 13 cents. 

John S. Jordan and John W. Wilson, elected county commis- 
sioners at October election, 1879. 

As a final reference to the history of the attempts to build a 
court-house that had come to naught, it is well enough to state that 
on December 6, 1879, J. A. Vrydaugh obtained a verdict against 
Vigo county for the sum of $10,425 for plans and specifications of 
a new court-house. The plans were made, it will be remembered, 
in 1872. 

John K. Durkan succeeded Martin Hollinger, as clerk of the 
Vigo circuit court. October, 1876, John K. Durkan died, and the 
commissioners met in special session in July following, and ap- 
pointed Thomas A. Anderson to fill the vacancy. 

In 1880 John D. Baur elected county commissioner. March 22, 
1881, ordered that the board meet in the criminal court room in- 
stanter to hear discussed the question of building a new court- 
house and jail. The meeting opened with Messrs. W. B. Warren, 
Dr. B. F. SwofPord and Philip Newhort sitting with the board as 
advisers. The matter was fully discussed by N. G. BuflP, J. W. D. 
Wolf, James Hooks, James M. Allen, I. N. Pierce, for the build- 
ing, and Levi Dickerson and R. S. Tennant, opposing. The court. 


advisers agreeing thereto, then passed an order reciting the sub- 
stance of the order for a new court-house, passed in 1866, and 
that since that time the records have been deposited in the tempor- 
ary building for that purpose, etc. And in short, ordered a new 
court-house to be built on the public square, not to cost exceeding 
1200,000, and a jail be erected, not exceeding $30,000 in cost. 

Sugar creek and Prairieton roads graveled, 1879. In 1878, A. 
Daily re-appointed superintendent, poor asylum for one year. 

At the November election, 1882, John W. Wilson elected com- 
missioner of the First District, and John W. Roedel for the Second 
District. Martin K. Lee elected commissioner, November, 1883. 

At the November election, 1885, Levi W. Dickerson was elected 
commissioner for First District, and Asa M. Black for the Second 

November, 1886, Sandford S. Henderson elected to the Third 

November, 1888, Levi W. Dickerson re-elected commissioner 
for First District, and Lewis Finkbiner, elected for the Second Dis- 
trict. Upon contest court decided there was no vacancy in Second 
District, and Asa Black continued to fill the office of commissioner. 

Clerks— Curtis Gilbert, 1818-39; Charles T. Noble, 1839-58; 
Andrew Wilkins, two terms; Joseph H. Blake, one term; Rufus 
H. Simpson, one term ; Martin Hollinger, two terms. 

John K, Durkan succeeded M. Hollinger in 1876. Durkan died 
June, 1880, and Thomas A. Anderson was appointed to fill vacancy. 

Merrill N. Smith was next elected clerk, and served until 1886, 
when the present incumbent, John C. Warren, was elected. His 
term of office expires 1890. 




\ \ XHILE Vigo county became noted for its rapid development in 
VV the lines of agriculture, manufacture and as moneychangers, 
it has not lagged behind in those things that partake more of the 
professional side of life. Its bench and bar have contributed from 
the first to extend its name and fame abroad over the face of the 

The first circuit court which met in Terre Haute, within thirty 
days after the organization of Vigo county, was held by two of its 
sturdy old pioneer farmers — Moses Hoggatt and James Barns, 
the associate judges of the circuit court. There was then no 
president-judge for Vigo county. The provision of the law at 
that time was that the court consisted of three members — a presi- 
dent-judge and two associate judges— two of whom constituted a 
quorum to transact any business. The president- judge was required 
to be a man "well versed in the law," but the associates need only 
be good citizens of the county where their jurisdiction lay. The 
judge had equal jurisdiction in all the counties comprising the cir- 
cuit, while the associates were confined to the county in which they 
resided and for which they had been appointed. 

The law and the practice then were literally English, you 
know. The Common Law of England, as well as certain statute 
laws, was in force here the same as in England. The qualifica- 
tion, or rather the slight difference lay in the legislative enact- 
ments of the State. 

The law pleadings were purely English, as laid down in Black- 
stone and Chitty's commentaries and forms. The law of evidence 
was literally as it came to us in the standard English books on 
those subjects. The decisions of the English courts were the law 
here the same as in Great Britain, except where they were in con- 
flict with our statute laws. An English lawyer, therefore, fifty 
years ago, had to make but little preparation for the change if he 
wanted to come to America to practice his profession. 

It would be the customs of the profession here that would, per- 
haps, bother him more to learn than the differences then existing 
in the law in the two countries. 

The great lawyers they had here in those days, and it is no 


exaggeration to say that we had many really great men in the pro- 
fession, were all of the kind that were known as "circuit riders." 
They had to know the law better than their English brothers. 
They traveled over wide circuits, going with the judge from county 
to county on horse-back, and in their saddle-bags were their ward- 
robes and their law libraries. Hence, as they made long trips, 
sometimes like sailors, only after months returning home for a 
short rest, when they would resume their trip and go again over 
the same ground. Two trips. a year, as there were two courts a 
year in each county. The counties were then much larger than 
now, and often it was many miles' ride to some new county seat, and 
the business at that probably the first term of the court in the new 
county would be no more, if as much, as was that of the first session 
of the court in Vigo county, which is quickly told. There were 
two parties who asked for a writ of ad quod damnum, that is to 
ascertain the damage that might result if they should build a dam 
and mill on some creek in the county. The early legislatures were 
very jealous of acknowledging that even the smallest creeks were 
not navigable streams. The early statute books are full of laws 
declaring nearly every place where there was a spring, branch or a 
creek that had high water in the spring freshets were "hereby 
declared navigable streams." These men saw no future to foreign 
commerce, except by navigation, and therefore they hoped, no mat- 
ter how small the stream, that by locks and dams, soine day they 
might become a part of the country's great highways. At all events 
it cost nothing to declare them navigable, and this would protect 
them from being choked and ruined by mill dams. While this was 
a good intention, it obstructed building water-power mills often, 
and the people found that they wanted something to grind their 
wheat and corn before they wanted transportation to foreign mar- 
kets. The writ of ad quod damnum, therefore, was the first busi- 
ness often presented to the new court. There were two cases of 
this kind at the first court in the county, and the trial cases on the 
docket were a divorce case, which was continued, of course ; then an 
assault and battery case was tried and the jury returned a verdict 
of 6 cents for the complainant. 

Now this would strike a lawyer of this time as rather meager 
picking after, perhaps, as did these lawyers in this case, riding on 
horse-back all the way from Vincennes to attend the court. 

But these lawyers knew what they were doing — they were lay- 
ing up future treasures in the line of their profession. Everyone 
who was present at the court afterward became prominent lawyers 
in this portion of the State, and others occupied positions on the 

There has been a great change in the practice of the law in the 


past twenty-five years, and more particularly in the past decade. 
In law pleading we have parted widely from much of the old 
English forms, and so abundant and varied are our statutes, and the 
increase of our courts and the many decisions, that now in this 
respect it may be called the American system. We retain the old 
English rules of evidence more nearly literal than anything else of 
the English law. 

The law and the courts, in their broadest meaning, are one of 
the most marvelous outgrowths of civilization ; evolved through the 
long centuries antedating the morning of authentic history. The 
vastness of the court machinery itself staggers the mind- when it 
first comprehends something of it — courts, clerks, officers, lawyers, 
jurors, criminals on hand, cases dragging through generations, and 
cases in actual trial running through days, weeks, months and 
sometimes years, and are never completed. Great and magnificent 
buildings, and the armies of attendants, employes, the written 
records by rooms full, vaults full, and thousands of busy pens 
making every day more; the countless libraries and law schools, 
and offices and court-rooms are some of the palpable evidences of 
this institution. Behind and beyond these are the mysteries — the 
learned technicalities — the Draconian Code, the black-letter and the 
comparatively modern Coke-upon-Littleton are some of the conjur- 
ing that have grown from what must have been a very simple 
beginning. Indeed, why should not the common mind reel and 
stagger under the glimpse of realization of the stupendous whole. 

Cui bono? What inherent principle is it in our nature that has 
rendered all this vast and involved machinery a necessity to our com- 
mon mankind ? Very much the same it prevails in all organized 
communities or nations. Is the demand for all this an artificial 
creation ? Appearances would indicate that it was a natural and 
spontaneous outgrowth, like that of marriage, or war, some form 
of religion, or the universal ideals of beauty in women or horses. 
It is singular that some able biologist, like Spencer, has never 
taken this subject in hand, and at least tried to account for its uni- 
versal outcropping in every civilization, and in substantially much 
the same form in all. The technicalities of the law are a phe- 
onomenal curiosity. The most august courts, where are the longest 
black gowns, the biggest wigs and the stuffiest figurative wool sacks, 
are often the splendid arenas for the legal gladiatorial contests. 
The causae celebres are where are decided the contests of the pen- 
nant winners among the great attorneys — simply legal tournaments 
where wealth and fame is in winning, " knocking out " as it were, 
the attorney on the other side, and where often the poor client cuts 
about as much figure as an ancient almanac. Then for instance, 
you look carefully over the Myra Clark Gaines ejectment case — 


where millions are involved, and generations come and pass away, 
and the case goes on and on. Or Dickens' fanciful case of Jarndyce; 
and the last scene, where the pale young man drags himself into 
court and wearily listens to' learned arguments that he cannot 
understand what it is about, and finally gropes his way out of the 
court-room and lies down and dies. Another case where it was in 
court one hundred years, and the parties all being dead, it was then 
discovered that what was once a great estate was all gone, and the 
last penny was a little short of being enough to pay the costs. 

" The curiosities of the law " ought to be some day the title 
of a- great book that would reflame the fires of the old maxim, that 
truth is stranger than fiction. 

The early law of this State was very particular to provide that 
the higher courts must be presided over by men "versed in the 
law." The subordinate branches they were not so particular about, 
and now although only the most prominent lawyers are as a rule 
selected for judges, yet if the people so will, in many of the States, 
they are not restricted to the licensed members of the profession in 
selecting the judges of their courts. Once in this country all 
judges were appointed. This was the case in the early days in this 
county. Then they were elected by the legislature, and now all 
State judges are elected, while all the United States judges are 
still appointed. And while, of course, there is not the same oppor- 
tunities in the local courts for fame as in the higher courts, yet the 
standard of men elected by the people to the bench has not been 
lowered by the people who vote. It is true that the people some- 
times elect the veriest demagogues, but this is unfortunately also 
true of presidential appointments. Our institutions are so vast and 
country so big that the president in his appointments can not often 
personally know his appointees, and he then must rely upon politi- 
cians to some extent, and often politicians have to rely upon party 

There is one other thing about the study of the law that is 
striking in its features. Perhaps as much or more than any other 
school, it teaches the importance and authority of precedent. 
Hence the perhaps gross incongruities you may sometimes meet 
in the courts in a democracy that have been transplanted from the 
ancient monarchy. Wigs and gowns are simply comical in this 
country, where theoretically every voter is a sovereign. The uni- 
form a,nd tin star of a roundsman; the ceremony of kissing the 
Bible%in making oath, about which you will find they are very 
particTllar in the older States, but which is now substituted in the 
west by generally holding up the right hand; the retention of 
the grand jury and the necessity of their formal and once hyper- 
critical bill of iudictment before you could put a man on trial; the 


fictitious John Doe vs. Richard Roe are now about obsolete, but at 
one time and for centuries all ejectment suits were in the names of 
these unfortunates, and above all is the general faith that the 
older a precedent the better it is the law and the more binding its 
authority. There must be a close relation existing between the 
science of law and the science of State craft. The lawyer and the 
statesman are esteemed as one to a large extent. 

The American law student when he commences his reading is 
put to the study of Blackstone exactly as is the student in England. 
This is the standard book on which all is based, even if Blackstone 
did believe that there were in ancient times swarms of witches and 
ghosts, but thought that modern cases needed careful looking into 
before believing. He writes most eloquently of the "garnered 
wisdom of the ages," and tells the young student in glowing sen- 
tences that in the knowledge of the law, at least the past, was the 
Golden Age; that here is the Pierian springs where he may drink 
long and deeply of the health-giving waters. 

When you divest yourself of these accumulations that have 
gathered around the law, and think of it a moment in that mood, 
you can not but realize that once all this wonderful thing must have 
lain bundled up in the simple Golden Rule; if there is either 
right or wrong, justice or injustice that is not included in this 
short and simple rule of life you, can not imagine what it is. 

Do as you would he done by, is the simple lesson easily under- 
stood by the savage or the child. ' To add to this statutes and laws 
neither extends its meaning, application, nor simplifies its terms. 
Simple as this is it must have been the source from whence came 
all this stream of law-making, law practice, law libraries, courts 
and ofiicers, as well as the great and powerful profession of the 

The pioneer lawyer was, like the pioneer farmer, compelled to 
be a man of far greater resources within himself than his modern 
brother. The times are drifting away from the ancient techni- 
calities of the law as well as from the ancient severity of 
the church dogmas. Men have grown more liberal as they have 
become less and less technical. The modern lawyer fits up his 
ofiice, and there is usually a court library near at hand, and he has 
long since ceased to ride the circuit. He stays at home with his 
books and practice, and no longer is every successful attorney pre- 
sumed to have Chitty's forms committed to memory. He may now 
write a warantee deed in fewer words than it once required lines, 
if not pages. 

Again the profession of the law, like that governing skilled 
mechanics, is divided up into specialties, and this immensely lessens 
the labors of the preparatory work of learning the profession or 


trade. We now have our criminal lawyers, chancery lawyers, 
corporation lawyers, constitutional lawyers, etc. Dividiug the 
necessary preparatory work after the manner, for instance, of that 
of the workmen in a watch factory. This division of labor is 
peculiarly an American innovation on the old, and while it is de- 
stroying the old-fashioned, all-ai'ound workmen or professional 
men, it is perhaps bettering the work as well as lessening the time 
required in serving an apprenticeship. In Europe a man must yet 
serve a seven years' apprenticeship to be a licensed watchmaker. 
In the American watch factories you will find girls working 
machines and making very perfectly the one piece of the watch to 
which they confine their entire labor, and two weeks' apprenticeship 
was all that she required to learn her trade well. In her line she 
can probably do more in a day than the European seven-year- 
trained man can do in a week, and do it better. Striking off into 
specialties is the strong tendencies of modern times, found as dis- 
tinctly in the learned professions as in the trades. In medicine 
there is the general practitioner, the surgeon, the eye and ear 
doctor, the corn doctor and tbe horse doctor, and for nearly every 
disease a specialist. In theology there is the revivalist, the or- 
ganizer, the church builder, etc. It is the art of doing one 
thing, and thereby doing it better than one can many things. 

Lawyers now gather in the great cities and work for a salary 
for large corporations. They seek no other employment than that 
of the one man or firm who hires them by the year. They simply 
need to know the law necessary to the business of their employer, 
and in that respect they are invaluable advisers. 

It is these circumstances that have carried us beyond the age 
when the statutes required every lawyer to have a license before 
allowed to practice. In fact the law requiring this is a mere fashion 
— the relic of a past age. It is impossible to imagine how a com- 
munity or State would suffer if this ancient law should be abolished. 
The man in search of a lawyer never inquires as to whom it was 
that signed his license. 

The "circuit riders" present at the first Vigo circuit court held 
by Hoggatt and Barns were Nathaniel Huntington, George K. 0. 
Sullivan, Samuel Whittlesy and Jonathan Doty. These came mostly 
from Vincennes and Sullivan county. They must have started 
as soon as they could have got word where and when the court was 
to be. The county was hardly a month old. Nathaniel Huntington 
had come to stay, and the court, in recognition of this fact, ap- 
pointed him prosecuting attorney pro tern. As there was not a 
criminal case yet in the county his work was not onerous. If the 
grand jury " assembled on a log " he could get easy access to them, 
and when each one arose and announced that he knew of no busi- 


ness, he no doubt advised them to adjourn in the hope that the 
festive law breaker would make his presence manifest before the 
next court. 

There is a current tradition that th*^ grand jury, after being 
charged by the prosecuting attorney, retired to a log just outside 
the cabin in which the court was convened, and here went 
through the forms of their short session, but the record made 
by the clerk, Curtis Gilbert says they "retired to their room." It 
is safer, evidently, to follow Clerk Gilbert than tradition. He was 
one of the best circuit clerks in the State, and the exact and beau- 
tiful records he has left, the work of twenty-one years (he was the 
all-around clerk and recorder and auditor for Vigo county), are a 
splendid monument to his memory. His peculiar chirography, as 
even and beautiful as copper- plate, all made with the old-style 
goose quill, has never been equaled by any of his successors in any 
of all the offices he held. 

He was elected clerk over John M. Coleman, his opponent, it 
is not known by what majority, as the ancient election returns are 
not to be found. And it is not to the disparagement of Mr. Cole- 
man to know that he was beaten by Curtis Gilbert. There were 
not many men here then to select from in choosing the first officers, 
but had the whole world been open to the choice, the people could 
not have done better than they did in his selection. They kept him 
there twenty-one years, three terms of seven years each, and with 
his consent it is probable that they would have kept him his life time. 

The first motion made in court was by Attorney Sullivan in be- 
half of John Beard, who desired the court to inquire according to 
law the damage, if any, that would result from building a mill and 
dam on his land, the southeast quarter of Section 33, Township 14 
north. Range 9 west. This is now in Parke county. 

Isaac Lambert and John Dickson, by the same attorney, asked 
for a similar writ, to ascertain the damage in the erection of a mill 
and dam on the northwest quarter of Section 17, Township 11 north, 
Range 9 west. This was the first mill erected in Vigo county. 

Alexander Barns presented his bond and security as coroner of 
the county. 

Truman Blackman qualified as the first sheriff of Vigo county. 
He had been appointed to the office by the governor to hold until 
at the next election, when his successor should be chosen. 

This was the total of the court's first day's work, when it ad- 
journed for the day. 

The next day Attorney William P. Bennett appeared, took the 
oath and was enrolled. The first trial cause at this term of the 
court was 


Elenor Garber ) 

vs. [ Petition for divorce. 

Peter Garber. ) 
This was continued until the next court. 

Then James Bennett sued out a writ of ad quod damnum as to 
the buikling of a dam and mill on his land, northwest quarter of 
Section 30, Township 12 north. Range 9 west. 

The only other trial cause for this court was that of 
Isaac Cottman "^ 

Abraham Markle, |^ ^'^'^^P^^^ ""' '^ '''^'''''^ ^^^^^^^ ^^,000. 
Amos Rice. J 

A jury was called, the case tried as to Markle, and the jury retired, 
perhaps to the same log that had been used by the grand jury to 
consider thfeije BiKdict, and soon returned and found for the plain- 
tiff, awarding him 6 cents as against Abra^ham Markle. There- 
upon the case as to Rice was dismissed. Markle had confessed, it 
seems, but stated the circumstances in such a way that the jury was 
not disposed to bankrupt him. The fact is that in that day the aver- 
age jury inclined to the belief in letting bygones be bygones in the 
average scrapping matches. They recognized that they were bound 
by the letter of the law, but they could get around its spirit. 

This was the entire business before the tirst Vigo circuit court. 
Thereupon the " court adjourned until court in course." Vigo 
county was then a part of the First Judicial circuit. 

The second term of the court convened on July 27, following. 
Present: Hon. Thomas H. Blake, president of the First circuit, 
and Moses Hoggatt, associate judge. 

Blake's commission bears date May 14, 1818, and is signed 
by Gov. Jonathan Jennings. His term of office to continue with the 
expiration of the next general assembly. 

Judge Thomas H. Blake was sworn into office by Davis Floyd, 
president judge of the Second circuit. 

The sheriff appointed James Cunningham bailiff. The addi- 
tional attorneys appearing at this term were Gen W. Johnston, 
William Prince, Lewis B. Lawrence and Charles Dewey. Jona- 
than Doty was appointed prosecuting attorney. 

The third term of the court, February 22, 1819. Present: 
Hon. Gen Washington Johnston president judge, Hoggatt and Barns 
associates. Judge Johnston was appointed for the term of seven 

October term, 1818,Jacob Call, James Nash and James P. Ben- 
nett were admitted to practice. 

May term, 1819, Hon. Jonathan Doty, president judge. His 
commission to run until the end of the next session of the general 


assembly. Moses Tabbs and George McDonald appeared at Febru- 
ary court, 1819, as qualified attorneys. 

Jacob Call was commissioned president judge of the First Ju- 
dicial Circuit March 7, 1822. He was sworn into oflfice and held 
court in Vigo county in March, 1822. Daniel Jenckes was admitted 
to practice as attorney. 

The State at that time was divided into four judicial circuits. 
This was the First circuit, composed of the counties of Knox, Sul- 
livan, Daviess, Vigo, Dubois, Lawrence and Monroe. Vincennes was 
of course the professional and intellectual center of the State when 
Vigo oounty was formed. 

Judge Jonathan Doty served from the May, term, 1819, to the 
March term, 1822; Judge Jacob Call from 1822 until 1824. 

In 1824 John R. Porter was elected president judge, and held 
his first court at the October term, 1824. Amory Kinney was 
admitted to the Vigo bar at that term. 

Judge John Law succeeded Porter, and served from the Febru- 
ary term, 1830, until 1831, when he resigned, and Amory Kinney 
was appointed president judge, who held his first court in October, 
1831. He was then elected, and served a full term, until 1837. 

Judge Elisha M. Huntington succeeded Kinney, and served 
until 1841, when he resigned, and was succeeded by Judge William 
P. Bryant, who served from the November term, 1841, to the May 
term, 1844. 

Judge John Law served from 1844 until 1850. 

Judge Samuel B. Gookins held, as the successor of Judge Law, 
the September term, 1850. 

Judge Delana R. Eckles presided from the March term, 1851, to 
the March term, 1853; Judge James Hughes from 1853 until 1856. 

Judge Ambrose B. Carlton, by an appointment from the governor, 
held the September term, 1856. 

Judge James McLane Hanna held part of the September term, 
1857, and continued the remainder of the January term, 1858. 

Judge Solomon Claypool was appointed in 1858, and held the 
special te'rm for that year, and was elected to a full term at the next 
regular election. This was then the Sixth Judicial circuit. 

Judge Delana R. Eckles again became president judge in 1866. 

On March 1, 1867, the Legislature made new circuits in the 
State, and this became the Eighteenth Judicial circuit, composed 
of the counties of Vigo, Parke, Vermillion and Sullivan. The new 
division created a vacancy in the judgeship, and Hon. R. W. Thomp- 
son was appointed by the governor judge until his successor should 
be elected. Sewell Coulson was elected prosecuting attorney. 

At the November election, 1867, Chambers Y. Patterson was 
•elected judge. He was re-elected, and died in office in 1881. 


March 29, 1876, Samuel F. Maxwell, iu the absence, it is sup- 
posed, of Judge Patterson, was sworn in as judge. He signed the 
records for some time, when the regular judge it seen;is, resumed 
his place. This lapse is accounted for by the forming of the Forty- 
third circuit. 

At the August term, 1875, Judge Cyrus T. McNutt was presiding 
judge pro tem. 

Judge Harvey D. Scott was appointed to the vacancy caused by 
the death of Judge Patterson. This was then the Fourteenth 
Judicial circuit. 

At the October term, 1881, the record shows that by reason of 
sickness Judge Scott appointed Charles Cruft judge pro tem. He 
held court twr '.r-one days. 

Again, at the October term, 1882, the minutes show that Judge 
Scott was absent four days at the beginning of that term on account 
of sickness, whereupon the sheriff, Jackson Stepp; auditor, Andrew 
Grimes, and clerk, Merrill N. Smith, "by vertue of the statute in 
such cases made and provided " proceeded to elect Henry C. Nevitt, 
" as judge to preside until the return of said regular judge." 

Judge G. W. Buff, elected as successor to Judge Scott, held the 
unfinished term of October, 1882. He continued to preside until 
1884, when by act of the legislature Vigo county was formed into 
a separate judicial circuit — the Forty-third, when the present in- 
cumbent Judge William Mack was elected for a term of six years — 
December, 1890. 

George B,. C. Sullivan succeeded Doty as prosecuting attorney. 
He retired in 1824, and was succeeded by John Law. 

John I. Scott was prosecuting attorney in the early part of 
1864. He was succeeded by Henry H. Boudinot. 

Something of the order in which the attorneys became practi- 
tioners in the Vigo County circuit is the following list that was 
made by Charles T. Noble, who was the successor of Curtis Gilbert 
as clerk of the circuit court, and held the office two full terma — 
fourteen years, commencing in 1849, and ending in 1863. The list 
is found in the waste leaf of one of the old records with no other 
explanation than that it was made by Mr. Noble. It is not stated 
why he commenced in 1824, and then brought it down no later than 
1846. To the list the compiler has added such names to Mr. Noble's 
list as he found mentioned in the body of records as being present 
and engaged in causes. With this explanation it is given as fol- 
lows: In 1824, Amory Kinney, George. Ewing; 1830, Joseph A. 
Wright; 1832, James Whitcomb, Salmon Wright; 1833, Samuel B. 
Gookins; 1835, Cromwell W. Barbour; 1838, Delany R. Eckles, Will- 
iam D. Griswold, Jesse Conrad; 1839, G. George Dunn, Edward 
Gaughey, Timothy R. Young; 1840, John P. Usher, Orson Bar- 


bour, Welton M. Modesitt, Seymour Gookios; 1842, James H. 
Henry, Usher F. Linder, E. C. Gregory, J. K. Kinney; 1843, Kich- 
ard W. Thompson, Grafton F. Cookerly, William K. Edwards, 
Wells p. Hamilton; 1844, Henry S. Lane, Hugh O'Neal, James C. 
Allen, Thomas H. Nelson; 1845, James M. Hanna; 1846, Alex- 
ander Thompson, William A. McKenzie, R. N. Watterman, Robert 
N. Hudson, Harvey D. Scott; 1847, J. W. Osborn, McRoberts, 
Hathaway; 1848, Luke Reilley; 1867, Thomas N. Rice. 

Prosecuting attorneys were elected for a term of two years : Sant 
0. Davis, 1870-72; R. S. Tennant, 1872-74; A. J. Kelley, 1874-82, 
three terms; John W. Shelton, 1882-84; David W. Henry, 1884- 
88; James E. Piety, 1888 (present incumbent). 

October, 1824, Samuel W. Osborn made application to the court 
for naturalization, stating that he was born in 1802, near York, 
Upper Canada, and removed permanently to the United States when 
of the age of twenty-one years. 

At the April term, 1821, Judge Jonathan Doty ordered spread 
upon the records the following. 

" In conformity with the 64th section of the act entitled ' an act 
reducing into one all the acts and parts of acts now in force in this 
State regulating proceedings in actions at law, and in suits in 
chancery,' I have examined the office of Curtis Gilbert, clerk of the 
circuit court for the county of Vigo, and do report that all the books 
in said office are kept correctly, and the entries therein executed in 
a masterly manner, and also the papers in said office properly ar- 
ranged and carefully preserved." 

Recapitulation of Judges. — Thomas H. Blake, the first president 
judge, held from May 4, 1818, to December, 3, 1818. 

General Washington Johnston, Esq. (the " General" being a 
Christian name), held the office of judge from December 3, 1818, till 
the legislature elected, April 10, 1819; Jonathan Doty, then elected 
for seven years, served three, from April 10, 1819. Doty and Gen- 
eral Johnston each appended to their names in signing the. record 
great flourishes and quereques. Jacob Call was judge from April 
22 to October, 1824; John R. Porter, from October 24 to May, 

1830. The first nine years' sessions of the court are all in one 
record volume. 

In May, 1830, John Law was appointed and resigned in August, 

1831, and General Washington Johnston, Esq., was again appointed 
till the legislature would elect. He served until January, 1831, 
when Amory Kinney was elected, and served seven years. 

In January, 1837, Elisha Huntington. He resigned in 1841, 
when William P. Bryant was elected and served till January, 1844, 
when he resigned and John Law was elected. He presided until 
July, 1850, when he resigned, and S. B. Gookins was appointed. 


serving until January, 1851, when Delana R. Eckles was elected by 
the legislature for seven years. Under the new constitution his 
term expired in October, 1852, when James Hughes was elected for 
six years by the people. He resigned in April, 1856, and Ambrose 
B. Carlton was appointed until the next October election, when 
James M. Hauna was elected and served from October, 1856, until 
December, 1857, when Solomon Claypool was the presiding judge, 
and held it until the election of D. R. Eckles, in October, 1864. 
Eckles was legislated out of the circuit in 1867, and R. W. Thomp- 
son appointed. In October, 1867, Chambers Y. Patterson was elected 
and served until his death, in 1881. Harvey D. Scott was appointed in 
January, 1881, and held until November, 1882, when George W. 
Buff was elected. In February, 1883, the circuit was changed, leav- 
ing Judge Buff in Sullivan county, and Harvey D. Scott was again 
appointed, and held until Judge William Mack (present judge) took 
the office in November, 1884. 

This recapitulation is taken nearly verbatim from a " list of cir- 
cuit judges," published in the Terre Haute Gazette, July 12, 1887. 
The list was made out by the present judge of the circuit court, and 
agrees with the record as given in the preceding page, except that 
it overlooks the terms of Judge Samuel F. Maxwell. Judge Patter- 
son, by election, succeeded Judge R. W. Thompson in 1867, but did 
not " serve from that time continuously until his death." He served, 
it seems from the record, his first term commencing in 1867, and 
was a candidate for re-election, and was beaten by Maxwell, who 
presided until 1878, when in the new circuit of Vigo and Sullivan, 
Patterson was again elected and during his term died. 

Superior Court — An act entitled " An act to establish a superior 
court in the county of Vigo, defining its authority and jurisdiction, 
providing for the election and compensation of the judge thereof, and 
providing for a vacancy in the office of judge of said court, and to 
abolish the criminal court of said county, to take effect on the 
third Monday in November. 1882, and to transfer the business there- 
of to the circuit court thereof at said date, and declaring an emer- 
gency, approved April 8, 1881." Cl«rk of the circuit court, and 
sheriff of the county shall be respectively the clerk and sheriff of 
said court. The courts shall be held on the first Mondays in March, 
June, September and December. The said court shall have origi- 
nal and concurrent jurisdiction with the circuit court in all civil 
cases, and jurisdiction concurrent with the circuit court in all cases 
of appeal from justices of the peace, boards of county commissioners, 
and mayors and city courts in civil cases, and all other appellate 
jurisdiction in civil cases now vested in, or which may hereafter be 
vested by law in the circuit courts; and said court shall also have 
concurrent jurisdiction in all actions by or against executors, guard- 


ians or administrators, provided, however, that said superior court 
hereby constituteei, shall not have jurisdiction in matters of probate, 
or the settlement of decedents' estates, but the same shall be and 
remain within the jurisdiction of the circuit court, as now provided 
by law." A vacancy was declared and the governors ordered to 
appoint a judge. 

Immediately upon the passage of the act Gov. Porter appointed 
Baskin E. Ehoads judge of the said superior court of Vigo county, 
in the Fourteenth Judicial Circuit. The first session of the court 
convened June 6, 1881. The first order appearing on the record is 
as follows: " Ordered that the seal of the superior court of Vigo 
county shall consist of a circular stamp, in the center of which 
stands Artemis blindfolded holding pair of ballances in the left 
hand, and a drawn sword in the right." The friends of Judge 
Rhoads fancied they could see in this happy classical conceit his 
ready suggestion. 

In 1882 Vigo county was made a separate judicial circuit — the 
Forty-third, and at the November election of that year Hon. James 
M. Allen was elected judge of the superior court for a regular term 
of four years. He was re-elected in 1886, and is the present in- 
cumbent. His term of office will expire in December, 1890. 
• Judge Thomas H. Blake, the first president judge of the circuit 
court of Vigo, lived in Terre Haute and practiced his profession 
with eminence for more than thirty years after retiring from the 
bench. He died early in the fifties in Cincinnati, and was buried 
in Terre Haute. 

Among the earliest and for years among the most prominent at- 
torneys to locate in Terre Haute was James Farrington. He lived 
here to old age and for many years was regarded as one of the lead- 
ing men in Vigo county, prominent in all her public affairs, and 
was noted for his public spirit and enterprise. 

Judge Amory Kinney was a native of Bethel, Washington 
County, Vt, born April 13, 1791, and died on a visit for his health 
at his old home at the age of sixty-eight years and six months. His 
education was derived from rather scant opportunities in the com- 
mon schools. Before his majority he emigrated to western New 
York, which was then inviting emigrants from New England, and 
he settled in the town of Courtlandville, Courtland county, where 
he commenced work at the age of nineteen in a cotton factory. The 
factory was burned, and he was with others thrown out of employ- 
ment. He was soon after elected constable. While in this po- 
sition he engaged his leisure hours in studying law, and about the 
year 1819 was admitted to the bar in the United States court, when 
he at once came to the west and settled in Vincennes. FromVincennes 
he moved to Washington, Daviess county, practicing law at both 


places along the counties on the Wabash from the Ohio to Terre 
Haute. In 1824 he became a member of the Vigo county bar. He 
became a permanent resident of Terre Haute in 1827. The next 
year he was elected justice of the peace, which office, after filling 
some years, he resigned. He was elected to the legislature in 1830, 
being successful in that contest over Judge Jenckes. He was ap- 
pointed president judge by Gov. Noble in 1831, upon the resig- 
nation of Judge Law. He held but one term of the court under the 
this appointment and then was elected to a full term of seven years, 
filling the office during the entire term with acknowledged impar- 
tiality and ability. He was a candidate for congress in 1833, his 
competitors being William C. Linton, George Boone, John Ewing, 
John W. Davis, Hugh L. Livingston and John Law. He was again 
elected to the legislature in 1847-48. The court of common pleas 
was established in 1852, and he was elected judge of the court for a 
term of four years. 

At the end of his term of judge of the court of common pleas 
for Vigo county in 1856, his robust constitution began to give way 
and his health was so impaired he visited his native State, in the 
hope of regaining his health, where he died. 

Judge Kinney was the last survivor of the early lawyers at the 
Vigo bar. Of the long list of judges, lawyers, grand and petit 
jurors, officers, bailiffs and parties to suits and witnesses, all have 
long since departed. For years he was the head of the law firm of 
Kinney, Wright & Gookins, leading practitioners in all the courts 
in a wide extent of country. 

Judge Samuel Barnes Gookins. — In 1877 he wrote: "It is only 
a little more than fifty-two years since I landed from the canoe at 
Modesitt's ferry. Indiana was then seven years old and had made 
quite a start in the world (1823). May 5, 1823, I set out from the 
home of my boyhood, Rodman, Jefferson county, N. Y., to reach the 
west by the new route, in company with my mother, a brother of 
twenty-three and myself, not quite fourteen. We traveled by 
wagon fifteen miles to Sackett's Harbor, where we took passage on 
the Ontario, the second steamer I believe that navigated the lake 
whose name she bore. The lake was unusually rough, and the 
steamer, a heavily laden and slow-going craft, propelled by a low- 
pressure engine, made slow headway. After contending with con- 
trary winds for a ni^ht and day we put about for Sackett's Har- 
bor. The next trial was more successful, and though encountering 
a heavy gale we reached the mouth of the Genesee, ascended that 
river to Carthage. * * Here I saw my first railroad, in other 
words there I saw an incline tramway running from the wharf to 
the top of the hill to the storehouse — a double track worked by a 
windlass at the top, the motive power being the dead weight; the 


descending car drew the other up with extra weight to adjust the 
'balance of trade.' * * [He then relates the long voyage and 
its perils in going from there to Johnstown, 'a little way up the 
Niagara river.' J The same day reached Lewistown, seven miles 
below the Falls, having consumed eight days in making the trip. 
Here we took wagons and came to a landing called Fort Slosher's, 
a few miles above the falls, then by open boat to Bujffalo. [He 
tells of the difficulties they encountered here, and the change made 
in their intended route by the disappointment of finding no craft to 
take them to the mouth of the Miami of the lakes. After waiting 
several days for the ' Superior', the only steamer on Lake Erie, they 
finally embarked on a schooner for Detroit. They left Buffalo late 
in the afternoon in company with some forty passengers, most of 
them on their way to the new country, Michigan Territory. At De- 
troit they reshipped in a schooner for Fort Meigs, at the head of 
Miami bay. ] The next feat to be accomplished was the ascent of 
the Miami, or Maumee as it is called. We there found an old 
French trader with a canoe constructed in a style much superior to 
a common pirogue. His price for it was $20, which we considered 
too high. * * * At Fort Wayne we procured an ox-team and a 
two-wheeled cart and made the ten-mile portage in that, hauling 
our canoe also. * * * We set our canoe afloat in a marsh cov- 
ered with pond lilies, and had quite as hard work pushing through 
them as we had in pushing up the Miami. We reached the 
Wabash however after a vigorous effort, and set out upon its down- 
ward current. 

"June had arrived and the water in the river was low. We had 
no pilot, and not being acquainted with the currents, the navigation 
of the stream was attended with much difficulty. One day we only 
made about five miles. When we found the water too shalloAv to 
float our craft, we went ashore, cut a hickory sapling, split it, 
pulled off the bark, and laying the flat side downward, mounted the 
canoe upon it and shoved it over into deep water. This accom- 
plished, we were in a swift cui'rent, and my place was at the bow, 
with a setting pole, to keep her from striking upon the rocks, of 
which the river was full, while the other brother officiated as pilot 
at the stern. One afternoon, late, we were caught aground, and 
lay out in the middle of the stream all night. * * * The first 
settler we found on the river was near the mouth of the Wild Cat, 
not far from the present crossing of the New Albany & Salem Kail- 
road. The next settler on the river was Filson, some two or three 
miles above the present site of Montezuma. We went ashore where 
is now the beautiful city of Lafayette. The Indians were friendly, 
often hailing us from the shore and wanting to trade, offering to 
exchange their wild game for cornmeal, an article always in 
demand by them. 


" On June 18, 1823, we landed at Fort Harrison, and after hav- 
ing reconnoitered the post to our satisfaction, wq again took water, 
and an hour later landed at Terre Haute, having made the trip in 
six weeks and two days." Considerably more than half the time 
now required to go around the globe, and with ten times the expos- 
ures and dangers. 

This part of Judge Gookin's narrative is very valuable for many 
reasons. It is a graphic representation of how one of the pioneer 
families (a widow and her two young sons) came to the west in 
1823, and that, too, by the new route by the lakes. This was after 
steam navigation had become of practical use in travel and com- 
merce between the east and the west. Even then, as is easily 
understood from the narrative, it required surely women of no ordi- 
nary mold to pick up their children and turn their faces toward the 
distant and unknown west. Such people should have bred a new 
race of men and women — and they did. 

The true western character is a marked and strong one, and 
their achievements are the marvels in history. To this hour the 
descendants of the pioneers are distinctly characterized by strength 
of character, rather than by polish or finish. 

Samuel B. Gookins was born at Kupert, Bennington county, 
Vi, May 30, 1809, the youngest of ten children of William and 
Rhoda Gookins. In 1812 the family emigrated to New York. 
The father died two years after, leaving the wife and eight children 
dependent upon the mercies of the world. He died in Chicago, 
where he made his home in the latter years of his life, June 14, 
1880. ■ 

Hon. John P. Usher came to Terre Haute in 1839, and at 
once entered the firm of Usher & Griswold (W. D. ). Mr. Griswold 
had preceded Mr. Usher some time, and had begun to have some 
practice upon the arrival of the latter. The first acquaintance and 
partnership were near the same time. The partnership was- in time 
dissolved, because of the claims on Mr. Usher of C. Y. Patterson, a 
relative, but the warm attachment and esteem of the two men con- 
tinued, and ended only in death. 

Mr. Usher came to Terre Haute in an open buggy from his 
home in Chenango, N. Y., with a young man who soon returned to 
New York. Mr. Griswold says, at that time he was boarding at the 
Prairie House, kept by Theron Barnum, afterward a noted hotel 
man in St. Louis. He says: "That hotel was then a paradise, 
and there was such a charm about it as I have never felt before or 
since in my life. Of all those who then illuminated that place, and 
whose electric touch holds to the heart even now, I know of only 
four living, to wit: David S. and Mrs. Danaldson, of Terre Haute, 
and Burr P. and R. W. Noland, of Virginia." 


"Here on a frosty morning in the fall, as I left the breakfast- 
table and walked to the fire-grate of the office room, I was followed, 
first by a young, strange guest, and meeting face to face before the 
bright grate we nodded our respects and opened up a talk, Avhich 
was the introduction to an intimate business and brotherly associa- 
tion and intercourse of fifty years. I had then been in Terre Haute 
about a year and a half (half of the time a teacher). I had a com- 
pound lodging and office in the one-story building at the corner of 
Second and Cherry streets. The adjoining and connecting room 
was the inayor's office (B. M. Harrison was m^ayor — by jurisdiction 
jtistieei of the peace — ) by title mayor. Here I was lodged, and 
making my board and clothes as a lawyer, Terre Haute was a 
safe place. In the summer I slept with the doors and window 
open, and the only intrusion I ever had was by a dog which came in 
uninvited and took a place on the bed by my side. 

" Into this place Mr. Usher first came with me. We formed a 
partnership which lasted many years, and would have continued but 
that his brother-in-law, afterward Judge Chambers Y. Patterson, 
who had studied in our office, had claims upon his thoughts and 
interests, and so we separated in all but affection. Mr. Usher 
almost immediately returned to New York, and by agreement after 
a few weeks came to Terre Haute. * * * jje was my junior in 
age by about two months, and was then much of a lawyer, having 
had long education by reading and observation in the office of a 
lawyer of ability, and in the struggle of legal trials conducted by 
masters of the law. But his opportunities for general culture had 
been small. He was not a classical scholar nor a general literary 

Mr. Griswold informs us that he landed in Terra Haute 
endowed with the change of half a dollar ; that Mr. Usher had a few 
law books and a mere pittance of money, so the paid-up stock in that 
firm was small and nearly equal, 

Mr, Usher is said to have become a national man through the 
political side of his life, especially when he became a member of 
Mr. Lincoln's cabinet, but the truth is his genius was greatest and best 
as a court and jury lawyer. The official positions he held were breath- 
ing spells in his busy life as a lawyer. That here he had genius of 
a high order was soon recognized when he was yet a young member 
of the Terra Haute bar. But the moral qualities of Mr. Usher's 
character were distinctive features of the man, and no man is great 
without these qualities. His virtues were not demonstrative, but 
natural and beneficial to many. His nature was unselfish and kindly, 
although he seemed unwilling that it should be recognized. What- 
ever cause he engaged in, he went into with zeal, and his greatest 
stimulus was his belief of the unmerited wrongs of his client. He 


was a true and faithful citizen by a principle to which he adhered 
with conscientious tenacity. With no dogmas of religion and no 
bigoted opinions regarding the mysteries of death and eternity, he 
was scrupulous upon all points of practical morality, could bear no 
thought of wrong nor endure a knowledge of oppression or cruelty 
without abomination. His obligations of life he observed with 
sleepless remembrance, nor was he idle or easy until all was can- 
celed and satisfied, whether pecuniary or social. He was helpful 
to the unfortupate, sympathizing and encouraging to the poor and 
needy, merciful to the wicked in distress, tolerant and charitable to 
the abandoned and profligate and indifferent to the proud and vain. 
His friendships were sincere and enduring. He was an affectionate 
son and brother. Soon after his estabKshment in Terra Haute his 
family followed him — father, mother, brothers and sisters. He was 
their patron; aided them all and severally, with his money and his 
interest, and with attention and solicitude, guarded and guided their 
movements of life. First and most notable he was a most loving 
and faithful husband and father. Such was John P. Usher. 

He left Terre Haute some years ago to accept an important 
position offered by the Union Pacific railroad, and made his home 
during the remainder of his life in Lawrence, Kas. 

He died in 1889 in Philadelphia from the effects of a surgical 
operation performed by Dr. Agnew, or rather the operation had 
been fatally delayed and his system never rallied from the effects 
of this operation, which was the only hope of prolonging his life. 

A Philadelphia despatch, dated April 12, 1889, says: "Hon. 
John P. Usher, who was Secretary of the Interior under President 
Lincoln, died at the University hospital, this city, this morning. 
Mr. Usher came here from Florida, where he had a winter residence, 
about two weeks ago, to undergo an operation for the removal of a 
tumor from his throat. 

Prof. Agnew successfully removed the growth, but the patient, 
notwithstanding the efforts made to save his life, died at 11 o'clock 
this morning. Mr. Usher was born in Madison county, N. Y., 
in 1816. For some years past he lived at Lawrence, Kas., where 
he acted as counsel for the Missouri Pacific and the Kansas Pacific 

To this a local paper here added: "For years Hon. John P. 
Usher was a resident of Terre Haute, and was one of the ablest 
and best known lawyers that practiced at this bar. He lived here 
when he was appointed to the cabinet of President Lincoln, his 
residence being the one now occupied by H. Hulman, on Ohio street. 
Mr. Usher's wife is a sister of Mrs. Sarah Deming." 

Col. William K. Edwards. — A notable funeral was that of Col. 
Edwards, who died in his room at Terre Haute house, Thursday 


morning at 6 o'clock, September 25, 1878. The announce- 
ment caused the State to put on the emblems of mourning, and 
attending the funeral came special trains from all points of the 
compass, bearing heavy loads of people. The crowds from 
Indianapolis were very large, and among them were the entire 
State officers, staffs, guards and military commands. There was, it 
is said, but one occasion where an equal demonstration was ever 
made at a funeral in Indiana, and that was at the burial of Gov. 

At a meeting of the members of the bar of Vigo county, called 
for the purpose of taking proper steps in regard to the death of 
Col. W. K. Edwards, Hon. H. D. Scott was called to the chair, and 
J. H. Blake appointed secretary. 

Judge Carlton made appropriate remarks and moved the ap- 
pointment of a committee to draft suitable resolutions of the bar 
"in regard to the demise of an esteemed friend and brother 

Col. William E. McLane seconded the motion, and in support 
thereof spoke feelingly of the deceased and of his long and inti- 
mate acquaintance with him, and of the many good qualities of 
which the deceased was possessed. 

Judge C. Y. Patterson, a friend of Col. Edwards for forty-two 
years, then through much emotion spoke for a short time. 

Gen. Cruft, who first met Col. Edwards December 6, 1830, 
gave some early reminiscences of Col. Edwards' life, and a short 
sketch of his life after coming to Terre Haute. 

Judges Long, William Mack, John G. Crain, Charles E. Hos- 
ford, James M. Allen, S. M. Stimson and B. F. Havens all spoke 
of the dead in tender and affectionate terms. 

The committee, A. B. Carlton, William Mack, Charles Cruft 
and T. B. Long reported as follows: 

"We, the members of the Terre Haute bar, having assembled to 
pay a tribute of respect to our lamented brother, William K. 
Edwards, submit the following: 

"William K. Edwards, who departed this life on the 25th inst., 
had been a member of this bar for thirty -five years. During all 
this time, while he was not a solicitor for general practice, he did a 
large amount of legal business, and for promptness, accuracy and 
strict probity in his profession, he had no superior. His character 
for integrity, not only in his profession, but in every walk in life 
was spotless. . As a gentleman he was highly accomplished, and 
was endowed with that obliging disposition and rare urbanity of 
manners which made him an universal favorite in the social circle. 
As a friend he was warm-hearted, self-sacrificing, and as true as 
steel. As a citizen he was the full embodiment of energy, liberality 


and benevolence, and in all the qualities of head and heart he was 
a man such as we shall rarely meet again." Similar resolutions were 
passed by the board of managers of the Rose Polytechnic Institute, of 
which board Col. Edwards had been the secretary, and by the 
Terre Haute Lodge, No. 57, I. O. O. F. All the military and civil 
organizations of Terre Haute and the adjoining country were part 
of the great pageant that bore the remains to their final resting 
place. Col. William K. Edwards was born near Louisville, Ky., 
about the year 1820. His mother was a relative of Gen. Zachary 
Taylor. Col. Edwards graduated at the Indiana State University 
at Bloomington in the fall of 1841. He attended two courses of 
lectures at the Transylvania University at Lexington, and was a 
graduate of both these schools. He located at Terre Haute in 1843, 
and commenced the practice of his profession. In 1845 he was, 
with John Dowling, elected to the legislature, both Whigs. He 
served three subsequent sessions in that body, and was made 
speaker of the house in 1873. He was noted as one of the ablest 
parliamentarians of the country. Was elected the first mayor of 
Terre Haute after its organization as a city, under the act of 1853, 
and held that position two terms. And was one of the trustees of 
the Indiana State University nearly twenty years, and was president 
of the board at the time of his death. Also was secretary of the 
Rose Polytechnic Institute, and had contributed by his labors much 
toward organizing that school, delivering the address at the laying 
of the corner-stone; and was a director in the Terre Haute & 
Chicago, and the Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Vandalia railroads, 
and of the First National bank of Terre Haute. He was for years 
president and manager of the Draw-bridge company. An emi- 
nent Odd Fellow, and was past grand master of that order in 
Indiana ; a prominent Mason. He was one of the executors of the 
last will of the late Chauncey Rose. In politics he was an earnest 
and leading Republican. 

Judge Patterson. — Chambers Young Patterson was born at 
Vincennes, July 3, 1824. He received an academic education at 
the State University of Indiana and at Bardstown, Ky., where with 
high distinction he graduated in the summer of 1843. Soon after 
leaving school he entered the office of Usher & Griswold, Terre 
Haute, as a law student, and afterward graduated at Harvard 
University, where he enjoyed the rare privilege of being a student 
under Judge Story, the Gamaliel of American law learning; also of 
attending the law lectures of Judge Greenleaf, who was at that time 
a member of the Harvard faculty. He graduated at Harvard in 
1847, and soon after entered upon the practice in partnership with 
his brother-in-law, Hon. John P. Usher. 

In 1852 he was married to Miss Anna, daughter of Judge John 


Law, for many years one of the eminent judges of western Indiana. 

Judge Patterson was elected mayor of Terre Haute in May, 
1856; re-elected in 1857 for two years, and again in 1859, but 
resigned to accept the bench of the Tenth Common Pleas district 
composed of the counties of Parke, Vigo and Sullivan. He was a 
candidate for re-election to this judgeship in 1864, but was de- 
feated by Hon. Samuel F. Maxwell — the model man and judge. 
And this was the only defeat that ever overtook Judge Patterson 
who was the largest part of his active life in public positions. 
Soon after his defeat he formed a partnership with Judge James 
M. Allen. 

In October, 1867, he was elected judge of the .Eighteenth 
Indiana circuit, composed of the counties of Vermillion, Parke, 
Sullivan apd Vigo; was re-elected in 1872 and again in 1878; this 
then being the Fourteenth Indiana circuit — Vigo and Sullivan 
counties. This place he was holding at the time of his death. 
His ambition followed closely in the grooves of his profession. 
The extent of his departure being that of a delegate to the National 
convention in New York in 1868. 

No man as president judge of our courts was ever held in 
higher esteem than Judge Patterson, and this was true of all 
people. At the bar meeting Senator Vorhees among other things 
said: " I did not expect to speak here to-day, as I should desire to 
at some future time. * * I can not do justice to myself to-day, 
but I thought that my friends and neighbors here would justify 
me in leaving my post of duty to come and share in the general 
grief. We can not do anything for the dead — they are beyond our 
help, * * When I shall have returned to my post of duty I 
shall have traveled 1,600 miles to attend Judge Patterson's funeral, 
and that is some of the evidences of the respect I had for him. I 
formed his acquaintance nearly thirty years ago, and during that 
period he was a delightful person to me, and when we parted last 
fall we parted with as affectionate and sunny atmospJiere between 
us as we ever had in our lives. It is a pleasure for me to say this. 
He was a man of strong and vigorous intellect; of great individu- 
ality and of robust temperament. Few men ever had more local 
influence, and there is scarcely a man in Terre Haute whose death 
could be more regretted. He was a man of public enterprise; he 
noted everything that was going on which concerned the community 
in which he lived." 

Judge James M. Allen, at one time the law partner of Patter- 
son, concluding his remarks at the bar meeting said: 

"In conclusion, gentlemen of the bar, I want to say that I 
conscientiously believe that if there is such a thing as an upright 
and impartial judge; if there are strictly honest and conscientious 


men in this world, Chambers Young Patterson was one of those 
men; and that the highest eulogy that can be paid to the honored 
dead, is to be able to say truthfully that he lived and died an up- 
right honest life." 

Hon. Bayliss W. Hanna concluding his remarks on this occasion 
said: "In this solemn presence, brethren, let us stand together 
in tender remembrance — every passion still, every harsh resolve 
forgotten, every trace of envy changed to reverence, all ambition 
melted into tears, and feel as we say, this is the last of earth." 

He made his family residence at the Terre Haute house, where 
he breathed his last on the morning of January 17, 1881. 

"God's finger touched him and he slept." 

Judge Patterson left to mourn his loss a wife and two sons, 
John and Ewing, and a daughter, Margaret, a brother, James 
Patterson, of Parke county, and three sisters, Mrs. Deming, Mrs. 
Usher and Mrs. Linton. 

John Pierson Baird. — In any future time the historian of this 
part of Indiana, will, as he continues to delve in the lore of the past, 
be sure to find one name that will at first, perhaps, make but little 
impression on his mind, yet, before he finishes his story, that name 
will grow and grow upon him, and he will come to love and rever- 
ence it. I imagine the one name that will pre-eminently thus act 
on his mind will be that of Col. John P. Baird. He was born 
January 5, 1830, and died March 7, 1881, aged fifty-one years, a 
native of Spencer county, Ky., on the old Baird farm on Simpson 
creek, eight miles from Taylorville, the son of Stephen and Sarah 
Baird. His father was a native of Ireland ; his mother of Spencer 
county, Ky. In 1832 his father sold his Kentucky property and 
removed to Vigo county, and purchased his farm in Pierson town- 
ship, where he resided until his death, about 1841. On this farm 
John spent his youth, with the exception of a short time clerking 
in a store at Lockport. His entire educational opportunities were 
in the neighborhood schools. When eighteen he attended school at 
Franklin College, Indiana, two years. He then came to Terre 
Haute and was given employment by Charles T. Noble, circuit 
clerk. In 1851-52 he attended the law school at the Bloomington 
State University, paying his own way all the time, assisted only by 
the noble generosity of his employer, Mr. Noble, which kindness he 
never forgot. March 10, 1852, he was admitted to the bar, and in 
the April following to a partnership with W. D. Griswold. He at 
once took a place among the foremost of the then able bar of the 
county. Mr. Griswold retired from the practice in 1854, and turned 
over to Mr. Baird the office, library and extensive practice. Soon 
after Salmon Wright and Mr. Baird entered into partnership in the 
practice of the law, this continued three years. Afterward he was 
associated with Edward E. Bassett. 


In the summer of 1885 Col. Baird was elected on the Republican 
ticket a member of the legislature, serving in the call session of 
that body. 

September 1, 1802, he was commissioned colonel of the Eighty- 
fifth Indiana, and went at once to the field, first to Covington, Ky., 
then to Falmouth, Lexington and Danville. In February 1863, he, 
with his command, went to Louisville, and from there by water to 
Nashville, and from there to Franklin, Tenn. He was brigaded with 
the Thirty-third Indiana, Twenty-second Wisconsin and Nineteenth 
Michigan, under. Gen. John Coburn. 

March 5, at Thompson's station. Gen. Coburn met Gen. Forrest, 
and his entire command was captured. The prisoners. Col. Baird 
among them, were marched to Tullahoma, under great hardships, 
and from there the officers were sent to Libby prison, the rank and 
file being released. After being in prison a little more than two 
months he was exchanged; returned, and again organized his regi- 
ment and returned, to Franklin, Tenn., where nearly constant skir- 
mish engagements with the enemy occurred. It was during his 
stay here that occurred the notable capture, trial and execution, 
under his command, of the spies, Williams and Peter. This was one 
of the stern and awful circumstances of war, and there is not much 
doubt it affected Col. Baird during the remainder of his life. He 
and command participated in the Atlanta campaign, engaged in the 
many battles of that campaign, and notably at the charge at Resaca. 
During this campaign his health gave way, and he had to resign 
June 20, 18G4, after which he returned to Terre Haute and resumed 
the practice of the law. He soon after formed a partnership with 
Gen. Charles Cruft. For the next ten years this firm had an im- 
mense practice, and probably as much from overwork as anything 
else, but from various causes, his health again failed him, and in 
1875 it was painfully evident that impairment of the mind had 
taken place. He continued at home under medical treatment until 
April 1, 187(5, when he consented, under the advice of friends, to 
be taken to the Indiana Hospital for the Insane for treatment. He 
went pleasantly, never to return alive. With varying hopes to be 
again dashed, he would improve, and at one time his health so im- 
proved that the greatest hopes were encouraged, but " Canst thou 
minister to a mind diseased?" An ac ute attack of the kidneys set 
in and in three weeks thereafter the end came. He was in the hos- 
pital five years, lacking a few days, and his friends think that in all 
that time his clouded mind experienced little or no suffering. 

Col. Baird left no lineal descendant to bear his name. An 
infant son, born to him in March, 1876, after his mental infirmities, 
survived him but a few months. His widow and a brother and a half 
brother were all that were left behind him of close kith or kin. 


His body was brought to Terre Haute, and after its Jong fever, 
sleeps peacefully in Woodlawn cemetery. 

While more of him is said in the foregoing as a soldier than as 
a jurist, yet it is in the latter that is all the real man. He was a 
born lawyer, and no training nor circumstances could have ever 
made him a soldier. Full of idiosyncracies, this many-sided man 
was peaceful, kind, benevolent, and his mere physical nature was 
more of a nurse, succoring affliction, rather than destroying or 
maiming and killing. 

He was twenty-two years old when he became a member of the 
Vigo county bar. Among those in full practice at ihat time were 
William D. Griswold, John P. Usher, Richard W. Thompson, 
Amory Kinney, Salmon Wright, Samuel Barnes Gookins, Cromwell 
W. Barbour, and among the younger members, Harvey D. Scott; 
Newton Booth, afterward senator from . California ; Blackford B. 
Moffatt, Charles Dewey, Jr., Thomas H. Nelson, and others who 
have since made national names and fames. 

There was none of the polish in either his professional or 
literary training and education, but strength in every direction. 
His memory and also his knowledge of human nature were extraor- 
dinary. He quoted the law from memory, giving volume and 
page, and it is said could for months after a trial give the impor- 
tant details of every witness' testimony; having scant imagination 
and none of the arts of oratory, yet so well did he know the jury 
that in his peculiar interrogative way of conversational addresses, 
he would, in an incredibly brief time make, as he would sometimes 
call it, his same speech twelve times over, once for each juror. The 
rock on which this great lawyer's life was wrecked was the army. 
He watched and studied himself; in the latter time of his practice 
he must in his lonely musing have looked the coming madness in 
the face. He realized the seeming lack of adjustments in his mind 
that would come upon him, felt the opposing forces at work there, 
and to his most inward friends he sometimes spoke of it, and then 
referred to the subtle forces in that pathetic humor that would 
have pierced the heart of a stone as his "wild cats" — pointing at 
his head. The first kindling of the fever, and when it came in its 
resistless force, the same pathetic, gentle humor kept him so often 
conscious of his condition, and ever willing to hearken and obey 
the advice of his friends. He told his friends that he was ready to 
go to the asylum, and was to his dying moment always talking of 
getting well in a few days, often, "I'll be well to-morrow." That 
"to-morrow" did come at last — the end of his sickness and of his 
pilgrimage on earth. 

Patrick Henry Lee died a young man, and while serving a term 
in the State legislature of 1872. He was the fourth son of Dr. H. 


D. Lee, late of Kiley township, born on the old homestead, April 
17, 1875, and was but twenty-eight years old at the time of his 
death. He was educated at Asbury University, but his health failed 
him while there and compelled him to leave before completing his 

Judge Randolph Wedding, died of pneumonia, December 10, 
1866. He was born in St. Charles county, Md., April 15, 1798, a 
son of Thomas Wedding, who was one of the revolutionary fathers, 
who had a large family of children, of whom Randolph was the 
eighth and the last surving member of his father's immediate 
family. In 1817 he was married to Mary De Puy, August 28. Of 
thi* union there were seven children — four daughters and three sons 
— of whom three daughters and a son survived their father. Mrs. 
Harriet, wife of Judge James M. Allen, and Mrs. Roach, wife of 
Judge Roach of Indianapolis, Mrs. Cullin, and Oliver Wedding. 
Judge Wedding came to Indiana in 1817, immediately after his 
marriage. His first wife died in 1833, and in 1834 he married 
Jane Stringham, sister of Rear Admiral Stringham. Judge Wed- 
ding spent half a century of his life near Terre Haute, and was a 
prominent factor in advancing the material prosperity of the city 
and county. 

Judge Ballard Smith died at the residence of his father-in-law, 
Curtis Gilbert, in the forty-second year of his age. He became a 
member of the Terre Haute bar in 1861. A meeting of the bar was 
convened on the occasion of his demise at the office of Judge Mack, 
Hon. Thomas H. Nelson, presiding, and W. K. Edwards, secretary ; 
Gen. Charles Cruft, Judge William Mack, Judge James M. Allen, 
J. T. Scott, and Gen. W. E. McLean were appointed a committee 
on resolutions. And Judge William Mack was appointed to pre- 
sent the resolutions to the circuit and the common pleas courts. 
The resolutions expressed the universal sorrow at the untimely death 
of Judge Smith. 

Hon. James Farrington was born in Boston, Mass., December 6, 
1798, and died at his family residence, Terre Haute, 1870, aged 
seventy-two. He completed his academical and professional educa- 
tion in his native State, and immediately came west, and located in 
Vincennes in 1819. In January, 1822, he made his permanent 
location in this place, and was by some years the senior member of 
the Terre Haute bar at the time of his death, being a resident of 
the place forty-eight years. During the first twelve years here he 
devoted himself closely to the practice. He soon gained an ex- 
tensive practice, being a careful lawyer and prompt and attentive 
to business, well versed in the principles of the common law, and 
always laborious in the preparation of his cases. He was elected 
to the legislature in 1825, and in the sessions of 1831-32 and 


1833-34, he represented this district in the State senate. In these 
bodies he was conspicuous as a hard worker, and an able parlia- 
mentarian and valuable especially on all questions of finance. He 
had much to do in laying the foundation for Indiana's public school 
system, and was one of the originators of the charter of the old 
State bank. In 1834 he retired from the law firm of Farrington, 
Wright & Gookins, and wholly relinquished the practice of law. 
He became cashier of the branch bank of the State in Terre 
Haute, and then became president of that concern. During the 
entire existence of the bank he was one of the directors and the 
financial adviser. For a number of years he was heavily engaged 
in pork packing as the senior member of the house of H. D. Will- 
iams & Co. 

In September, 1862, on the establishment of the Seventh United 
States Internal Revenue district, he was appointed assessor thereof. 
He filled this position to within a few days of his death, when he 
resigned, being convinced that his sickness was fatal. 

Horace B. Jones departed this life January 24, 1890, at noon. 
He was taken sick only on the Saturday previous at his room at 
Mrs. Lewis' on Ohio street, and from the hour of the attack seemed 
to sink to the last moment. The cause (*f his death was neuralgia 
of the stomach. 

Mr. Jones was born at Harrisburg, Penn., December 14, 1841, and 
was but forty-one years of age at the time of death. He was the last 
of the family except a nephew, Horace B. Jones, Jr. 

Mr. Jones was a clerk in the quartermaster's department during 
the war, and had lived in Cumberland previously. At the close of 
the war he was for some time a claim ag^nt at Washington. In 
1868, in company with his brother, he located in Terra Haute, and 
they formed a partnership in the agricultural implement trade on 
South Third street, in this they were very successful when Horace 
B. retired from the business and commenced the practice of law, for 
which he had fitted himself before coming west. After practicing 
several years alone he formed a partnership with Judge John T. 
Scott, which firm existed fifteen years. Mr. Jones was a carefully 
educated scholar as well as lawyer, and in his miscellaneous reading 
kept well with the latest and best literature of the day. As a law- 
yer he had the confidence of his brethren and the community. He 
was the sole legal adviser of some of the leading business firms of 
the city; was popular and a society favorite. He never married. 
He was a member of Terra Haute Chapter No. 11, R. A. M., and 
Terra Haute Lodge No. 19, F. & A. M., also of the I. O. O. F. and 
the G. A. R. 

Lewis B. Lawrence was one of the first attorneys to locate in 
Terra Haute, and in the list of deaths of members of the profession 


hi8 is the first on the record. The particulars of his life and death 
are not now attainable. It is the few facts of incidental mention 
that are found on the old records that are all that remains. The 
county officers called him in for counsel on legal subjects. In the 
arranging of the machinery of the county he was the authority and 
the law — the county's adviser and attorney. The administrator of 
his estate was Lucius H. Scott, and it is recited on the court records 
that at a special session of the board, March 3, 1821, was 
allowed said administrator the sum of $150 for services of the 
said deceased (Lewis B. Lawrence) "rendered the county in col- 
lecting and for advice." There was no learned bar then here 
to hold a meeting of the brethren to pass resolutions in memory of 
the deceased. There was no newspaper to publish them, had there 
been a bar to pass them. 

Welton M. Modesitt was a schoolmate of Cromwell W. Barbour. 
They attended the law school together, and were admitted to prac- 
tice about the same time. Mr. Modesitt was in the practice at Terra 
Haute for about the period of two years. When under the ministra- 
tion of the noted Henry Ward Beecher in Terra Haute, he joined 
the church, and at once began preparations to become a Congrega- 
tional minister. He attended the Beecher-Stowe Theological Semi- 
nary at Walnut Hills, Cincinnati, was duly ordained, and has been in 
the ministry since ; is now making his home in Buffalo, N. Y. 

Vigo Law Library Association was formed in February, 1890. 
Nearly all the practicing attorneys became members. An organi- 
zation was formed after one or two informal meetings, and articles 
of association adopted. William Eggleston, president; Joseph 
Davis, treasurer, and Addison Scott, secretary. A room was secured 
in the court-house building, and already about 1,000 volumes have 
been collected. 

In view of the fact of the organization of a State bar associa- 
tion, steps were taken by the attorneys of Terre Haute to form a 
society and have proper representation in the State society meet- 
ings. A few attorneys met and talked the matter over, and in 
April a meeting was called. This adjourned, and a second meeting 
began to take action. A constitution and by-laws were adopted 
and the following officers elected: Judge Cyrus F. McNutt, presi- 
dent; S. C. Stimson and J. Jump, vice-presidents; I. H. C. Royse, 
treasurer, and S. M. Huston, secretary. The following are the mem- 
bers: C. F. McNutt, S. C. Stimson, J. Jump, S. M. Huston, L H. 
C. Royse, George W. Faris, H. J. Baker, John O. Piety, P. M. 
Foley, Alvin M. Higgins, J. C. Foley, M. C. Hamill, L. D. Te- 
veque, J. H. Kleiser, William Eggleston, B. V. Marshall, James E. 
Piety, John C. Robinson, Robert B. Stimson, R. J. Smith, George 
E. Pugh, F. A. McNutt, B. E. Rhoads, J. P. Harrah, John T. Scott, 


David W. Henry, S. R. Hamill, David N. Taylor, Samuel Royse, 
A. H. Donham, F. C. Danaldson, John G. McNutt, J. L. Davis, 
Thomas W. Haymond, George M. Davis, T. H. Hite, E. H. Red- 
man, George A. Scott, S. B. Davis, T. W. Harper, John E. Lamb, 
George W. Kleiser, W. W. Rumsey. 



FIRST meeting of Vigo Probate Court was at the house of 
Henry Redford, the third Monday of July, 1818. Associate 
judges present were Moses Hoggatt and James Barns. On the 
first day the clerk, Curtis Gilbert, laid before the court the follow- 
ing business: 

Administration of the estate of Oliver Jones, the administra- 
tor was James Jones, with James Chesnut and Jaroes Wilson as 
sureties; Estate of John Lynch, letters to John T. ^Chunn, with 
Isaac Lambert, security; John M. Coleman moved to revoke let- 
ters to Chunn, and have letters himself, which was done. This 
was the first day's work of the court, and the end of the first term. 
A special meeting was held in October, following, by Hoggatt and 
Barns. James Scott was granted letters on the estate of Jonathan 
Murdock, with John M. Coleman and Truman Blackman, securities. 
This court adjourned to meet at the house of Charles B. Modesitt 
the next day, October 18. James B. Winter, a minor over fourteen 
years, on that day came into court and made choice of Elisha 
U. Brown for his guardian. Ariel Harmon was appointed guardian 
of Hannah Winter, who was under fourteen years of age. 

At the May term, 1819, a special court was held by the associate 
judges, Moses Hoggatt and James Barns, when the clerk laid before 
them the administration granted on the estate of Jacob Dick to 
Thomas Gordon, with Truman Blackman and John Earle securities; 
also on estate of Robert Nelson to Mary Nelson and John Earle, 
with Benjamin Cory and William Hamilton securities; also, the 
administration on estate of Alanson Church to John Harris, 
with John Campbell and Robert Bratton securities ; also on the estate 
of Thomas W. Taylor to Elisha Bentley and James Jones, with 
Ariel Harmon and Henry T. Irish securities; also on the estate of 
James Austin to Henry T. Irish, with Elisha Bentley and James 
Jones securities; and the estate of John Chamberlain to Alexander 


Chamberlain, with Abraham A. Markle security; the estate of 
Zebulon Jennings to John Durkee, with Lucius H. Scott security; 
the estate of Isreal Post to Gersham Tuttle, with Curtis Gilbert and 
Nathaniel Huntington securities ; and the estate of Isaac Hunter, 
deceased, to Jacob Kuyger, with John Blair and Samuel Blair 

At the next May term of the probate court the following busi- 
ness was transacted: Estate of Simeon Gillet, letters to Salmon 
Gillet, with Peter B. Allen and William Nelson as sureties; 
estate of Calvin Ellis to Betsy Ellis, and William Nelson and Peter 
Allen securities ; estate of Andrew Himrod to Caleb Crawford, with 
Isaac Lambert and Morris Bobbins securities ; estate of Luther Whit- 
wood, with Lewis Northrup and James P. Jones. Sally and Lydia 
Church, over fourteen, made choice of Isaac Lambert,^ guardian, 
when the court also appointed him guardian for Eliza, who was less 
than fourteen years of age. Hannah Winter was old enough to 
choose Ariel Harmon guardian. Pamela Sisson selected for her 
guardian, Daniel Jenckes ; for Phebe and Phillip the court appointed 
Daniel Jenckes. 

May 15, 1820, a special term of the probate court was held at 
the house of Robert Harrison, in Terre Haute, by the associates, 
Moses Hoggatt and James Barns. Letters were granted on the 
estate of Andrew Bell to Samuel McQuilkin, with Gideon Sleeper 
and Richard Jaques sureties; estate of John Chenoweth to Isaac 
Chenoweth, with James Barnes and Joseph Walker securities; 
estate of John Ray to Barbara Ray, with William Ray and Samuel 
Ray securities; estate of Jeremiah Mote to May and Will- 
iam Mote, with Isaac Lambert and William Durham securi- 
ties; estate of Gideon Still son to Ashley Harris, with James 
Jones, Robert S. McCabe^ and James S. Turner securities; 
will proved on estate of James Lee ; letters to Polly Lee, with Eben- 
ezer Pocock and Thomas Forgason; estate of John Ewing to 
Alexander Ewing, with Robert Sturgus and Robert Curry sureties; 
estate of Elihu Hovey to Zebina C. Hovey, with Samuel McQuilkin 
and Eleazer Aspinwall; estate of John Mclntire to Eleazar Mc- 
Intire, with John Hamilton and John Earle sureties; estate of 
John Earle to Anna Earle, issued December 1, 1819, with John 
Hamilton and Peter Allen. 

Next session of the probate court commenced on April 16, 1821, 
at the house of Robert Harrison ; associate judges, John Jenckes 
and Demas Deming; when the clerk reported the following letters, 
issued during vacation: Estate of Elijah Anderson to George 
Clem, with George Wait ; estate of Collins C. W. Morgan to Robert 
Harrison, with Henry Redford and Ezekiel Buxton; estate of 
William Coltrin to Elisha Parsons and John Durkee, with Will- 


iam C. Linton and Robert Harrison; estate of Martin Braddock to 
William Durham, with William Walker and Joel Dickson; estate 
of Lewis B. Lawrence to Lucius H. Scott, with Andrew Brooks and 
Charles B. Modesitt; estate of Samuel L. Richardson to John L. 
Richardson and Ann Richardson, with William C. Linton, John F. 
King and Truman Blackman; estate of Joel Sherman to Charles 
B. Modesitt, with Lucius H. Scott and Robert W. Gale; estate of 
Isaac W. Ashton to Jacob D. G. McDonald, with Caleb Crawfgrd 
and John Harris. 

The next term of the court, October 15, 1821, was again at the 
house of Robert Harrison, John Jenckes and Demas Deming as- 
sociate judges. The clerk reported letters granted: Estate of 
Truman Blackman to Remember Blackman and Francis Cunning- 
ham, with Peter Allen, John Hamilton and Caleb Crawford; estate 
of Richard Cox to David and John Cox, with Elijah Bentley and 
John Starkness ; estate of A. Elliott to David Lykins, with Thomas 
Brown and John Pike; estate of Ebenezer Wilson to Salem Po- 
cock, with A. A. Markle and Alexander Chamberlain; estate of 
William Souls to Ezra Jones and Charles B. Modesitt, with A. A. 
Markle and Robert S. McCabe; estate of P. Porter to Gersham 
Tuttle, with Chester Tuttle and Gaylord Porter; estate of Mark 
Barnett to Rachel Barnett and William N. Perry, with Robert 
Sturgus and Thomas H. Blake. 

The next term of the probate court convened March 4, 1822; 
associate judges, Demas Deming and John Jenckes; estate of Sally 
Mclntire, letters to Charles B. Modesitt, with John Campbell and 
Caleb Crawford sureties; estate of John F. Thompson to William 
Kelso, Moses Hoggatt and Samuel F. Thompson. 

At the court held at the house of Israel Harris November 5, 
1822, present Demas Deming, when the clerk reported the follow- 
ing letters testamentary issued during vacation : Estate of Robert 
Lacey to William Ramage, with Lucius H. Scott and William^ 
Clarke; estate of James Johnson (will) to Benjamin Kerchival and 
Thomas Pounds, with Moses Evans, John Kester and William 
W^elch; estate of George Kirkwood to John Kirkwood, with 
Samuel McQuilkin and George Jones; estate of Robert Hays, 
with John Hamilton and Peter Allen sureties; estate of John Kirk- 
wood to Mark Williams, with Thomas H. Clarke and Samuel Mc- 
Quilkin; estate of Eddy Raymond to Ansel Harris, with Ashley 
Harris and Daniel M. Brown; estate of William Mulholland to 
Robert Hoggatt, with Nicholas Yeager and Moses Hoggatt; estate 
of Emma Coltrin to John Coltrin and William Coltrin, with Robert 
Graham and Alban C. Davis. Ira Coltrin selected in open court 
John Durkee as guardian. 

At a special court at the house of Israel Harris the third Mon- 


day of April, 1823, present, Demas Deming and Ezra Jones, as- 
sociates. The proceedings of the term are signed by Deming and 
Jones and below this it is written " examined by J. Call, Pres. 
judge." The next term commenced Monday, September 1, 1823. 
Deming and Jones present ; clerk reported letters issued as follows : 
Estate of Solomon Teverbaugh to Joseph Mark, with Charles B. 
Modesitt and Robert S. McCabe, sureties ; estate of Stephanus Hay- 
worth, Micajah Hayworth and Margaret Hayworth, with Lewis 
Northrup and Eliphalet Shattuck ; estate of Eli Linderman to Sam- 
uel Miles, with John Campbell and Isreal Harris ; Jesse Teverbaugh, 
infant son of Solomon Teverbaugh, made choice of Joseph Shelby 
as guardian; James Blackman, son of first sheriff, selected Francis 
Cunningham as guardian ; J. Call again examined and corrected the 

At a probate court, October 9, 1824, present John B. Porter, 
president of the First Judicial Circuit, and Daniel Jenckes, as- 
sociate. First business, Elenor Brad en, late Elenor Mclntire, ad- 
ministratrix presented report; Asa Wallace appointed guardian for 
John Moore, orphan of Samuel Moore, and Charles Turner ap- 
pointed for James and Margarett Moore. 

The circuit court setting as a court of probate convened on 
April 23, 1825, present, George Webster and Robert Hopkins 
associate judges. To the court proceedings the signature of Hop- 
kins is nearly a fac-simile of that of the same surname to the Dec- 
laration of Independence. 

At the April term of the probate court, 1826, Reuben Newton 
applied for letters on the estate of Harold Hays, which the court re- 
fused, whereupon he appealed to the circuit court; George W. 
Maynard appointed guardian of Isaac Thompson, son of David 
Thompson; last will of John Brocklebank probated; letters 
granted Daniel Pocock on the estate of Salem Pocock; same to 
Stephen S. Collett on estate of Charles Thompson ; and Margaret 
Curry and Elliott Adams on estate of William Curry. 

April 1827, special term of court — no general business reported. 

At December term, 1829, letters granted Julia Lambert and 
James Hall on estate of Isaac Lambert; at same time letters to 
John Cox and Robert Hopkins on estate of Isaiah Wallace ; same 
time to Joseph Bennight on estate of Samuel Rudleman, and to 
Matilda Johnson on estate of Benjamin Johnson. 

September term, 1828, present, Robert Hopkins and Thomas H. 
Clarke, associate judges; the law changed in 1828, and a probate 
judge elected; Elisha U. Brown elected probate judge. This 
court organized for business September 7, 1829. The first order 
" That a scrawl with the words 'Vigo Probate Court ' written thereon 
be the seal of the court until another seal is procured." Next 


order was that Joshua Crow and Elizabeth Crow, his wife, were 
appointed guardians for Aaron Wilson, Keuben Wilson, Samuel 
Wilson and Miles Wilson, children of Jeremiah Wilson. July 2, 
1829, John E. Porter, president judge, certifies that Elisha U. 
Brown was duly qualified as probate judge; Anna Hicks and 
Moses Hicks, guardians of minors of James Bennett's heirs, 
namely Charles, Margaret, Temperance, Kuby, Eliza and Jane, 
made application to sell real estate. 

November, 1830, Robert Hoggatt appeared as probate judge 
and held his first term. The first will filed is that of William 
Winter of date September 18, 1818, and is witnessed by James 
Jones, Martin Patrick and Moses Hoggatt; next, that of Alanson 
Church, and was dated August 18, 1818, signed by "his mark" 
and witnessed by William Henry, Willis, Fellows and Henry 
Burlingame. The next filed is that of James Lee, dated March 3, 
1819; witnesses, Isreal Lykins, Ebenezer Paddock, Sr. and Jr. 
The third was that of Eleazer Aspinwall, September 20, 1820; 
witnesses, Lucius H. Scott and William C. Linton. 

Curtis Gilbert, clerk, certifies that the subscribing witnesses to 
wills "made oath on the Holy Evangelly of God" that they saw, 
etc. Next is that of Richard Cox, dated July 7, 1820; witnesses, 
Elisha Bently, John Harkness and Jeremiah Hay worth. At the 
August term of probate court Robert Hoggatt was succeeded by 
James T. Moffatt, as judge. August, 1837, Joseph S. Jenckes, 
probate judge. At February term, 1839, Jesse Conrad, probate 
judge; 1841, John H. Watson, probate judge; 1848, Andrew Wil- 
kins, judge; 1850, Nathaniel Lee, judge; 1853, Amory Kinney, 

In 1853 the probate court changed to the court of common 
pleas, and Judge Amory Kinney held the first term of this court 
for probate business in October of that year; he continued in 
office until 1857; in 1857 John W. Jones, judge of the common 
pleas court, first session in January of that year; 1860, Chambers 
Y. Patterson judge, common pleas court; December 19, 1864, 
Judge Samuel F. Maxwell appeared as sole judge of the court of 
common pleas and held court. The record shows that the last 
proceedings of the common pleas court signed and approved by 
Chambers Y. Patterson, judge, was August 19, 1864. January term, 
1869, John T. Scott, judge. In 1873 the common pleas court 
was merged, and the judge of the Vigo Circuit Court was vested 
with the jurisdiction and functions of the same, and it is still con- 
tinued in that form. 




THERE were no doubt marriages in what is now Vigo county be- 
fore the county was created, when they had to go to Vin- 
cennes for license, when this was a part of Knox county, and after- 
ward when it was Sullivan county, and they had to go to Sullivan 
for license, and the record is there and has not been transferred to 
this county. 

1818. — The first marriage license in Vigo county issued and 
recorded by Curtis Gilbert was to William Foster and Elizabeth 
Wilson, April 4. William Wilson, it seems, was reminded by 
Elizabeth's marriage, and seventeen days after, April 21, he was 
licensed to marry Roxanna Sniffin. The same day Peter Redford 
and Carrissa Webster; June 2, James Hall and Mahala Winter. 
Then a long wait to July 23, William Mulholland and Lucy Camp- 
bell; followed by a much longer wait, to wit, October 29, Thomas 
H. Clarke and Mary Dickson; December 22, Cheesbro Taylor and 
Catharine Nettleton ; December 25 (a jolly Christmas to wind up 
the year), William Walker and Martha Durham. This completes 
the record for the first fractional year of the county, 1818. 

1819. — The marriage market of this year opened January 19, 
Andrew Brooks and Mary Winter; January 25, John Winter and 
Mary May; Abraham A. Markle and Luna Jones; January 28, John 
Price and Betsey Swall; William Nelson and Saloma Gillett; Feb- 
ruary 23, Gabriel Wilson and Sarah Frakes; April 9, George 
Dougherty and Sally Delk; April 23, John D. Christy and Mary 
White; May 5, Jacob Teverbaugh and Elenor Graham; May 11, 
John Kuykendall and Polly Perry; May 18, Enoch Davis and Sally 
Munson; May 25, Thomas Goble and Rhoda Paddock; May 26, 
Joseph Lockwood and Sarah Medford; June 8, William Briggs 
and Mary Anne Maiden; William McComb and Catherine 
Campbell; June 14, Daniel Helt and Mary Detrow; June 29, John 
Vandever and Eliza Kibbey; Ira Allen and Lydia Cargill; July 3, 
William Bales and Sally Durham ; July 26, Charlton Britton and Jane 
Herrington; August 7, William Black and Eliza Woods; August 
21, John F. King and Sally Redford; September 13, Curtis Gil- 
bert and Catherine Allen ; John Britton and Harriet Allen ; September 
25, Thomas Boden and Elizabeth Rush ; October 19 ; >Salem Pocock 


and Rebecca Hartman; November 16, Salmon Lusk and Mary Beard; 
November 24, Nathaniel Huntington and Aula Markle; December 3, 
Gordon Hale and Nancy Whitehead; December 23, Ashfield Hunt 
and Lucinda Williams; Robert Manwarring and Martha Hankins. 
This concluded the good work for the year 1819. They had no 
wedding Christmas day this year as they had in 1818, to wind up 
the old year with, but they made amends by a bright and early 
start on the new year. 

1820. — January 1, Peter Desaine and Charlotte Martin; Jan- 
uary 11, Alfred M. Rector and Martha Robertson; January 10, 
Thomas Cirry and Jane Barnes; January 25, Simeon Stephens 
and Maria Barnes; February 10, Thomas Lakey and Catharine 
Derr; February 11, Christmas Dashney and Mary Ann Isaac; Feb- 
ruary 12, Daniel Goble and Eunice Pounds; February 17, James 
Farnham and Sally Van Horton ; February 26, James P. Jones and 
Julia Manwarring ; February 29, Elijah Thomas and Sarah Pounds ; 
March 21, John Peck and Elenor Manwarring; April 10, James C. 
Turner and Susan Stilson; April 20, William Rowe and Susana 
Hardray; April 22, Dexter Angel and Clementina Burnett; May 
18, Charles Trowbridge and Martha Hood; May 15, Eleazor El- 
more and Rachel Elliott; May 20, Heman Nelson and Betsy Ellis; 
May 29, Samuel C. Thompson and Sarah Boles; June 6, Joseph 
Browning and Sarah Barker ; June 17, John M. Laferty^ and Nancy 
McNutt; June 24, William Soule, Jr., and Mary Baker; July 8, 
Gay lord Peter and Parmela Tuttle; August 2, Hugh Carnes and 
Catharine Phillips; August 24, Robert McCoy and Elenor Garber; 
August 16, Amos Smith and Sally Martin ; August 23, Thomas C. 
McCaskey and Ruth Kester ; August 26, William Baylis and Han- 
nah Taylor; October 21, Sylvester Sibley and Catharine Rockwell; 
October 24, Asa H, Mack and Sally Ann Church ; October 28, John 
Gear and Esther Judd ; November 6, Lewis Bryant and Mary Hort- 
man; November 17, Daniel White and Dorothy Reeder; November 
18, George W. Minor and Nancy Perkins; November 21, Daniel 
Shaw and Clarinda Seeley; November 28, Alvah Hotchkiss and 
Mary Tuttle; November 29, Jonathan Elwell and Jane Stewart; 
December 25, James A. Ashmore and Sarah Beard; George Kirk- 
patrick and Betsey Barnes; December 27, William C. Linton and 
Ann Aspin wall. 

1821. — January 9, John Harkness and Mary McCoy; January 
13, James Thompson and Susan Paddock; February 6, Holder Sis- 
son and Clarissa Broson; February 28, Boston Derr and Isabella 
Kay; March 3, James Hendray and Betsey Griffin; March 22, 
Thomas Scott and Mary Barker; April 5, Oliver A. Story and Eli- 
nor Souls; April 17, Jacob D. G. McDonald and Betsey D. Taylor; 
April 30, Robert W. Gale and Mariah Barker; May 19, William 


Woodward and Elizabeth Olds ; May 23, John Maun and Lethina 
Combs; June 23, Norman D. Palmer and Ann Jones; June 25, 
George Conn and Eunice Cheeney; July 3, James Lee and Mary 
Ann Kerchival; August 25, Griffy Griffis and Hannah Benjamin; 
September 22, Jacob Garner and Betsey Maun; November 7, Jo- 
seph Dehange and Mary Larwell ; November 8, Stephen Collett and 
Sarah Groenendyke ; November 14, Nathaniel Huntington and Cyn- 
thia Porter ; December 26, Jacob lies and Hannah Stevenson. This 
finished the year 1821 and reached exactly the mark from the be- 
ginning of one hundred marriages. 

1822. — January 15, David F. Durkee and Freelove Frink; Jan- 
uary 23, Lewis Van Winkle and Brucky McKee ; January 23, John 
H. McGillett and Kebecca McKee; January 28, John Chesnut and 
Jerusha Jones; February 11, Caleb Wilson and Mary Mote; Febru- 
ary 12, Stephen Hawley and Deborah Eector; February 19, Rawley 
Hamilton and Ede Delk ; February 23, Joshua Olds and Jane Kirk- 
wood; February 26, John Ferril and Eebecca Noblet; February 26, 
William McFadden and Elizabeth Lee; March 2, James Brot and 
Hannah Christy; Jordan Peter and Betsey Hansbrough ; March 12, 
David Thompson and Barbara Ray; March 21, Robert S. McCabe 
and Martha Roach ; March 23, James C. Bradbury and Mercy Ho- 
vey; March 30, Spencer Edward (a man of color) and Juno (a wo- 
man of color) ; April 2, Hallam Huntington and Jemina Bennright; 
April 6, Price Cbeesman and Lavina Trueblood; April 18, Simeon 
Dicken and Patsey Elliott; April 25, Samuel Baker and Almyra 
Smith ; May 9, Byram McComb and Nancy Bucket; May 23, Horatio 
G. Collins and Maria Satterlee; June 28, Joseph A. Denniston and 
Polly Frakes ; July 27, William Malone and Peggy Boyls ; Absolom 
Kester and Fanny Hurby ; July 31, Ezekiel Buxton and Betty Ram- 
mage ; August 17, James Sherwin and Mary Chenoweth ; Septem- 
ber 17, Joseph McCasky and Rachel Hickson; September 21, 
James Cross and Rebecca Boyd; Daniel Rieves and Susan Frank- 
lin ; October 23, Hiram Smith and Sarah Jacobs ; October 28, Ben- 
jamin Johnson and Mary Hynes; October 30, George Teft and 
Harmony Mitchell ; November 2, Joshua Skidmore and Sally Olds ; 
November 13, William Walker and Susan Durham; November 26, 
Joseph Kester and Nancy Elliott ; December 4, William F. Holmes 
and Elizabeth Church; December 10, John Paddock and Leathy Fur- 
guson; December 24, John Hendray and Mary Ramage. 

1823. — February 1, Ichabod Wood and Catharine Mars; Feb- 
ruary 26, William Nevans and Mary Briggs; March 1, Jacob 
Goodrich and Betsey Hoffman; March 6, Henry Allen and Zetoka 
Cargill; March 10, David M. Jones and Sally Chesnut; April 1, 
John M. Doty and Mary Nevans; April 8, Jubal Welch and Bet- 
sey McCabe; March 9, David Lilley and Elizabeth Kelly; April 12, 


Reuben Newton and Elizabeth Chase; July 5, Seba H. Chase and 
Mary Stilson; July 9, John Greene and Lucy Mallory; July 18, 
Stephen Sweet and Sally Lyons; July 19, Benjamin F. Stoggs and 
Rebecca Thompson ;, July 29, John Sibley and Betsy May ; August 
4, Hector Smith and Mary Sibley; August 14, John Wilson and 
Margaret Cochran; August 29, John D, Christy and Mary Lindsey; 
September 15, Samuel B. Keen and Lydia Shattuck; September 18, 
William Mars and Zilpha Sutliff; November 11, William Ferrill 
and Margaret Greene; November 12, John Nolen and Mary Tever- 
baugh; November 15, James T. C. Shesser and Mary Brockway; 
December 3, Isaiah Craton and Mary Hale; December 10, James 
Helms and Betsy Combs; December 10, Benjamin Hensley and 
Hannah Scott; December 18, Isaac C. Elston and Maria E. Allen; 
December 24, Benjamin Hicks and Lydia Seeley. 

1824. — January 27, Joseph Pounds and Perlina Elliott; January 
28, James French and Malissa Pound; February 14, James Ver- 
million and Catharine Woodworth ; February 19, Asa Frakes and 
Rebecca Dickason; March 17, Elijah Metts and Elizabeth More- 
head; March 19, Jeptha Kenman and Elizabeth Hale; March 
20, John Strain and Leana Hayworth; December 31, Peter Coop- 
rider and Nancy White; April 12, John Pound and Margaret Lis- 
ton; April 14, Robert McGuire and Jane Wilson; April 17, Samuel 
Ferril and Elenor Graham ; April 26, Joseph Swall and Sally Gar- 
ner; May 22, Church Mattox and Fanny Hawkins^ June 18, 
Thomas Rakestraw and Eliza J. Owens; July 3, Cornelius Doty and 
Sally Johnson; July 21, John Roberts and Susana Mote; July 31, 
Jacob Hiner and Angelina Ringo; August 2, Levin Woolen and 
Abagail Robertson ; August 3, James Benedict and Jamima Graves ; 
August 11, Charles Turner and Nancy More; August 14, George 
Wright, Jr., and Mary Briggs; September 7, Lewis Earnest and 
Cynthia Lykins; September 9, William Taylor and Matilda Ander- 
son; October 15, William Stephens and Cynthia Benjamin; October 
19, Samuel Hawe and Olive Bayington ; October 20, John L. Rich- 
ardson and Elizabeth Hamersley; October 22, Hopkins Seeley and 
Mary Bowles; October 30, Joseph Haynes and Hannah McKee; 
November 11, George Jordan and Judith H. Bennett; November 23, 
Jacob Young and Elenor Coffee; December 11, William Sinnuarl 
and Anna Hiner; December 13, Hiram Brock and Mary Rector; 
December 15, George Hussey and Mary Brockway; December 28, 
Andrew Adams and Mary Harris. 

1825. — January 5, Elisha Bentley and Mary Chesnut; January 
6, Samuel Hyde and Olive Franklin; January 7, David Hogue and 
Sally Kilbourne; January 18, Isaiah Mote and Catharine Daniel; 
January 21, Edward Miles and Edith Wilson; January 22, Jere- 
miah Kinman and Martha Hale; William Scully and Nancy 


Gough ; 'January 28, William Stone and Jane Hendry; Feb- 
ruary 3, John Crews and Elizabeth McCowan; February 14, Jacob 
Coopsider and Polly White; February 18, Charles Jackson and 
Kachel Pedichard; March 14, Silas Hoskins and Amanda Allen; 
March 15, Wallace Kea and Eliza Huntington; March 15, Henry 
Markle and Amanda Tuttle; March 26, Edmund Bowles and Anna 
Timmons; March 81, John Jarret and Lydia Church; April 30, 
Joseph Hogue and Anna Caldwell ; April 30, Pryne McDonald and 
Almyra Tracy; June 21, George Armstrong and Betsy Chesnut; 
July 27, Amos Haward and Nancy Connor; August 15, Johli Bat- 
man and Fanny Linderman; August 22, Elijah Eobertson and 
Mary Harrington; September 21, Isaac T. Benuight and Mely 
Seely; October 8, William Coltrin and Drusilla Crawford ;• October 
12, James Lamb and Margaret Reed; November 12, William 
Blocksom and Rosanna Mottocks; November 12, Tillinghast Atony 
and Betsy Gosnell ; November 26, Henry Drake and Alicy Paddock ; 
December 1, Nathaniel Robbins and Sibil Beach ; December 5, 
William Kirchival and Eliza Jane Cummins; December 5, Anthony 
Creal and Melinda Williams; December 28, James Johnston and 
Mary Bentley. 

1826. — January 3, Samuel Strain and Rebecca Wilson; January 
16, Moses Pearson and Polly Liston; January 18, Eben Stone and 
Elizabeth Taylor ; January 24, John Britton and Eliza Roach ; Jan- 
uary 25, Thomas B. Moore and Larina Mitchell ; February 7, Hansey 
Christy and Susannah Hatfield ; February 7, William McMillan and Al- 
manda McGowan; February 13, Lewis Paddock and Mary Shattuck; 
February 16,Thomas Rogers and Sarah Ann Brasher ; March 29,Rich- 
ard McGriff and Susan Marsh; April 1, John Carpenter and Betsey 
S, S. Pointer; May 2, Athel Liston and Kasiah McGlone; May 12, 
James Learing and Mary Williams; May 18, Simon Bundy and 
Rebecca Coffett; May 22, Ira Sale and Telitha Biggs; June 14, 
Terris Marnahan and Margaret McClafflin ; June 19, Thomas Bland 
and Susan Bennett; June 21, Samuel Watkins and Sarah Davis; 
June 26, Jacob Baldwin and Margaret Blaze; July 18, Phillip 
Frakes and Polly Dickinson; July 25, Benjamin Johnston and 
Matilda Tryou; July 26, Josiah Lambert and Perlina Young; 
August 2, George Smith and Polly Hearn; August 7, John Gil- 
crease and Jemima Pinkston; August 12, Isaac Hascoll, Jr., and 
Betsey Meeks; August 16, John Russell and Ruhanna Barnes; 
August 22, William Moody and Lucy Haler August 22, Gersham 
Jaques and Nancy Wait; August 26, Henry Brasier and Susan 
McKee; September 2, Isaac Hatfield and Priscilla Woolen; Sep- 
tember 5, John Pointer and Susan Decker; September 5, John 
Davey and Maria Hatton; September 8, John M. Pinkston and 
Mary Dickson; September 11, John Black and Dorcis Perry; Oc- 


tober 11, John Noblett and Amy Davis; October 14, Gooding Hal- 
loway and Mary Milros ; October 14, Joseph Miller and Margaret 
Bradley; October 14, Samuel Haury and Jemina Russell; Novem- 
ber 2, Charles Peck and Peggy Daniels; November 7, William 
Perry and Hannah Lykins; William Cowgill and Laura Wallace; 
November 8, John Strouce and Mary Reed; November 13, Nathan 
Trueblood and Catharine Brock; November 18, Samuel Mops and 
Elizabeth Oafs ; December 6, Alexander Eagleton and Jane McCul- 
lock; December 21, Ira Barker and Margaret Stewart; December 
21, John Jessups and Cynthia Mounts; December 22, James W. 
Shattuck and Sally Hayworth. 

1827. — January 9, Jacob Carpenter and Fanny Norris; January 

10, Jacob Kester and Margaret Pierson ; January 16, Samuel Pad- 
dock and and Isabella Armstrong; January 25, William Gano and 
Mary Dawson; February 10, Miron H. Allen and Nancy Jackson; 
February 12, Absolom Snoddy and Trena Jones; March 13, Benja- 
min McKeen and Leathey Paddock ; March 30, Samuel Bentley and 
Elisabeth McDonald; April 5, Nelson Souls and Rebecca Sherman; 
David Smith and Mary Souls ; May 8, Leonard York and Susanah 
Lenderman; May 9, Felix Evans and Elizabeth Perkins; May 19, 
Joseph Bennight and Sally Biddleman ; June 4, Hugh Scott and Mary 
Lewis; June 5, David C. Creesey and Betsey Brumley ; John Johnson 
and Nancy Ferguson; June 8, Zachariah Beard and Dicy Forgason; 
June 21, Joseph Bucket and Zerish Mattock ; June 23, Abijah H. Hop- 
kins and Dicey Scott ; June 26,TJaoma8 Meeks and Betsy Smith ; July 

11, Francis Brock and Agnes Bowles ; August 1, Samuel H. Challace 
and Betsy Seering; August 6, Richard I. Trueblood and Jane Seward; 
August 8, Joseph Thompson and Louisa Yeager; William Bentley and 
Lethy Staggs ; August 20, Lee Ray and Elizabeth Crews ; September 
8, James Saunders and Lucinda Lancaster, September 22, Lemuel 
Baker and Rachel Jessup; October 1, Nathan Hogue and Emeline 
Ray; October 6, Ezra M. Jones and Elizabeth Burget; October 9, 
William Hale and Mahala Barnett; October 10, James Perkins and 
Diadama Bruington; October 30, John Curry and Jane Jordan; 
October 31, Henry Ross and Mary Seeley; November 6, Gideon 
Foster and Martha Lemaster; November 17, Cyrus Edgerton and 
Roxana Wilson; November 19, David Swall and Nancy Moore; 
Slaven Samuel and Elinor Moore ; December 3, George Ray and Jane 
Caldwell; December 15, Isam Bucket and Ede Gosnell; December 
26, Thomas Williams and Anna Chenoweth. 

1828. — January 9, D. M. Jones and Mary Ann Snoddy, Jacob 
Walker and Mary Snodgrass ; January 26, Charles Souls and Mary 
McLaflin; January 28. Loyd B. Harris and Martha Snoddy; Janu- 
ary 29, John Knox and Jane Slaven; February 1, George W. 
Markle and Julia Mclntire; Isaac Anderson and Mary Ann Mc- 


Daniel ; February 4, Benj. Harris and Polly Siner ; February 9, John 
Gosnell and Lucinda Garrett; February 12, James G. Gillespy and 
Elenor Caldwell; February 13, Jeremiah Raymond and Laura 
Browning; February 16, John Whitaker and Sarah Ann Cummins; 
William Whitaker and Elizabeth Taylor; March 3, David Smith 
and Nancy Noel, Jesse Cheasle and Susan Gibson ; March 10, Isiah 
Lewis, Jr., and Mary Smith; March 19, John Strader and Polly 
Hodge; March 20, Samuel Graves and Mary Mann; March 22, 
Thomas Chapman and Betsey Wood ; March 26, Joel F. Martin and 
Elizabeth Clemens ; March 29, William Scully and Almy Evans; April 
15, Camma Gregory and Rachel Barnett; April 26, John Balding and 
Lydia Ann Bowen ; June 4, Dove Arnold and Catharine Reed ; July 
9, William Hamilton and Gulielema Bailey; August 27, Carlton 
Belt and Chloe Allen; September 1, William Strain and Rosanna 
Seymour; September 27, Samuel Mclntire and Mary Ann Ratliff; 
October 23, William Fenimore and Margaret Gordon; October 27, 
Edward Woolen and Anna Brown ; October 28, Simon Andrew 
Peters and Susanna Barton; November 3, George Ferrill and Mary 
Harris; Hiram Sparks and Laura Tychenor; November 11, Thomas 
Manchester and Charity McCuen; November 17, Michael Shipley 
and Parthena Smith, William Furguson and Frances Barnett; 
November 26, John Sumpter and Mary Hall ; November 29, Britton 
M. Harrison and Adaline Allen; December 16, Jonathan Carter and 
Elizabeth Rogers; December 18, Jeremiah Hayworth and Lavina 
Campbell; December 20, Joseph Cox and Phebe Conaway; Decem- 
ber 30, Thomas Durham and Jane Clem. 

1829. — January 1, Strother Bridewell and Sophena Wallace; 
January 2, Oliver M. Heacox and Elizabeth Thompkins; January 
6, Daniel Durham and Eliza Watt; January 10, William Lathy 
and Anne Lundrum ; January 20, David Kirsey and Susan Daniels ; 
January 26, Harrison Elliott and Polly Barbree ; January 30, David 
Canada and Rebecca Wilkinson ; February 7, Horatio Baker and 
Jane Jessup; February 12, Lewis Bedford and Elizabeth Ann 
Herrington; February 18, Meritt Adams and Rebecca Nevans; 
February 24, Moses Chandler and Matilda Johnson; March 21, 
Aaron Hatfield and Sarah Price; March 30, William Woolen and 
Polly Mattox; April 2, Joseph East and Sarah Himrod; April 3, 
John S. Burget and Elizabeth Weston; April 10, John Amomon 
and Sarah Grant; Arrow McDaniel and Polly Field; April 25, 
Samuel E. Carpenter and Elizabeth Mattox; April 29, William 
McMullen and Mary Nevans; May 5, Elijah Dean and Malinda 
Combs; May 7, James Dickson and Lydia Hyde; May 18, Joshua 
Crow and Elizabeth Wilson ; June 2, Burwell Bassett and Elizabeth 
Field; June 5, Rufus Boyll and Catharine Carr; June 12, James 
Field and Margaret McDonald; June 25, Joseph Sutton and Ange- 


line Mathews; July 10, Josiah Kichardson and Sarah Sutton; July 
21, John L. Graham and Mahala Combs; July 23, Isaiah Wilson 
and Sarah Meeks; August 3, Samuel Robertson and Mary Woolen; 
August 4, Reuben Bramlet and Casander Hughstead; August 13, 
James Barnett and Mary Paine; August 25, George W. Smith and 
Eliza Bowlen; September 7, John Chesnut and Martha Durham; 
September 23, Calvin Thompson and Margaret Thompson ; Septem- 
ber 26, John Sailes and Sallie Hughstead; October 13, Joseph 
Miller. and Margaret Hickson; October 14, George W. Markle and 
Hannah E. Hickox; October 16, James Bennett and Margaret 
Pettit; October 21, Jehu Gosnell and Jane Leek; October 22, 
Ephraim L. Higgins and Rosella Nichols; October 24, Septer Pat- 
rick and Sally Ann Ross ; October 28, William Dudley and Susan 
Dancey; November 4, Richard Skippeth and Amy Spangler; No- 
vember 25, Benj. Bushnel and Eliza Ann Beaty ; December 4, John 
Westfall and Margaret Lambert; December 7, Peter Brock and 
Martha Cummins; December 16, Thomas D. Berry and Emily Bar- 
nett; December 19, Handy Hudson and Theresa Lemaster; Decem- 
ber 21, Richard Brock and Anna Maynard; December 22, Ira 
Coltrin and Siddy Benjamin ; Jefferson Benjamin and Lunday Booth ; 
December 23, Solomon C. Smith and Mary Langdon; December 24, 
George Conn and Harriett Allen; December 30, Isaac Worth and 
Mary Barnes. 

1830. — January 11, William Beacham and Easter Beacham; 
January 9, Nelson Markle and Matilda A. Bennett ; Nathan Redfield 
and Frances Nort; January 11, William James and Barbara Dancey; 
William Dancey and Patsey James; January 12, Daniel Reeves 
and Eliza Souls ; January 18, Jamison Leeper and Eliza Sankey ; 
January 19, Caleb Wilson and Maria Loveless; January 25, Rich- 
ard F. Wright and Rachel Paddock, William Shattuck and Debora 
Robbins; February 9, James H. Neeley and Nancy Lee; Beverly 
Walker and Sally Sheets; February 13, Vincent Yeager and Sally 
Pietz; February 15, Ebenezer Paddock and Amanda M. Shattuck; 
February 27, Joel Tryon and Rachel Ringo; March 1, James Drake 
and Polly Pierson ; March 13, Charles E. Bentley and Mary Jones; 
March 17, Henry Messer and Susan Barry; John McCune and 
Amanda Wood; March 20, Stephen G. Burnett and Anny Scully; 
March 26, Joseph T. Liston and Sarah Welch ; March 27, Joshua 
Gosnell and Catharine Medow; April 2, John Hamilton, Jr., and 
Lavina Scott; April 13, Joseph Smith and Rebecca McMullen; 
April 16, William Hall and Julia Ann Neille; April 17, Ebenezer 
Payne and Sally McKean ; May 12, James U. Notherly and Clarinda 
Kite; John Kilbourne and Catharine Ray; May 13, John Briggs 
and Sally Mounts; May 15, Joseph Thayre and Abigail Hamilton; 
May 18, George B. Bennett and Martha Tucker; May 21, Henry 


M. Wilson and Axcyasnn Lancaster; May 26, Andrew Eoads and 
Anna Medaugh; May 31, James Anderson and Phebe McGlane; 
June 1, Jonathan E. Green and Sarah Pittingill ; Thomas H. Blake 
and Sarah Linton; June 8, Jonathan Frakes and Sarah Frakes; 
June 18, John Thompson and Eliza Yeager; July 6, Stephen Bias 
and Mary Hall ; July 8, William White and Eliza Houge ; July 12, 
James King and Elizabeth Washburn; July 15, Benjamin Reed and 
Margaret Reed; July 21, Michael Price and Catharine Mann; July 
27, John Britton and Catharine Croy; August 2, David Robertson 
and Harriett Perry ; Joseph W. Denton and Anna Miller ; August 
11, William Bayless and ElizEfbeth Nelson ; August 12, .James Mer- 
iweather and Mary Eversole; Amos Rice and Sarah Compton; Au- 
gust 24, Nathan Cote and AbigailWarren; August 25, Benjamin Daw- 
son and Sarah Elliott; September 9, Elias Reeves and Rachel H. 
Hammell; September 15, James Weston and Anna Norris; Septem- 
ber 22, Hugh Shepherd and Susan Adams ; Gabril Durham and Mar- 
tha S. Thornton; September 23, Greenbury T. Riggs and Nancy 
Stanley; September 25, Thomas Wilgis and Elizabeth Graham; 
October 5, Jonas Reeves and Martha King; October 8, Thomas 
Jones and CeliaBaty ; October 15, Paul Evans and Nancy Bates.; Oc- 
tober 22, James Siner and Sarah Waggoner ; November 2, William 
Durham and Rebecca Dickson; Thomas Ferrel and Sarah Joslin; 
November 3, Isaac Williams andMargarett Whaley; November 15, 
William Blocksaw and Edney Atkinson; November 20, John Taylor 
and Susan Trueblood; November 24, William Green and Martha 
Woolen; December 6, William Thompson and Deborah Morgan; De- 
cember 7, Thomas Black and Lavina Dudley; William Black and 
Sarah W. Dudley; William G. Dudley and Levisa Ann Ashmore; 
December 16, William McMorrow and Elizabeth Hodge; December 
21, John McKee, Jr., and Lucinda ShuU; John Wilkes and Eliza- 
beth Fields. 

1831. — January 6, John Coleman and Sally Lambert; January 
10, George Kelly and Sarah Staten; January 13, William P. Ben- 
nett and Eliza Haynes; January 14, Levi Dodson and Elizabeth 
Norris; January 15, Thomas Pound and Nancy Carr; January 17, 
Abraham Finch and Sylvania Harden ; January 28, William Saun- 
ders and Susan Lancaster ; February 7, Humphrey S. French and 
Julia A. Browning; John Ellis and Barbara Miller; February 8, 
Thomas Green and Hetty Brown; February 16, Thomas Owen and 
Sophia Isaac; February 19, Owen Spaiks and Lucinda Osborn ; 
John J. Mundle and Elizabeth Kerchival; March 1, Berkley Wat- 
son and Sarah Woolen; March 8, Almeron Compton and Nancy 
Ferrel; March 11, John Smith and Hannah Wood; March 21, An- 
thony Smith and Hannah Sparks; March 28, Daniel Stark and 
Patience Welch; March 29, James Bissex and Sarah Jaques; 


March 30, Elijah Whitaker and Eachel Taylor; April 2, Enoch Har- 
lan and Catharine Pope; April 5, George Biggs and Nancy Ann Tay- 
lor; April 6, William Logan and Sally Kuykendall; April 11, Benja- 
min Aler and Maria Stewart; April 12, Jeremiah Blocksora and 
Nancy Atkinson; Ephraim Sparks and Elizabeth Pound; April 18, 
James M. Wallace and Eliza Dulan ; April 21, Shadrach Pointer and 
Emily Smith ; April 28, Walter Malcom and Margaret Thompson ; 
May 5, Charles Taukersley and Jane Lattee; May 18, Absalom 
Harden and Delia Ashcroft; May 19, John Lane and Betsey Kirby ; 
May 21, James S. Smith and Cyrena Cox; May 23, Samuel W. 
Angier and Hannah Angier; June 1, Joseph J. Allison and Ke- 
becca Cowan ; June 4, Daniel Sink and Maria Oldfitch ; June 9, 
John L. Monelle and Kosanna Dilby; June 11, William T. Perkins 
and Elizabeth Ray; June 18, Samuel Milligan and Malinda Daw- 
son; July 4, Samuel McCollester and Mary Downey; July 5, 
Jacob Taylor and Elenoi; Whitaker; July 16, John L. Monelle and 
Mary Sumpter ; July 27, George Hoaks and Sarah Arthur ; July 28, 
Michael Maun and Hetty Price. August 1, John K. Watts and 
Dicey Paddock, Samuel Utter and Mary Duggins; August 13, 
Dominions A. Allen and Catharine Taylor; August 24, Samuel 
Moore and Edy Kirby; September 1, Henry Drummoud and 
Hester Wells; September 3, Lemuel Carpenter and Susan Hart; 
September 9, Jefferson Bennett and Cynthia Hart; September 
13, David Thornburg and Elizabeth Lenderman; September 4, 
K. B. Perry and Asenath E. McCowan; September 17, Gabriel 
Wilson and Hannah Barrett; September 20, John Sutton and Han- 
nah Holdaway; September 17, Robert Curry and Jane Thompson, 
Joshua Shotwell and Jane Black; September 18, Harbert Ferguson 
and Elizabeth Barnes; November 8, Warren Harper and Catharine 
McCabe; November 19, Henry Souls and Jane Ingraham; Novem- 
ber 21, Simpson Starke and Elizabeth Liston ; November 23, Jere- 
miah Crabb and Susanna Powers ; November 29, Milton Hern and 
Eliza Jane Tucker; December 3, James Shields and Martha Kirby; 
December 6, Levi Scott and Mahala Liston; December 7, Horatio 
N. Manning and Pauline Hodge, William R, Denny and Milcha S. 
Browning; December 10, Isaac M. Dawson and Rachel Belt; An- 
thony M. Ostrander and Lucinda Lyons; December 20, Samuel 
May and Mary Havens ; Addison Dayton and Emily Bilderman; De- 
cember 24, John V. Pope and Margaret Haywoth; December 27, 
Samuel Crawfor and Eliza Cunningham; December 24, Eli Russell 
and Harriet Eliza Mills; December 31, Lorin L. Burget and Han- 
nah Coltrin. 

1832, — January 4, Isaac T. Whitaker and Nancy Taylor; Janu- 
ary 5, James Hussey and Athey Stewart; January 10; George 
Brocks and Leanah Thomas; January 19, Horace Blinn and Julia 


Bishop; January 21, Joel Jackson and Mary Donnelly; January 23, 
James Lemaster and Emily Denton; January 25, Joel Keeves and 
Maria Ellingsworth ; January 28, John N. Jones and Adaline Beau- 
mont; January 30, Ashley Harris and Sarah Boswell; February 18, 
Septer P. Camach and Mary Hotchkiss; February 20, Hezekiah 
Ballat and Mary Barnes ; February 27, John Long and Melinda Kuy- 
kendall; February 29, WylieWalden and Sarah Wilson; March 2, 
Mathias Rice and Jane Simmons ; March 6, James Taylor and Nancy 
Paddock; March 13, Joseph Burnham and Sally Ann Ireland; 
March 15, Jacob Jones and Arbella Williams; March 20, David 
Cox and Mary Pope; March 25, Seaborn Barbara and Isbel Mc- 
Glone ; March 28, Thomas Trueblood and Nancy Mattox ; April 2, 
Elisha Olney and Charlotte Anderson ; April 21, Elisha Gilbert 
and Eleanor Ferrel; John Norman and Elizabeth McLin ; May 1, 
Robert McCullock and Margaret Eagleton ; Chauncey Warren and 
Frances Ann Modesitt; May 7, Amos Rice and Sarah Howard; May 
11, Clark S. Tuttle and Harriet M. Sweany; May 14, David Noel 
and Sally Peters ; Harvey Rea and Elizabeth Walker ; May 17, Will- 
iam Ellingsworth and Elizabeth Conner; May 31, Jacob Welch and 
Milly Goslin; June 1, Azaria Casto and Maria C. Franklin; June 4, 
Andrew Nevins and Elizabeth McKee; June 5, Jared Belt and 
Mary Saxton; June 13, Simon Winchinn and Mary Winchinn ; June 
21, John Ray and Rebecca Gallaher ; June 27, Jonathan Smith and 
Polly Mattherly ; June 30, William Merriman and Maranda Jane Mc- 
Collister; July 12, John Franklin and Sophia Ewing; July 21, 
Francis Baxter and Sarah Pickings; August 4, William Sutton and 
Elizabeth Devore; August 6, Silas Tychenor and Littisha Sparks; 
August 15, Ruphus Brown and Nancy Tillotson; Lewis Creal and 
Nancy Messer; August 22, Christopher Stark and Polly Akers; 
August 24, Thomas Houghton and Sally Riddle ; August 29, Isaac 
Cotteral and Margaret Stewart; September 19, John Cox and Ar- 
cadia Musgrove; October 6, Asher Hunt and Abigail Foster; Octo- 
ber 8, James Carruthers and Isabella Ireland; October 9, Jere- 
miah Hayworth and Lienor McDaniel; October 15, Asa Kemp 
and Jensy Jewell; October 18, John Butler and Margaret Chunk- 
wilder; October 26, John Winter and Mary Montgomery; Novem- 
ber 5, George Smith, Jr., and Mary Campbell; November 14, Rob- 
ert Jackson and Nancy Hull; November 22, Charles Haines and 
Maria S. Harris; November 26, James Mathews and Matilda Baty; 
November 28, Isaiah Noel and Eliza Treat; December 4, James 
Caton and Eliza Jane Simmonds ; December 15, Jesse Carmody and 
Rachel Smith; December 18, Lewis Depee and Delilah Clark; De- 
cember 21, Isaac Hawk and Matilda Goldsby ; December 25, James 
Smith and Artamissa Edwards. 




INDIANA became a separate and defined Territory in 1800. To 
organize the machinery of the new Territory and enact a code 
of laws for its government was neither a small nor an unimportant 
part of the work for her people to do. A convention of the repre- 
sentative men and then a legislature to enact laws was one of the 
first requisites. Hence the statute laws governing the entire Terri- 
tory which was all then the three counties that covered what is now 
Indiana and Illinois, commenced with this century. 

The statesmen of that day commenced building from the founda- 
tion, and the story of the growth of our system, the law of the 
land and the judiciary, is an essential part of the history of the 
country and of our people. It is as instructive, if not really more 
so, than any other part of our history. From the law-making and 
executing department of government is the powerful influence as 
strong in shaping our civilization as perhaps all other things com- 

The first law-making body in a Territory in those days was the 
governor, and the three members of the Supreme Court, all ap- 
pointed. These gentlemen would meet, and in two or three days 
enact the few measures that in their judgment the people required. 
They would provide for local ofl&cers in designated districts, and 
also for future elections for certain local authorities. Nothing 
could be simpler or less complex than were these first steps in the 
formative days of the new government. It would be when the 
legislature met in the advance grade of the Territory that the first 
cumbrous and complex enactment would arise which always fol- 
lowed after the general government in adopting nearly entire the 
Common Law of England. 

You may imagine about how plain and simple the following 
would be to the average ancient, simple-minded pioneer, who knew 
more about fighting Indians, hunting deer and catching coons than 
he did about what Blackstone has called the "garnered wisdom of 
the fathers." The following was enacted in this as it was in nearly 
all the new Territories : " Common Law of England and all statutes 
made in aid thereof, prior to the 4th Jac. 1st except 2 § 6 C. 43. 
Eliz. 8 C. 13. Eliz. and 9 C. 37 H. 8.— not local, with statutes of 
Territory, rule of decission, shall be the law of the Territory." 


This brief paragraph meant a great deal, and even the children 
in the wild west were " presumed to understand," not only the 
above, but all of its tremendous implication, and they had to shape 
their conduct accordingly, even to the " rule in Shelly's case," as 
well as the subtle lines running in "a distinction without a differ- 
ence, and a difference without a distinction." 

Here are the footprints of those good old times — many cent- 
uries ago in the Old World, when the earth's greatest and wisest 
met in august councils over such practical- and important questions 
of "which was the eldest, the father or the son," or when long and 
bloody wars followed the earnest, but vain efforts of the wise to 
settle the question of " how many angels could sit on the point of 
a cambric needle." When such natural questions arose among an 
intensely earnest people that had to be settled in some way, 
the sword and the faggot were the only things that could do it, it 
seems. Men then were mightily in earnest, and it is fortunate that 
we of this day did not live then and run the elections, because we 
have come to be too indifferent on many of those subjects that were 
so effectively argued out some centuries ago by men who seemed to 
understand what they were trying to do. 

In 1807 a revised code of the Indiana laws was published by 
John R. Jones and John Johnson. This revision had already 
become a necessity, it seems, from the conflict of so many acts 
referring to the same subject matter. This was adopted by the 
legislature of 1807, and "all former ones (acts) 'repealed." But 
after another